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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #2186 - ἐφίστημι

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  1. to place at, place upon, place over
    1. to stand by, be present
    2. to stand over one, place one's self above
      1. used esp. of persons coming upon one suddenly 1b
    3. an angel, of the advent of angels 1b
    4. of dreams
      1. of evils coming upon one
    5. to be at hand
      1. be ready,
    6. of time
      1. to come upon 1d
    7. of rain
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 2388 ‑ חָזַק (khaw‑zak');  3320 ‑ יָצַב (yaw‑tsab');  3680 ‑ כָּסָה (kaw‑saw');  3898 ‑ לָחַם (law‑kham');  4513 ‑ מָנַע (maw‑nah');  5324 ‑ נָצַב (naw‑tsab');  5327 ‑ נָצָה (naw‑tsaw');  5414 ‑ נָתַן (naw‑than');  5564 ‑ סָמַךְ (saw‑mak');  5774 ‑ עוּף (oof);  5975 ‑ עָמַד (aw‑mad');  6485 ‑ פָּקַד (paw‑kad');  6965 ‑ קוּם (koom);  7322 ‑ רוּף (roof);  7725 ‑ שׁוּב (shoob);  7760 ‑ שִׂים (soom, seem);  7896 ‑ שִׁית (sheeth);  7919 ‑ שָׂכַל (saw‑kal');  8138 ‑ שָׁנָה (shaw‑naw');  8199 ‑ שָׁפַט (shaw‑fat');  
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
ASV (21)
Luke 7
Acts 11
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Timothy 2
BSB (19)
Luke 7
Acts 11
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Timothy 2
CSB (20)
Luke 7
Acts 10
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Timothy 2
ESV (20)
Luke 6
Acts 11
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Timothy 2
KJV (22)
Luke 7
Acts 12
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Timothy 2
LEB (0)
The Lexham English Bible
did not use
this Strong's Number
LSB (30)
Luke 12
Acts 15
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Timothy 2
N95 (24)
Luke 9
Acts 12
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Timothy 2
NAS (35)
Luke 9
Acts 12
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Timothy 2
NLT (18)
Luke 9
Acts 20
2 Timothy 4
WEB (21)
Luke 7
Acts 11
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Timothy 2
YLT (19)
Luke 6
Acts 11
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Timothy 1
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


Ion. ἐπ-: causal in pres., impf., fut., and aor. 1 (also in the later pf. and plpf. ἐφέστᾰκα, ἐφεστάκειν [ ], v. infr. 11.1, VI. 2):

I set, place upon, τεῖχος τείχει Th. 2.75; τι ἐπί τινος Pl. Criti. 116a; τι ἐπί τινι X. HG 3.1.7; ὅρους ἐπὶ οἰκίαν D. 41.6: metaph., ἐ. τὴν ἐκεῖ μοῖραν βίῳ Pl. R. 498c; ἀνάγκην τινί D.H. 1.16.


1. set over, μ' Ἀπόλλων τῷδ' ἐπέστησεν τέλει A. Ag. 1202; φύλακ' ἐπέστησεν βοτ Id. Supp. 303; ἐ. τινὰ ὕπαρχόν τισι Hdt. 5.27; τινὰ παιδαγωγόν τινι Pl. Alc. 1.122b, cf. X. Lac. 2.1; τινὰ πεντηκοντόρῳ Id. An. 5.1.15; τινὰ τοῖς πράγμασι Isoc. 2.27; τὸν νόμον Arist. Pol. 1292b28; ἐπὶ [συμμάχων] τινά Plb. 2.65.9; ἐφεστάκει τινὰς πρὸς χρείαν Id. 10.20.5; κύνα ἐπὶ ποίμνην D. 26.22; τινὰ ἐπὶ τὰς εὐθύνας Id. 18.112: c. inf., βουλὴν ἐπιμελεῖσθαι τῆς εὐκοσμίας Isoc. 7.37: Pass., to be appointed, instituted, PTeb. 61 (b).358 (ii B. C.), etc.

2. bring in, ἡ τύχη ἐπιστήσασα Ῥωμαίους Plb. 15.20.6; Φίλιππον ἐ. τοῖς πράγμασι to let him have a hand in the business, D. 19.34.

