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1:1 called (f-7) 'A called apostle,' i.e. an apostle by (divine) calling. Cf. ver. 7 'called saints,' and see note there.
1:2 writings,) (g-11) 'In holy writings.' there is no article in the original. The statement of the apostle is general, addressing himself, as he does, to Gentiles.
1:4 Spirit (h-11) In many cases it is impossible to put a small or a large S rightly to the word Spirit, as the presence and power of the Holy Spirit characterizes the state, and that and the state are both included; so it is here. It is divine, not merely human, perfectness, and by the Holy Spirit, yet it is Christ's state. But it is not merely a state, but that state which consists in the presence and power of the Holy Spirit, and is the absolute expression of it. On the whole, I put a large S here, but it is the Son manifested on earth who is spoken of, and characteristic of him. Resurrection was the proof, but he who had eyes to see, saw what came in flesh justified in the Spirit even when here, the same Spirit which was quickening power in resurrection, as 1 Peter 3:18 . holiness, (i-13) Hagiosune , the nature and quality itself, as 2 Corinthians 7:1 and 1 Thessalonians 3:13 . Distinct from hagiasmos , the practical effect produced, the character in activity, translated 'holiness' in Romans 6:19 ,Romans 6:22 ; 1 Corinthians 1:30 ; 1 Timothy 2:15 ; Hebrews 12:14 ; and 'sanctification' in 1 Thessalonians 4:3 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:7 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:13 and 1 Peter 1:2 . Another word, hagiotes , is used in Hebrews 12:10 (the only time in Scripture), for the quality itself. dead) (k-18) Plural, 'of dead persons.'
1:6 called (a-7) 'Called ones of Jesus Christ' is what they are.
1:7 called (b-10) 'Called saints' is ambiguous in English, but the sense is that they are saints by the calling of God. The Greek implies that they are already saints, not called to be so.
1:10 prospered (c-15) This does not refer to a prosperous journey, but to the hope that God may favour or prosper him so that he may come; he had long wished it, and hoped that at last it might be granted him.
1:17 God (d-4) 'Righteousness of God.' The absence of the article may arrest the mind here, and in some other places, in this part of the epistle. It is likely to do so, because the righteousness of God is now a known doctrine; not so when the apostle taught. The righteousness of God was a wholly new thought, as was indeed wrath from heaven. wrath on earth was not. The gospel, or 'glad tidings,' was the power of God to salvation, because righteousness of God (that kind of righteousness) was revealed -- not a righteousness required of man. See ch. 3.21. by (e-25) 'By faith.' The word 'by' is the same in Greek ( ek ) as that translated 'on the principle of.' I have left 'by' as being a quotation from Habakkuk 2:4 .
1:18 heaven (f-9) 'Wrath of God from heaven is revealed.' see Note d; 'there' is merely the impersonal form, not an adverb, but necessary, as it is difficult to put the words in another order without injuring the sense.
1:19 is (g-3) Or 'may be.' The Greek word here is used for 'may be known.' What is spoken of here is 'knowledge acquirable by nature in contrast with revelation,' it means what is within the capacity of man's apprehension. But 'is known' sufficiently represents that and is more exact.
1:20 divinity, (h-30) What is characteristic of God; not 'Godhead,' as in Colossians 2:9 . render (i-35) The Greek expression does not affirm that they are so, but states the consequence of the display of creative glory in what was seen. 'So that they should,' or 'might be,' is ambiguous in English, and implies purpose. Hence I have said 'so as to render,' which gives the sense.
1:21 Because (a-1) This is the second reason. the first is ver. 19. thoughts, (b-19) The 'inward reasonings of the mind,' as Luke 9:46 . The word 'thoughts' in English conveys this best.
1:25 who (c-1) The word implies the character. 'who were such as,' see Matthew 7:24 .
1:28 good (d-8) Not 'did not like.' The word means 'to assay, test, prove,' and thence 'to approve' as Philippians 1:10 . reprobate (e-21) Or, as some, 'a mind void of moral discernment.'
1:30 God, (f-4) I doubt that it has the sense of 'God-haters.' It acquired the sense of 'abominably wicked.' as 'cursed children' does not mean that a curse is pronounced, but that they are fit only to be so named. It is the moral state.
1:32 who (g-1) As in v. 25, 'who being such as so knew.' judgment (h-5) Dikaioma . what the righteous will of God requires; hence even an ordinance of his will, or a righteous act meeting his requirement. See ch. 5.18; Luke 1:6 ; and Revelation 15:4 , where it is judgment itself. In ch. 2.5, 'righteous judgment' is dikaiokrisia . do (i-11) Prasso . to do an act. see John 5:29 . practise (k-20) Poieo . practise a course of action. see John 5:29 . delight (l-25) It means that not only their own passions carry them away, but, being thoroughly corrupt, they enjoy other people's sinning, associating themselves in thought and spirit with them, as taking pleasure in their doing so.
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Darby, John. "Commentary on Romans 1". "John Darby's Synopsis of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29