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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #5774 - עוּף
1) to fly, fly about, fly away (verb)
1a1) to fly, hover
1a2) to fly away
1b) (Hiphil) to cause to fly, light upon
1c1) to fly about or to and fro
1c2) to cause to fly to and fro, brandish
1d) (Hithpolel) to fly away
2) (Qal) to cover, be dark (verb)
3) gloom (noun feminine)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Perfect 3 masculine plural וְעָפוּ consecutive Isaiah 11:14; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יָעוּף Job 20:8; Psalm 91:5 + Proverbs 23:5b Qr (> Kt ועוף [van d. H.], or ועיף [Ginsb]); וַיָּעֹ֑ף 2 Samuel 22:11 = Psalm 18:11; Nahum 3:16, וַיָּ֫עָף Isaiah 6:6; 3 feminine singular (הֲ)תָעוּף Proverbs 23:5 a Kt (see below); 3 feminine plural תְּעוּפֶינָה Isaiah 60:8, etc.; Infinitive construct עוּף Job 5:7; Proverbs 26:2; Participle feminine singular עָפָה Zechariah 5:1,2; plural עָפוֺת Isaiah 31:5; —
1. a. fly, of birds Deuteronomy 4:17, specifically of swallow (in simile) Proverbs 26:2 ("" נוּד); of seraph Isaiah 6:6 (compare
Po`1.); ׳י riding (רכב) on cherub 2 Samuel 22:11 = Psalm 18:11; roll (in vision) Zechariah 5:1,2; arrow Psalm 91:5; of swift army Isaiah 11:14 (under figure of bird, followed by בְּכָתֵף) Habakkuk 1:8 (simile of vulture); figurative of ships (like cloud, or doves) Isaiah 60:8; בְּנֵירֶֿשֶׁף יַגְבִּיהוּ עוּף Job 5:7 make high to fly, i.e. make their flight high, soar aloft (simile of irresistible tendency).
b. hover (protectingly) Isaiah 31:5 (birds, simile of ׳י; on sense compare Deuteronomy 32:11).
2 fly away, to a distance, Psalm 55:7 (figurative; "" אַרְחִיק נְדֹד Psalm 55:8); = vanish, of locusts Nahum 1:16 (figurative); כְּנֶשֶׁר יָעוּף הַשָּׁמַיִם Proverbs 23:5b (Qr) simile of riches (see Toy); of wicked Job 20:8 (כַּחֲלוֺם); end of life, in General, וַנָּעֻ֑פָה Psalm 90:10. — הֲתָעוּף Proverbs 23:5 a Kt, do thine eyes fly ( light) upon it ? (הֲתָעִיף
Hiph`il Qr dost thou cause thine eyes to fly, etc. ?) is difficult, and line perhaps not original (see Toy).
Po`l. 1. fly about, to and fro; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יְעוֺפֵף of birds Genesis 1:20 (P); seraphim Isaiah 6:2; Participle שָׂרָף מְעוֺפֵף flying fiery serpent Isaiah 14:29; Isaiah 30:6.
2 cause to fly to and fro, brandish, Infinitive construct suffix בְּעוֺפְפִיחַרְבִּי Ezekiel 32:10 when I brandish my sword before them.
Hithpo`el Imperfect 3 masculine singular כָּעוֺף יִתְעוֺפֵףכְּבוֺדָם Hosea 9:11 like a bird their glory shall fly away.
Hiph`il Imperfect 2 masculine singular Qr, see
Qal near the end
II. [עוּף], I. [עִיף] verb be dark; — only
Qal Imperfect 2 masculine singular תָּעֻ֫פָה Job 11:17 (though) it be dark, but read probably תְּעֻפָה, substantive, see below
II. [עִיף] verb be faint (compare Syriac
3, PS2835; "" form of יעף q. v.; occurrences dubious); —
Qal Perfect 3 feminine singular עָֽיְפָה נַפְשִׁי לְ Jeremiah 4:31 (? read עֲיֵפָה); Imperfect 3 masculine singular וַיָּ֫עַף Judges 4:21 (< וְיָעֵף GFM Bu), 1 Samuel 14:28 (strike out We Bu Kit Löhr, emendation HPS), 1 Samuel 14:31 (read וַיִּעַף [√ יעף] Buhl HPS), 2 Samuel 21:15 (corrupt, HPS; for Philistine name We Dr Bu Kit).
עוֺף noun [masculine] fowl (see Biblical Hebrew, √ I. עוּף); — ׳ע absolute Daniel 7:6 wings of a fowl; construct Daniel 2:38 collective
(1) i.q. כָּנַף (from which perhaps this root has been formed by softening the letters; compare עָנַק, אָלַץ ;עוּק, אָנַס, אוּץ and others; see the roots דּוּשׁ, הוּךְ etc.), to cover; especially with feathers, wings. Isaiah 31:5, כְּצִפֳּרִים עָפוֹת “as birds which cover (their young) with their wings כֵּן יָגֵן יְיָ צ׳ עַל יְרוּשָׁלַםִ so will Jehovah of hosts protect Jerusalem.” From the idea of covering is עוֹף prop. i.q. כָּנָף a wing; whence
(2) to fly, to fly a way, to fly unto; used of birds, Proverbs 26:2 figuratively of an army, Isaiah 11:14; Habakkuk 1:8 of ships, Isaiah 60:8 an arrow, Psalms 91:5 also to vanish quickly (verfliegen); used of a dream, Job 20:8 human life, Psalms 90:10. Once transit. like Hiph., Proverbs 23:5 כתיב (Arab. عاف, Med. Waw, and Ye, to hang in the air, and hover over something (used of bird); followed by عاى, عَيْفَةُ flight; a secondary word is عَايِفُ an augur; عِيَافُ, عِيافة au-gury). From the idea of covering (No. 1) it is
(3) to cover with darkness (Syr. ܥܦܳ to wrap round); and intrans. to be covered with darkness. Job 11:17, תָּעֻפָה כַּבֹּקֶר תִּהְיֶה “(although now) covered with darkness,” i.e. pressed down by calamity, “(soon) shalt thou be as the morning;” (unless it be preferred to read with three MSS. תְּעוּפָה darkness shall be as the morning). And
(4) to faint, to faint away, so that the eyes are involved in darkness (see עָטַף, עָלַף and the Arab. غشى; Syr. ܥܘܽܦ to fail in strength; Ethp. to faint away. Cognate are עָיֵף and יָעַף to fail in strength). Fut. וַיָּעַף (for distinction from וַיָּֽעָף to fly), 1 Samuel 14:28; Judges 4:21.
(1) i.q. Kal No. 2, to fly, Genesis 1:20; Isaiah 6:2.
(2) to brandish, as to make to fly (a sword), Ezekiel 32:10.
Hiphil, to make to fly, Proverbs 23:5 קרי.
Hithpalel, to fly away, i.e. to vanish, Hosea 9:11.
Nouns derived from signif. 1, 2 are עוֹף, עַפְעַפִּים; signif. 3 מָעוּף, מוּעָף, עֵיפָה, תְּעוּפָה.