3. bring in, cause, occasion, κατάπληξίν τισι D.S. 14.62; κίνδυνον, ἀγῶνά τινι, App. Hann. 55, Syr. 10; ἡ τύχη λοιμικὴν διάθεσιν ἐπέστησε Γαλάταις Plb. 2.20.7.


1. set up, establish, ἀγῶνα Hdt. 1.167, 6.38: c. acc. et inf., ordain, prescribe, ὁ νόμος ἐφίστησι τὰ λοιπὰ κρίνειν τοὺς ἄρχοντας Arist. Pol. 1287a26; ἐπιστήσατε quid facere debeamus, Plin. 6.31.12. set by or near to, ἐπιστήσαντες κύκλῳ τὸ σῆμα ἱππέας Hdt. 4.72; esp. place in rear, of troops, τὴν φάλαγγα τούτοις κατόπιν ἐ. Plb. 1.33.6, cf. 1.26. 14. stop, cause to halt, ἐπιστῆσαι τὸ στράτευμα X. Cyr. 4.2.18; τὴν ὁδόν, τὴν πορείαν, D.S. 17.112, Plu. Cim. 1; τοὺς ἱππέας τοῦ πρόσω Arr. An. 5.16.1; ἐ. τὴν ὁρμήν check it, Plb. 16.34.2; τὴν διήγησιν interrupt it, Id. 7.11.1; check, ἔμμηνα Dsc. 1.125, cf. POxy. 1088.20 (i A. D.): abs., ἐπιστήσας (sc. ἑαυτόν) having halted, X. An. 1.8.15: Pass., to be checked, stopped, PPetr. 2p.62 (iii B. C.); ἐὰν ἐφίστηται ἡ κοιλία Sor. 1.122. ἐφίστημι τὴν διάνοιαν κατά τι, περί τινος, fix one's mind upon it, attend to it, Isoc. 9.69, Arist. Metaph. 987b3, Thphr. Char.Prooem., etc.; τὴν σκέψιν περί τινος Arist. Metaph. 1090a2; τὸν λόγον Id. Juv. 470b5; τὸν νοῦν τινι D.S. 12.1; αὑτὸν ἐπιστήσας ἐπί τι Arist. Top. 135a26: ἐπιστῆσαι abs., give attention, τούτοις ἐπιστήσαντες Id. Mu. 391a26; περί τινος Id. GC 315b18; περί τι Id. HA 487a13; ἐπί τι Plb. 1.65.5, etc.; ἐπιστήσασι μᾶλλον λεκτέον one must speak with more care and accuracy, Arist. Pol. 1335b3, cf. EN 1144a22; πότερον.. Jul. ad Them. 265b; ὅτι.. Sor. 1.97 (hence ἐπίσταμαι, ἐπιστήμη, qq.v.).

2. c. acc. pers., arrest the attention of, Plu. TG 17, cf. 2.17e, Gal. 18(2).105; ἐπιστῆσαί τινα ἐπί τι call his attention to, Plb. 2.61.11, cf. 4.34.9; τοῦ καιροῦ τοῦ κατὰ τὴν διήγησιν ἐφεστακότος ἡμᾶς ἐπί τι having led us to.., Id. 10.21.2, cf. 31.23.1: hence, object, Plot. 1.4.5. intr. in Med. and Pass., ἐφίσταμαι, aor. 1 ἐπεστάθην [ S. ] Fr. [1127.5], E. Hipp. 819, IT 1375, etc., with pf., plpf. (Aeol. plpf. 3 sg. ἐπήστᾱκε Schwyzer 646.16 (Cyme, ii B. C.): Dor. plpf. 3 pl. ἐφεστάκεον [ ] SIG 241.146 (Delph., iv B. C.)), and aor. 2 Act.: (the causal tenses are not found in Hom., the Med. or Pass. only in impf. ἐφίστατο Il. 11.644; elsewh. always aor. 2 or pf. Act. with inf. ἐφεστάμεναι Od. 24.380):

1. stand upon, τεῖχος.. ῥύατ' ἐφεσταότες Il. 18.515; πύργῳ ἐφεστήκει 6.373; δίφρῳ ἐφεσταότος 17.609, etc.; ἐπέστη βηλῷ ἔπι λιθέῳ 23.201; .. ἐπισταθεῖσα ὀρθή Arist. Metaph. 1051a28; ἐπὶ τὰς.. σχεδίας Plb. 3.46.8.

2. to be imposed upon, μόχθων τῶν ἐφεστώτων ἐμοί S. Tr. 1170.

3. stand on the top or surface, τὸ ἐπιστάμενον [τοῦ γάλακτος ], i. e. cream, Hdt. 4.2; λιπαρότητες ἄνω ἐφιστάμεναι Hp. Prog. 12; ἐ. καθάπερ ὀρρὸς [γάλακτι ] Dsc. 1.72; of vapour, form, Arist. Juv. 469b31. II to be set over, ἐφίσταται πύλαις A. Th. 538; οἷός τε πολλοῖς προβατίοις ἐφεστάναι Ar. V. 955; οἷοι νῷν ἐφεστᾶσι σκοποί S. Aj. 945; ἄρχοντες ἐφ' ἑκάστῳ μέρει ἐ. X. Hier. 9.5; ἐπί τινος Pl. R. 460b; ἐπὶ τῆς πολιτείας D. 19.298: rarely c. gen., τὸν ἐπεστεῶτα τῆς διώρυχος Hdt. 7.117; ὅσοι θεοῦ χρημάτων ἐφέστασαν E. Andr. 1098: abs. in part., ὁ ἐφεστηκώς the person in authority, the officer in command, X. Oec. 21.9; οἱ ἐφεστῶτες, Ion. οἱ ἐπεστεῶτες, Hdt. 2.148, S. Aj. 1072, X. Mem. 3.5.19.


1. stand by or near, ὣς πυκνοὶ ἐφέστασαν ἀλλήλοισιν Il. 13.133; ἐπ' ἄκρῳ χείλει ἐφεσταότες, ἐ. παρὰ τάφρῳ, 12.52, 199; θύρῃσιν ἐφίστατο 11.644; ἐπὶ τὰς πύλας, ἐπὶ τὰς θύρας, Hdt. 3.77, Pl. Smp. 212d; ἐπὶ τοῖς προθύροις Id. Phlb. 64c; esp. of dreams or visions, appear to, εὕδοντι ἐπέστη ὄνειρος Hdt. 1.34, cf. 7.14; ὄναρ κεφαλῆφιν ἐπέστη Il. 10.496; ἐπιστᾶσα τῆς νυκτός Isoc. 10.65; ἄγγελος ἐπέστη αὐτοῖς.Luke 2:9 : abs., stand by, Hdt. 3.78; πολλῶν ἐφεστώτων App. Syr. 10; ἤμην ἐφεστώς Acts 22:20; οἱ λέβητες ἐπεστεῶτες Hdt. 1.59; ὁ ἀντίδικος ἐφέστηκε Pl. Tht. 172e, cf. Aeschin. 3.79; without hostile sense, ἐπέστης S. OC 558, cf. Luke 2:38, etc.; of troops, to be posted after or behind, κατόπιν ἐ. τοῖς θηρίοις Plb. 16.18.7.

2. in hostile sense, stand against, τὰ φρονέοντες ἐφέστασαν ἀλλήλοισιν Il. 15.703, cf. 5.624; ἔνθα μένος πνείοντες ἐφέστασαν Od. 22.203, cf. 24.380; appear before, of an army, ἐπὶ τῇ πόλι Hdt. 4.203; ἐπὶ τὸ βασίλειον Isoc. 9.58; come upon suddenly or by surprise, Th. 8.69; ἐξαίφνης ἐπιστὰς τοῖς γιγνομένοις Isoc. 8.41, cf. D. 6.5, Luc. DDeor. 17.1; εἰς τοὺς ὄχλους Isoc. 18.9; so of events, etc., αἰφνίδιος αὐτοῖς ἐ. ὄλεθρος 1 Thessalonians 5:3, cf. Luke 21:34; διὰ τὸν ἐφεστῶτα ζόφον Plb. 18.20.7; διὰ τὸν ὑετὸν τὸν ἐφεστῶτα Acts 28:2.

3. metaph., of events, spring upon one, occur, πρίν μοι τύχη τοιάδ' ἐπέστη S. OT 777, cf. Th. 3.82; in pf., impend, be at hand, τὸν ἐφεστηκότα κίνδυνον τῇ πόλει D. 18.176; ὁ καιρός.. ἐφέστηκε 2 Timothy 4:6; περὶ τοῦ βασιλέως.. ὁ λόγος ἐφέστηκε νῦν Arist. Pol. 1287a2, cf. Metaph. 999a25; of a more remote future, to be in store, lie in wait for, κῆρες ἐφεστᾶσιν θανάτοιο Il. 12.326.

1. halt, stop, as in a march, ἄλλοτε καὶ ἄλλοτε ἐφιστάμενος X. An. 2.4.26 (cf. A. V); ἐπιστὰς περιέμεινα Pl. Smp. 172a: c. gen., ἐ. τοῦ πλοῦ Th. 2.91. fix one's mind on, give one's attention to, σφαγῇ E. Andr. 547; τῇ τρύγῃ PFlor. 236.4 (iii A. D.); ἐπί τι Isoc. 10.29, D. 18.60; τοῖς πράγμασιν.. ἐπιστάντες Id. 4.12; ἐπιστάς abs. (sc. τοῖς πράγμασι), Id. 18.233; διὰ ταῦτ' ἐγρήγορεν, ἐφέστηκεν Id. 6.19. aor. 1 Med. in causal sense, set up, τὰς θύρας X. Ages. 8.7; set, post, φρουροὺς ἐπεστησάμην Id. Cyr. 8.2.19; τέλος ἐπιστήσασθαι, Lat. finem imponere, Pl. Lg. 802a: pres. is once so used, τοῦ με τήνδ' ἐφίστασαι βάσιν; why dost thou cause me to halt ? S. Tr. 339.

2. ἐπιστησάμενος, intr., having been ἐπιστάτης, IGRom. 4.1265 (Thyatira).

Thayer's Expanded Definition

ἐφίστημι: 2 aorist ἐπέστην, participle ἐπιστάς, imperative ἐπίστηθι; perfect participle ἐφεστώς; to place at, place upon, place over; in the N. T. only in the middle (present indicative 3 person singular ἐπίσταται (for ἐφίσταται), 1 Thessalonians 5:3 T Tr WH; see references under the word ἀφειδον) and the intransitive tenses of the active, viz. perfect and 2 aorist (see ἀνίστημι); to stand by, be present: Luke 2:38; Acts 22:20; ἐπάνω with the genitive of person to stand over one, place oneself above, Luke 4:39; used especially of persons coming upon one suddenly: simply, Luke 10:40; Luke 20:1; Acts 6:12; Acts 22:13; Acts 23:27; of an angel, Acts 12:7; with the dative of person, Acts 4:1; Acts 23:11; of the advent of angels, Luke 2:9; Luke 24:4 (of Hephaestus, Lucian, dial. deor. 17, 1; frequently of dreams, as Homer, Iliad 10, 496; 23, 106; Herodotus 1, 34; others); with the dative of place, Acts 17:5; followed by ἐπί; with the accusative of place, Acts 10:17; Acts 11:11; of evils coming upon one: with the dative of person, 1 Thessalonians 5:3 (see above); ἐπί τινα, Luke 21:34 (Wis. 6:9 Wis. 19:1; Sophocles O. R. 777; Thucydides 3, 82). equivalent to to be at hand i. e. be ready: 2 Timothy 4:2, cf. Leo at the passage (Euripides, Andr. 547; Demosthenes, p. 245, 11). to be at hand i. e. impend: of time, 2 Timothy 4:6. to come on, of rain, Acts 28:2. (Compare: κατεφιστημι, συνεφίστημι.)

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

ἐφ -ίστημι ,

[in LXX for H5324 ni., H7896, H5414, etc.;]

1. causal in pres., impf., fut., 1 aor., to set upon or by, set up, etc. (Æsch., Hdt., Arist., al).

2. Intrans. in mid, and in pf. and 2 aor. act.;

(a) to stand upon;

(b) to be set over;

(c) to stand by, be present, be at hand, come on or upon: Luke 2:38; Luke 10:40; Luke 20:1, Acts 6:12; Acts 12:7; Acts 22:13; Acts 22:20; Acts 23:27, 2 Timothy 4:2; c. dat. pars., Luke 2:9; Luke 24:4, Acts 4:1; Acts 23:11; c. dat. bc., Acts 17:5; seq. έπί , c. acc, Acts 10:17; Acts 11:11; of rain, Acts 28:2; of evils impending, c. dat. pers., 1 Thessalonians 5:3; seq. έπί (Wisdom of Solomon 6:9), Luke 21:34; of time, 2 Timothy 4:6 (cf. κατ -, συν -εφίστημι ).†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

ἐφίστημι occurs = ";delay,"; ";check,"; in P Petr II. 20ii. 6 (B.C. 252) ἵνα οὖν μὴ ἡ ἐξαγωγὴ τοῦ σίτου ἐπισταθῆι, ";that the transport of the wheat may not be delayed,"; and in the medical receipt, P Oxy VIII. 1088.20 (early i/A.D.) ἴσχαιμον · χαλκίτιδει λήᾳ χρῶι καὶ εὐθέως ἐπιστήσει, ";Styptic : use pounded rock-alum, and it will stop (the blood) at once"; (Ed.). It is also common = ";put up,"; ";fix,"; of doors, as in PSI IV. 396.8 (B.C. 241–0) θύραν τὴν ἐφεστηκυι ̣ͅα ̣[ν ἐ ]π ̣ὶ τῆς προσ ̣τάδος (";vestibule";), P Fay 110.87 (A.D. 94) τὰς θύρας ἐπιστησάτωσαν οἱ τέκτονες : cf. P Oxy VI. 912.27 (A.D. 235) τὰς ἐφεστώσας τοῖς τόποις θύρας καὶ κλεῖδας, ";the existing doors and keys"; (Edd.). In the late P Hamb I. 23.9 (A.D. 569) ἀμπελουργῶν ὁρμωμένων μὲν ἀπὸ κώμης. . . , ἐφεστώτων δὲ ἐνταῦθ ̣α ἐπὶ τῆς α [ ]τῆς Ἀντινοέων πόλ (εως) the reference is to domicile : ";ihre ἰδία (origo) ist das Dorf . . . , ihr Domizil Antinoupolis"; (Ed.). The idea of hostile intent, as in 1 Thessalonians 5:8 (on form ἐπ —, see WH Notes.2, p. 151), appears in P Thead 21.7 (A.D. 318) τίνες κακοῦργοι ἐπιστάντες ἐκεῖσε διὰ νυκτὸς ἔνθα τὰ θρέμματα ἐβόσκετο καὶ ἀπεσύλησαν : cf., on the other hand, P Fay 20.20 (iii/iv A.D.) προορᾶσθαι τῶν ἐθνῶν οἷς ἐφεστήκασι, ";providing for the interests of the peoples over whom they are placed"; (Edd.). See also P Flor II. 236.4 (A.D. 267) ἔπεμψα Ἀπολλώνιον καὶ Κλαύδιον ἐπιστησομένους τῇ τρύγῃ τοῦ Χρυσοχόου, and P Oxy IX. 1220.22 (iii/A.D.) οὐδὲν ἠφάνισεν ὁ ἱπποποτάμις, ἤ τι γάρ ἐστιν περιέργου, ἐφίσταμε αὐτῶν, ";the hippopotamus has destroyed nothing, for if there is any superfluity, I watch over the place"; (Ed.).


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
επεστη επέστη ἐπέστη επέστην επέστησα επεστησαν επέστησαν ἐπέστησαν επεστήσαντο επέστησας επέστησε επέστησεν επισταντες επιστάντες ἐπιστάντες επιστας επιστάς ἐπιστὰς επιστασα επιστάσα ἐπιστᾶσα επιστη επιστή ἐπιστῇ επιστηθι επίστηθι ἐπίστηθι επιστής επιστήσαι επιστήσατε επιστήσει επιστήσεις επιστήσης επιστήσομεν επίστησον επιστήσονται επιστήσω επόψει εφειστήκει εφεσταμένη εφέστηκα εφέστηκε εφεστηκεν εφέστηκεν ἐφέστηκεν εφεστηκόσι εφεστηκώς εφεστός εφεστως εφεστώς ἐφεστὼς εφεστωτα εφεστώτα ἐφεστῶτα εφεστώτι εφίστατο εφίστημι εφοδευσάτωσαν εφοδιάσεις εφόδιον εφορά εφορών εφούδ εφωδιάσθημεν epeste epestē epéste epéstē epestesan epestēsan epéstesan epéstēsan ephesteken ephestēken ephésteken ephéstēken ephestos ephestōs ephestṑs ephestota ephestôta ephestōta ephestō̂ta epistantes epistántes epistas epistàs epistasa epistâsa episte epistē epistêi epistē̂i epistethi epistēthi epístethi epístēthi
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