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Bible Commentaries
Romans 1

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1


The writers of this commentary believe that the Bible is the Word of God fully, completely inspired, accurate and trustworthy, as a rule and guide for faith, and "the faith," in practice.

Comments have been made on these ’and the succeeding doctrinal Books of the New Testament based on root meanings of Words from the original language, based on subject matter, contextual setting, and with respect to the five-point system of analysis of subject matter as follows:

WHO WRITES? Paul with Tertius who did the writing, Romans 1:1; Romans 16:22.

TO WHOM DO THEY WRITE? To "the Called," in Rome, "The Saints" in the Church in Rome – Romans 1:6-7; Romans 1:11.

ABOUT WHAT IS THE WRITING "The Gospel of Jesus Christ," Romans 1:15-16, and the Doctrines of Jesus Christ that were to supplant the Law of Moses in Christian service; Romans 2:12-16. This is the charter of Christian Liberty for the church.

WHEN? From 56 to 58 A.D., from Corinth, near Cenchrea, while on his third missionary journey, Acts 20:1-5; Romans 15:23-24, perhaps in the Spring of A.D. 57.

WHAT WAS THE OCCASION? Paul’s desire to preach Christ in Rome, capital of the Roman Empire, seat of the Gentile World Government, Romans 1:13-16; Romans 15:25-33. The letter was written as he was planning his last life journey to Jerusalem with a charity gift for needy saints.



1. a) Introductory greetings, v. 1-17

b) Universal guilt and Divine wrath, v. 18-23

c) Fruits and results of Gentile apostasy, v. 24-32

2. a) Gentile pagan moralizers and other pagans, v. 1-16

b) Law-knowledge condemned Jews, v. 17-29

3. a) Jew Advantage - greater condemnation, v. 1-8

b) Final verdict on sin - whole world guilty, v. 9-20

c) Justification defined, v. 21-28

d) Justification meets a universal need, v. 29-31

4. a) Justification before God, v. 1-4

b) Justifying faith described, v. 5-122

c) Justification apart from the Law, v. 13-25

5. a) Peace, a fruit of justification by faith, v. 1-11

b) Thru Adam sin and death entered humanity, v. 12-14

c) Thru Christ righteousness and eternal life made available for all,

v.15-21 ..

6. a) Liberation from the power of the old sin nature, v. 1-10

b) The call to separation, v. 11-13

c) The call to Divine service, v. 14-23

7. a) Liberation from the Law calls for allegiance to Christ, v..1-6.

b) Believers not made or kept righteous by the Law, v. 7-14

c) Conflict, battle between the old and new nature, v. 15-25

8. a) The Holy Spirit chapter of the Bible, v. 1

b) The new Law of the Spirit, v. 2-4

c) Conflict of flesh and spirit, v. 5-13

d) Led by the spirit, v. 14-17

e) Conquering through the spirit, v. 18-25

f) The indwelling intercessor, v. 26, 27

g) The unfailing purpose of God, v. 28-34

h) The security of the believer, v. 35

9. a) Paul’s burden for Israel, v. 1-3

b) Israel’s special blessings, v. 4, 5

c) Natural and spiritual Jews, v. 6-13 (v. 8, The Distinction clarified)

d) God’s mercy and sovereign will, v.14-24

e) Blindness to Israel and mercy to Gentiles was foretold, v. 25-33

10. a) Unbelief - cause of Israel’s failure and fall, v. 1-4

b) How true righteousness with God and salvation are obtained, v. 6-13

c) The need, necessity, of preaching and obeying, v. 14-21

11. a) All Israel is not abandoned, v. 1-6

b) National Israel blinded in judgment, v. 7-12

c) Gentiles cautiously warned, v. 13-25

d) National Israel will yet be saved, v. 26-36

12. a) Consecration, separation, v. 1, 2

b) Service, v. 3-8

c) The Christian and those within the church, v. 17-21

13. a) The call to civil obedience, v. 1-7

b) The Law of love toward ones neighbor, v. 8-14

14. a) Receiving the weak in the faith into the church, v. 1-4

b) Each be persuaded in his own conscience, v. 5-18

c) Pursue in wisdom things that edify and make for peace, v. 19-25

15. a) Obligation of the stronger to the weak, v. 1-3

b) In salvation, Jews and Gentiles are one in Divine nature, v. 1-13

c) Paul’s ministry and future travel plans, v. 14-32

16. a) Commendations and extended greetings, v. 1-23

b) A Pauline revelation and benediction, v. 24-27



1) Greetings to the Church

Degenerated, Depraved, Humanity

Base Deeds, Choices, Inexcusable

2) All sinners without excuse, condemned

Goodness of God despised

Law-Knowledge and Nature-Knowledge - both lead to condemnation

3) Jew Advantage- Greater Condemnation

Total Depravity, Guilt on all Men

Justification, What It Is and Does for Believers


4) Justification - Before God

Faith Computed for Righteousness

David Described It

Abraham’s Faith, in Salvation, a Father Example for AI

5) Results of Justification Before God

Peace - Access to Grace

Hope - Love Shed Abroad in Heart






Baptism and Service in the Church

A CALL to a Transformed Pattern of Life - UNDER



like Woman whose Husband is Dead

Law Principle of Morals and Ethics was Good

CONFLICT OF TWO NATURES in the saved, justified


No more Condemnation- FOREVER FREE!

Led by the Spirit

Hope and Assurance of Adoption

Indwelling Intercessor

Effects Purpose of God for all who know Him

Security to Final Conquest and Victory




Special Blessings to Israel National, Natural, and

Spiritual Israel

God’s Sovereign Mercy and Will


True Righteousness and Salvation - Obtained by Faith and Calling

Need, Necessity of Preaching, and Obeying the Gospel


But all Blinded in Part in Judgment

Gentiles Warned against Pride

National Israel will yet be Delivered, used of God



A Living Sacrifice in Service

Love in Service

The Christian’s Attitude and Conduct Toward those Within the Church


The Law of Love toward Ones Neighbor, Even without the Church

Honest, Moral, Ethical Conduct as a Christian


Receiving a Weak Brother in the Faith into the Fellowship

Each to be Persuaded in his own Conscience

Things that Make for Peace and Edifying, Pursue


Jew and Gentile of one Spiritual Nature in Regeneration

Paul’s Ministry and Future Travel Plans


Personal Commendations of Friends and Relatives

Greetings Extended

A Final Pauline Revelation and Benediction to and upon the Church at Rome and Colleagues in Christian and Church Fellowship with Them

Comments on Romans 1:1


1) "Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ," (paulos doulos Christou lesou) "Paul a slave-like servant of Jesus Christ," or a bondsman of Jesus Christ, with an obligation to Christ that could not be discharged or dismissed, as also expressed by James 1:1; 2 Peter 1:1; Judges 1:1.

2) "Called to be an apostle," (kletos apostolos) "called or designated an apostle," one sent on a mission or authorized, one commissioned to a special task, a vocation with honor, that none can take to himself, except he be called of God, Hebrews 5:4; Acts 26:17-18.

3) "Separated unto the gospel of God," (aphorismenos eis evangellion theou) "having been separated (set apart by tongue and pen) with reference to (the) gospel or good news of God --the trinitarian one;" of which Gospel God is the source and author, Romans 15:16; Galatians 1:15; Ephesians 3:7; 1 Timothy 1:12; 2 Timothy 1:11. Paul thus identified himself in three ways --as a servant, an apostle, and separated unto the gospel.

Verse 2

1) "Which he had promised afore," (ho proepengeilato) "Which he promised beforehand," which gospel or good news he had already promised, from Adam through all the prophets; The gospel was not a new thing, but a fulfillment of hopes which God himself had inspired. Genesis 3:15; Deuteronomy 18:15; Deuteronomy 18, 19; Acts 10:43.

2) "By his prophets," (dia ton propheton autou) "Through his prophets," through the channel, instrument, agency, voice, or means of his true prophets, by their writings and oral prophecies; They prophecied and wrote of the incarnation, reconciliation, and resurrection of Christ in effecting the gospel, Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 9:6; Isaiah 53:1-12; Micah 5:2.

3) "In thy holy scriptures," (en graphais hagiais) "In holy or sanctified writings," the sacred Scriptures, which can never pass away, Galatians 3:8; Genesis 12:3; 2 Peter 1:21; Romans 3:21-22; Romans 16:26.

Verse 3

1) "Concerning his Son, Jesus Christ our Lord," (peri tou huiou autou tou) "Concerning or regarding the Son of him--(the Lord Jesus Christ)." Who was Jesus, in Paul’s mind? First, (foremost) he was the Son of God, Galatians 4:4-5.

2) "Which was made of the seed of David," (genomenou ek spermatos David) "Who has come out of (the) (sperm-seed), or flesh line of David," through the flesh-line-family of David, Matthew 1:6; Matthew 1:16-17; Luke 1:27; Luke 1:32; Luke 2:4; Acts 13:32-39.

3) "According to the flesh," (kata sarka) "According to (the) flesh-order," or flesh-line of begettal, John 1:14; 1 Timothy 3:16; 2 Timothy 2:8; Hebrews 7:14. As the "seed of David," Jesus was the Son of God, the Saviour of the World, with power, demonstrated by the Spirit, in his resurrection from the dead and ascension into heaven.

Verse 4

1) "And declared to be the Son of God with power," (tou horisthentos huiou theou en dunamei) "Designated (as) the Son of God in (with) power, dynamic," demonstrated, or "marked out" power through his miracle ministry in life, his resurrection from the dead, and ascension.

2) "According to the spirit of holiness," (kata pneuma hagiosunes) "According to (the) spirit of holiness," Acts 2:36; 2 Corinthians 13:4; Romans 8:9 c, 10, 11; Hebrews 1:1-3.

3) "By the resurrection from the dead," (eks anastaseos nekron, lesou Christou tau kuriou hemon) "Out of a resurrection of dead persons Jesus Christ our Lord," --he came forth first, as the firstfruit of the first resurrection, a decisive evidence of His Sonship, Acts 13:33; 1 Corinthians 15:1-4; 1 Corinthians 15:20-21.

Verse 5

1) "By whom we have received grace and apostleship," (di ou elabomen Charin kai apostolen) "Through whom we received grace and apostleship," or commission, Acts 9:15-16; Acts 26:15-20; 2 Corinthians 8:9.

2) "For obedience to the faith," (eis hupakoen pisteos) "For obedience of faith," or with reference to obedience to the faith, the system of teachings of the Lord. Obedience to "the faith" is the doing of what the Lord has commanded his children, John 15:14; James 1:22.

3) "Among all nations," (en pasin tois ethnesin) Among all the heathen, races, nations or peoples," or in (among) all nations, Mark 16:15; Matthew 28:18-20; Acts 1:8.

4) "For his name," (huper tou onomatos autou) "on behalf of his name," of what he has authorized or commissioned, John 20:21; Colossians 3:17. Both Salvation and Christian obedience are designed to exalt the Name of Jesus Christ, above every name, thru the church, to the Glory of God the Father, in this age and every succeeding age, Ephesians 3:21; Romans 14:11; Philippians 2:10-11; Revelation 5:13.

Verse 6

1) "Among whom are ye also," (en hois este kai humeis) "In the midst of whom you all are also"; The Romans--, (among other Gentiles) saved and baptized were called to obedience to Christ in service thru his church, as Matthew 5:13-16; John 1:16-17.

2) "The Called of Jesus Christ," (kletoi lesou Christou)

called ones of (belonging to) Jesus Christ;" The heathen world, all the lost are, in this age first called to salvation, then to obedient service to Jesus Christ thru his church; The same spirit that calls to salvation, thereafter, calls the saved to be baptized, then to take up his cross and follow Jesus, Revelation 22:17; Hebrews 3:7; Romans 8:14; Romans 8:16; Mark 8:36-37.

Verse 7

1) "To all that be in Rome," (pasin tois ousin en Rome) "To all those residing (being) in Rome," referring to all the "called ones", of the church in Rome, to whom this letter was addressed, Romans 1:13.

2) "Beloved of God, " (agapetois theou) "beloved ones of God," now or t being beloved ones belonging to God, already saved, and members of the church in Rome to which this letter was addressed or directed, Romans 16:1-2.

3) "Called to be saints," (kletois hagiois) "called saints, sanctified, or holy ones," The "to be" is not in the original. Those of the Roman church were already saints, by virtue of their salvation and commitment to Christ, Romans 1:6. No individual seems to be called a saint, apart from church relations, in the church era.

4) "Grace to you and peace from God our Father," (charis humin kai eirene apo theou patros hemon) "May Grace be to you all and peace from God our Father", The "you all" of this phrase, verse, and book, as persons of direct address referred in a specific way to the church at Rome. Romans 16:1-2; Romans 16:16-17; Romans 16:23.

5) "And the Lord Jesus Christ," (kai kuriou lesou Christou) "And (from the) Lord Jesus Christ;- Grace and peace that redeemed and sustained Paul in all his life’s labors, he desired that the God the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ, would bestow upon all obedient saints in the church at Rome. "Others" and their redeemed welfare should be the controlling concern of every child of God, Philippians 2:4.


Lord help me to live from day to day

In such a self-forgetful way,

That even when I kneel to pray My prayer shall be for others.

Help me in all the work I do. To ever be sincere and true. And know that all I do for you, Must needs be done for - others.

Let - "self" be crucified and slain, And buried deep; and all in vain May efforts be to rise again Unless to live for others.

And when my work on earth is done, And my new work in heaven’s begun, May I forget the crown I’ve won While thinking still of - others.

Others, Lord, yes, others, Let this my motto be; Help me to live for others, That I may live for Thee.

--Charles D. Meigs

Verse 8

1) "First, I thank my God," (proton men eucharisto to theo mou) "Firstly (in priority) I thank my God"; Paul had personal gratitude (sincere thanksgiving) for the good testimony of the church brethren in Rome; The term "my God" indicates the personal relationship he had to God, 1 Thessalonians 5:18.

2) "Through Jesus Christ for you all," (dia lesou Christou peri panton humon) "Through Jesus Christ concerning all of you"; Jesus Christ is the "mediator-agent," through whom God’s children must approach him (not thru an earthly priest or religious saint), Ephesians 2:18; 1 Corinthians 8:6.

3) "That your faith is spoken of," (hoti he pistis humon ketangelletai) "Because your faith is being announced, reported, or witnessed," continually, repeatedly. Note that the occasion for Paul’s happy hearted gratitude for the Roman Church brethren was their testimony for Christ, their fidelity to truth, 1 Thessalonians 1:8.

4) "Throughout the whole world," (en holon to kosmo) "in all (parts of) the world," then known as the Roman Empire that ruled the world, even as far as the Lord had commanded his church to go, Acts 1:8; Matthew 28:18-20; Mark 16:15; John 2:21; John 3:16-17.

Verse 9

1) "For God is my witness," (martus gar mou estin ho theos) "For the witness of me is God," or "God exists as my witness," in all that I think, say, and do. So he is of every person in everything one says and does, Job 16:19; 1 Thessalonians 2:5. He is looking on, Proverbs 15:3.

2) "Whom I serve," (ho latreuo) "Whom I actively, progressively serve"; The Greek term here used denotes devout religious service or devotions, Acts 27:23.

3) "With my spirit in the gospel of his Son," (en to pneumati mou en to evangellio tou huiou autou) "In my spirit in the gospel (good news) of his Son"; Paul’s heart, soul, mind, attitude, disposition, and body were committed to the preaching of the gospel of the Son of God by word and pen, Romans 1:15.

4) "That without ceasing I make mention of you," (hos adialeiptos mneian humon poioumai) "How unceasingly (with uninterrupted continuity) I make mention of you all," in testimony and prayer." He practiced praying "without ceasing," even as he commanded it of others, Ephesians 6:18; Colossians 4:2-3; 1 Thessalonians 5:17-18.

5) "Always in my prayers," (pantote epi ton proseuchon) "At all times and conditions in the prayers," which I offer. Do we always remember our missionaries and sister churches in prayer, or even as often as our missionaries remember us? James 5:16; Ephesians 1:16; 2 Timothy 1:3.

Verse 10

1) "Making request," (mou deomenos) "Requesting of my own behalf", even as Jesus did, John 11:41-42; John 12:27-28.

2) "If by any means now at length," (ei pos ede pote) "If somehow now at some time," some yet unforeseen point in time, yet if possible, that it might be in God’s will and purpose. Every prayer should be offered in this manner, Matthew 26:39; Matthew 26:42; Matthew 26:44.

3) "I might have a prosperous journey by the will of God," (euodothesomai en to thelemati tou theou) "I shall have a happy journey, within the Will of God;" as Jesus sought to do, not his own will, but the will of the Father who sent him, so did Paul commit his will and life for service to the brethren, John 5:30; John 6:38; Romans 9:1-3; Romans 10:1; 1 Corinthians 9:19-23.

4) "To come unto you," (elthein pros humas) "to come of my own will and accord to you all," of my own desire; He did eventually go to the brethren in Rome. It was a prosperous journey, though it took him thru shipwreck and through prison. Prosperity, in the will of the Father, (as more than conquerors) took: (Romans 8:37; Philippians 1:2).

a) Joseph into Egypt the pit, prison, and Pharaoh’s house.

b) Moses into the Desert of Sinai for eighty years.

c) Elijah to a day of Altar trial and slaughter of Baal’s false prophets.

d) Daniel to the Lion’s Den.

e) The Three Hebrew children to the fiery furnace.

f) John the Baptist’s head to Herod’s Party.

g) Jesus to the Cross.

h) Stephen to Stoning.

Verse 11

1) "For I long to see you," (epipotho gar idein humas) "For I hold a longing to see you all," to be with you face to face, and hand to hand, John 13:35. This expresses a longing care for brethren far away, in regions beyond, 2 Corinthians 10:16.

2) "That I may impart unto you some spiritual gift," (hina ti metada charisma humin pneumatikon) "in order that I may dole out to you all (or each) some charismatic (spiritual) gift." Desire for fellowship of others should be motivated by a desire to help them, to cheer or strengthen them, or to share some blessing with them, unselfishly, Romans 1:13-16; Romans 15:28-33.

3) "To the end ye may be established," (eis to sterichthenai humas) "in order that you all may be established, balanced, or stabilized," John 15:11; John 16:33.

Verse 12

1) "That is," (touto de estin) "And this is," this longing desire and prayer is for the following purpose or end; Jesus asserted that a willing mind, to do God’s will, would be blessed, John 7:17; 2 Corinthians 8:12.

2) "That I may be comforted together with you," (sumpara -kiethenai en humin) "that I may be encouraged in close association or personal affirmity among you all; ”0 the power of personal touch, personal fellowship of those who love God and one another; 1 John 1:3; 1 John 1:6-7.

3) "By the mutual faith both of you and me," (dia tes en allelois pisteos humon te kai hemon) "Through the mutual faith of both you all and of me;" To follow the righteousness of God together, in mutual faith and fellowship is sweet, 2 Timothy 2:22. The hearts of the Emmaus disciples burned within them with a glowing joy as they walked and talked and shared together the Word, work, and testimony of the living risen Lord, Luke 24:13-15. The faith and testimony of one saint helps, strengthens, and encourages the confidence of others, Hebrews 12:1.

Verse 13

1) "Now I would not have you ignorant, brethren," (ou thelo de humas agnoein, adelphoi) "But brethren, "I do not wish (in any degree) you all to be ignorant," or unaware that I have an honest and earnest interest in and care for you. Knowledge of a minister’s love and care is a comfort to his people, Matthew 5:15-16.

2) "That oftentimes I purposed to come unto you," (hoti pllakis proethemen) "I purposed to come of my own desire to you all," again and again. Man purposes, but God disposes. His ways are higher than ours, Genesis 50:20; Romans 15:24; Isaiah 55:11-12.

3) "But was let hitherto," (kai ekoluthen achri tou deuro) "And was hindered (obstructed) until the present;" Satan often hinders good intentions and desires of God’s children, Romans 15:22; 1 Thessalonians 2:18.

4) "That I might have some fruit among you also," (hina tina karpos scho Kai en humin) "In order that I may also have some fruit among you all;" Fruit of the Spirit and of Christian labors is reflected in Salvation of the lost and Christian maturity, John 15:16-17; Galatians 5:22-23.

5) "Even as among other Gentiles," (kathos kai en tois loipois ethnesin) "Just as even also among the remaining nations, races, or peoples;" where Paul had already preached the gospel, in Corinth, 1 Corinthians 4:15; 1 Thessalonians 2:19-20.

Verse 14

1) "I am debtor," (opheiletes eimi) "I am a debtor", an obligated person; to preach the gospel of Christ to all men without distinction of cultures, classes, and languages. 1 Corinthians 9:16-17.

2) "Both to the Greeks," (hellesin te) "Both to Greeks, Hellenicians, the more intellectual; The gospel message is that the lost may be found, the condemned may be justified, the dead and perishing may be made alive, John 3:16-18; John 20:21; Luke 19:10.

3) "And to the Barbarians," (Kai Barbarois) "And to the foreigners," less cultured, less educated, the boorish. This Salvation Message of the gospel is one that every Christian is obligated to pass on to every unbeliever, to a lost world, Acts 1:8.

4) "Both to the Wise," (sophois te) "Both to the wise ones," who are without Christ, to those considered to be wise in this world’s esteem, the story (the message) of salvation for all must be passed on, 1 Corinthians 1:18-31; 1 Corinthians 9:19-22.

5) "And to the unwise," (Kai anoetois) "And to (the) foolish ones", who are without Christ; for the "fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom," Proverbs 1:7. Men who know Christ are lifetime debtors to Him to live and to witness.

"Jesus paid it all, all to Him I owe, Sin had left a crimson stain, He washed it white as snow. "

With David let us ask, "What shall I render to the Lord for all his benefits to me?" Psalms 116:8; Psalms 116:12; Psalms 107:1-2.

Verse 15

1) "So as much as in me is," (houtos to kat eimi) "Thus as much (far) as in me exists"; 0 for a full surrender! like Isaiah before the Altar, Isaiah 6:8 or like Saul on the Damascus road, Acts 9:6!

2) "I am ready," (prothumon) "I am eager", 0, to be ready when Jesus calls --Ready to repent, ready to trust, ready to confess, ready to obey, to be baptized, to witness, to walk, and to serve Jesus at his call, John 15:14; Mark 8:36-37; Luke 9:23.

3) "To preach the gospel " (euangellisasthai) to proclaim, to announce well the story (the message) of the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ "for our sins according to the Scriptures," 1 Corinthians 15:1-4. The Greeks in Athens, the Scythians, and barbarians in Asia and Eastern Europe had already heard this gospel from Paul.

4) "To you that are in Rome also," (Kai humin tois Rome) "Also to you all who are in Rome"; This ’is a pre-appearance assurance to the Church in Rome, Italy (Southern Europe) that he was also ready, eager, anxious and desiring to preach the gospel to all classes, cultures, and races among them also, obeying the bidding of His Lord, Mark 16:15; Acts 26:16-20.

Verse 16

1) "For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ," (ou gar epaischunomai to euangellion) "For I am not ashamed of (blushing because of) the gospel (of Christ)." To Paul the gospel never ceased to be or exist as "good news", for sinners and the saved; of it he was never ashamed, neither should any child of God ever be, because of what it is and does for the lost, 2 Timothy 1:7-8; Mark 8:38.

2) "For it is the power of God unto salvation", (dunamis gar theou estin eis soterian) "For it is or (exists as) the power of God, with relation to salvation," or deliverance from the power and presence of sin, to the holiness and glory of God, 2 Corinthians 4:3-4; 1 Corinthians 1:18; 1 Corinthians 1:23-24; This gospel is accompanied by the power of the Holy Spirit, 1 Thessalonians 1:5.

3) "To everyone that believeth " (panti to pisteuonti) "To everyone who believes"; note how universal is this offer, and how individual this acceptance of Salvation is made, in the redemptive gospel message, John 3:16; John 5:24; John 6:37; Acts 10:43; Romans 10:9-10; Romans 10:13.

4) "To the Jew first," (louaio te proton) "Both, firstly (in priority) to the Jew, " Matthew 3:15; John 1:11-12.

5) "And also to the Greek," (kai Helleni) "And to the Greek," as well or also; To the Greeks who said, "Sir, we would see Jesus," "we long to see the Savior;" he turned to make himself known to them also, John 12:21-23; These were "other sheep," not of the Jewish fold, John 10:16; Peter also unashamedly preached this gospel of power to others – Acts 10:34-44.

Verse 17

1 ) "For therein is the righteousness of God revealed," (dikaiosune gar theou en auto apokaleiptetai) "For in it (the gospel) righteousness of God is revealed," disclosed. The true gospel presents Jesus as the holy, righteous, sinless, sacrificial- lamb of God who bare away the sins of the World, John 1:29; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 7:26.

2) "From faith to faith," (ek pisteous eis pistin) "Out of faith (the gift of faith) into faith," that the believer by convicted volition puts or places his faith in Jesus Christ, Hebrews 11:6; 1 Corinthians 13:13; John 1:11-12; Acts 20:21. When a guilty sinner hears, is convicted of sin, is offered the gift of faith, accepts it in repentance toward God, then places it, by his volition or own will in Jesus, he is then saved, becomes a child of God by faith, Galatians 3:26; Ephesians 2:8-10; Romans 3:22.

3) "As it is written," (kathos gegraptai) "just as it has been written," in the Scriptures—Habakkuk 2:4.

4) "The just shall live by faith," (ho de dikaios ek pisteos zesetai) "Now the just one shall live by (out of) faith," having his righteousness from, originating from faith in the risen Christ, Ephesians 2:8-9; Galatians 3:26; Galatians 3:11; Hebrews 10:38.

The just shall live by the faith thru which they became "just or justified," when they believed in Jesus Christ as their personal Savior, Acts 13:38-39; Romans 3:25; Romans 3:28 --not when they were baptized, or when they were confirmed, or when they became members of His church. See?


Verse 18

1) "For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven," (apokaluptetai gar orge theou ap ouranou) "For wrath of God is revealed, unveiled, or disclosed from heaven;” Heavens Holy God, Son, Holy Spirit, Holy People, and Holy Place reveal or unveil the unholiness and corruption of all men, under the wrath or incensed anger of God, when Satan was cast down, and when Adam sinned, Genesis 3:22-24; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Luke 10:18.

2) "Against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men," (epi pasan asebeian kai adikian anthroponi "Against all impiety and unrighteousnessness of men," so that in man’s unregenerate, unsaved condition, none can enter heaven. All are quarantined from entering it, except those saved, those who are born again, John 3:3; John 3:6; Revelation 21:27; Hebrews 12:14.

3) "Who hold the truth in unrighteousness," (ton ten aletheian en adikia kateckonton) "Who have or hold the truth (moral and ethical standards of God) in unrighteousness, continually. "God is angry with the wicked every day," whetting his sword of righteous judgment continually, awaiting the hour of full falling furor, horror, and torments that hang like a suspended knife over the neck of the wicked, the stubborn, the rebellious every moment, every breath, while they wake and while they sleep. God’s anger is yet tempered with mercy and compassion, as he calls the sinner to salvation, ere the lever of justice suddenly comes in death --when it is too late. Psalms 7:11-13; Romans 2:2-9; Revelation 6:12-17; Revelation 14:9-11; Romans 3:20; Romans 3:23; Romans 6:23.

Verse 19

1) "Because that which may be known of God," (dioti to gnoston tou theou) "Because what is known of God," as revealed from heaven, and the heavens which declare his glory and righteousness, and integrity, thru his firmament, the galaxies, and his promises, Genesis 1:14-19.

2) "Is manifest in them," (phaneron estin en autois) "is manifest among or in the midst of them," the heavens, before all races of men, all classes, and all cultures, Greeks and Barbarians, as well as to the Jew first, to whom the gospel of Christ came, Psalms 19:1; Psalms 19:6. The voice of nature speaks a language of God’s holiness that all sinful men can understand, without excuse, Romans 2:1.

3) "For God hath shewed it unto them," (ho thess gar autois ephanerosen) "Because God manifested (it) to them," to all nations, thru nature, thru the law, and the prophets, and the psalms; His righteousness, integrity, and justice are declared thru his sustaining:

a) The sun, moon, and starts in their paths of service, Genesis 1:16. They still rule the day and night.

b) Thru his judgment of flood and fire from heaven and the heavens for sin, Genesis 6:12-13; Genesis 6:17; Genesis 7:11; Genesis 7:21; Genesis 19:12-13; Genesis 19:24-25; Genesis 19:28.

c) Thru the recurring seasons and harvest times, according to his promises, Genesis 8:21-22.

d) The fear of man in every beast, every fowl, and every fish was pledged of God to be sustained forever. It has, Genesis 9:2-3.

e). The bow (rain bow) in the clouds are an abiding token of the Divine pledge of no more floods to destroy the earth with water. Genesis 9:8-17. Read again Psalms 19:1-6.

Verse 20

1) "For the invisible things of him," (ta gar aorata autou) "For the invisible things (not visible elements) of him," or having their origin in him, belonging to God, the Creator and sustainer of all things; these visible things of the universe were made, formed, or fashioned from his own existing invisible elements. Divine faith undergirds this revelation to every believer. Hebrews 11:1; Hebrews 11:3.

2) "From the creation of the World," (apo ktiseos kosmou) "From (the) creation of (the) world order of things," for "all things were made by him," Genesis 1:1; John 1:1-3; 1 Corinthians 8:6.

3) "Are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made," (tois poiemasin nooumena kathoratai) "Are well (clearly) seen, being understood by means of the things that are made or formed." Believers of Christ and the Word clearly see or comprehend that God is the compounder, unifier, mixer, and sustainer of all things and life by reason of his will and power, not by evolution, Hebrews 11:1-3.

4) "Even his eternal power and Godhead," (he te aidios autou dunamis kai theiotes) "Both his everlasting power and Divinity." "The invisible things", refer not only to invisible elements brought into visible form in creation but also to the dynamic power and Divinity of his attributes manifested in creation and his sustaining all things.

5) "So that they are without excuse," (eis to einai autous anapologetous) "So that they are without (above occasion for) an excuse," the "they" refers to Jews, Gentiles, Grecians, and barbarians, wise and unwise, the cultured and profane are without an excuse for a knowledge of God, sin, righteousness, wrath, and offered mercy and salvation, as revealed to Adam and Eve, to Noah, and to Lot and their families. Hebrews 1:1-3.

Verse 21

1) "Because that when they knew God," (dioti gnontes ton theon) "Because knowing or recognizing God;" The "they" who knew God refers to all classes and races inclusive of those of Adam’s lifetime, the Noahic flood age, and Lot’s rebellious years, Genesis 3:1-24; Genesis 8:1 to Genesis 9:29; Genesis 19:1-38.

2) "They glorified him not as God," (ouch hos theon edoksasan) "As God they glorified him not," The drift of the learned and unlearned, from Adam’s fall, in all races, classes, and cultures was away from God, Proverbs 29:1.

3) "But became vain in their imaginations," (alla emataiothesan en tois dialogismois auton) "But became vain, empty, void and self-willed in their reasonings," from 1) amalgamation of the races, 2) to the attempt to build a tower to heaven, and 3) The Collusion of Jacob’s Sons to sell Joseph and try to hide it with lies, Genesis 6:1-3; Genesis 6:5; Genesis 10:13; Genesis 11:1-9; Genesis 37:20-36.

4) "And their foolish heart was darkened," (kai eskotisthe he asuenetos auton kardia) "And their undiscerning heart was darkened," Genesis 50:20-21, "But God meant it unto Good," over-ruled it for Good in the life of Joseph, in spite of the foolish and darkened hearts of his brethren; Satan darkens foolish hearts, deceitful hearts, rebellious hearts, to their own destruction, except they heed the gospel message, 1 Corinthians 4:3-4; Jeremiah 17:9; AlI the lost walk with darkened moral and ethical understanding, through inborn ignorance, of the consequences of sin, with blinded hearts. To reach such people is the purpose of the gospel, Ephesians 4:17-18. It is only when one is saved that his understanding is cleared up, Ephesians 1:17-18; 1 John 5:20.

Verse 22

1) "Professing themselves to be wise," (phaskontes einai sophoi) "Asserting, arguing, contending themselves to be (exist as) wise ones," self-willed in their stupefied values of moral, ethical, and religious matters, 1 Corinthians 1:20; 1 Corinthians 1:23; 1 Corinthians 3:18-20; Jeremiah 8:9. To have Divine information thru revelation and reject or ignore it is the philosophy and way of fools, in every age and every race. Psalms 94:8.

2) "They became fools," (emoranthesan) "They became (as) morons stupid ones," acting as fools, to destroy themselves in immoral conduct and idolatrous worship. "Fools despise wisdom," "hate knowledge", "make a mock at sin", and "die for want of wisdom," Proverbs 1:7; Proverbs 1:22; Proverbs 14:9; Proverbs 10:21; and God "has no pleasure in fools," Ecclesiastes 5:4. Christians are admonished to "walk not as fools", or like fools walk, Ephesians 5:15.

Verse 23

1 ) "And changed the glory," (kai ellaksan ten doksan) "And changed (diverted or perverted) the glory," or attempted to alter Divine glory which they were to reflect, Psalms 106:20-21.

2) "Of the incorruptible God," (thou aphthartou theou) "of the not-able-to-be-corrupted God," an immaterial, not-subject-to-change-God, Malachi 3:6.

3) "Into an image," (en eikonos homoiomati) in (to) a state or likeness of being, as an ikon," an object of idolatry, that becomes a god to fools, Psalms 115:4-9.

4) "Made like to corruptible man," (phartou anthropou) "Formed, fashioned, chiseled or sculptured to the ikon-like appearance of a corruptible man," as the Statute of Jupiter by Phudias in Athens, as also Israel once did, Ezekiel 16:17.

5) "And birds," (kai Peteinon) "and birds, fowls," the ibis and the hawk, as worshipped in Egypt.

6) "And four-footed beasts," (kai tetrapodon) and quadrapeds--fourfooted earth walkers, the cat, dog, and ox also worshipped in Egypt, Psalms 135:15-18.

7) "And creeping things," (kai herpeton) "And reptiles," (snakes, lizards, scorpions, turtles, alligators, serpents, and beetles). Rejection of Divine truth in life and creation tends toward paganism, idolatry, and self-destruction of any person and all who embrace unbelief, Proverbs 13:15.

Verse 24


1) "Wherefore God also gave them up," (dio paredoken autous ho theos) "As a consequence of which God gave them up or released them from restraints," to do deeds of their own sensual desires. To lose God, God’s mercy, and God’s approval is to sink into moral abyss, to reap fruits of corruption, Isaiah 59:1-2; Galatians 6:7; Galatians 6:18; Psalms 81:12; Acts 7:42; Acts 14:16; 2 Thessalonians 2:11-12.

2) "To uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts," (en tais epithumiais ton kardion auton eis akatharsian) "In or into flesh desires of their affections into moral uncleanness," Eph 4-18, 19; When men refuse to admit the existence of a Divine Creator, or his power, holiness, mercy, and justice, they almost inevitably turn to worship beasts, fowls, fishes, and creeping things, then turn to live on the moral plain of the uncleanness of barnyard ethics, worshipping the creature rather than the Creator.

3) "To dishonour their own bodies," (tou atimazesthai ta somata auton) "To be degraded or to dishonor their own bodies," in morally abusive ways of sex deviation as follows:

4) "Between themselves," (en autois) "Among themselves," to an extent of every conceivable moral and ethical sexual perversion, such as homosexuality, lesbianism, sodomy etc., Genesis 10:4-5 "that we may know them," Romans 1:7 "do not so wickedly," said Lot --He knew sodomy and homosexual practices were "wicked"; Lot had not retained God in his life so that he offered two virgin daughters as rape-fodder to those homosexuals in a trade that night, Romans 1:8.

Verse 25

1) "Who changed the truth of God," (oitines metallaksam aletheian tou theon) "Those who perverted, distorted, detoured the truth of God," as the Creator and sustainer of man who is worthy of honor and glory.

2) "Into a lie," (en to pseudei) "in the direction of, to or toward, the lie;" to the end that the created should honor, serve, and worship the created, should involve itself in self-worship, or worship of idols or a false god.

3) "And worshipped and served the creature," (esebasthesan kai elatreusan te ktisei) "They even or also worshipped and served the creature;" Even Israel did this, led by Aaron, while Moses was before God the Creator, receiving the law, Exodus 32:1-9; Exodus 32:22-25.

4) "More than the creator," (para ton ktisanta) "Rather than (instead of) the Creator," the very person that merits and requires worship, Genesis 1:1; Exodus 20:1-5. With David we say, "Their gods are not as our God," Psalms 115:1-8.

5) "Who is blessed forever, Amen," (hos estin eulogetos eis tous aionas Amen) "Who is blessed unto the Ages, Amen (so may it ever be)." What a doxology of praise to give relief from the contemptuous treatment the unregenerate ingrates of humanity show to the eternal God; He only, is to be feared, obeyed, worshipped, and served, Deuteronomy 6:13; Matthew 4:10; Luke 4:8; 2 Corinthians 1:3-4; 1 Timothy 1:17.

Verse 26

1) "For this cause God gave them up," (dia touto paredoken autos ho, theos) "On account of this God gave them up or over;- He gave up Pharaoh in Egypt, Nebuchadnezzar, and Belshazzar in Babylon, Herod and Herodias in Judah, and Judas Iscariot in Jerusalem, to their own lusts.

2) "Unto vile affections," (eis pathe atimas) "Unto the passion of moral, ethical, and sexual dishonor," of their own deranged thinking, perverted desires, and polluted practices as surely as he did the pre-flood people and those of Sodom and Gomorrha, Genesis 6:1 to Genesis 9:29; Genesis 19:1-38.

3) "For even their women," (hai te gar theleiai auton) "For even their females," inclusive of Lots wife and daughters, