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The eastern tribes (5:1-26)
At the beginning of this section, the writer gives the reason why he listed the genealogy of Judah before that of Reuben, the firstborn. Reuben had lost his rights as the firstborn (see Genesis 35:22), so the ruling power in Israel was given to Judah instead. The firstborn’s double portion of the inheritance went to Joseph, who received two tribes in Israel (Ephraim and Manasseh). The descendants of Reuben, along with those of Gad and half the tribe of Manasseh, dwelt on the east of Jordan, not in Canaan itself. Their territory had no natural boundaries to the north or east, and so was open to attack from the Assyrians (5:1-10).
Gad’s descendants are listed next (11-17). In addition there is the account of an important victory that the two and a half eastern tribes won, thereby giving them greater security and prosperity (18-22). There is also a short list of the leading families of the eastern half of the tribe of Manasseh (23-24). The section closes by recording that the people of the two and a half eastern tribes, because of their unfaithfulness to God, were conquered by the Assyrians and taken into captivity (25-26).
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Flemming, Donald C. "Commentary on 1 Chronicles 5". "Brideway Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/
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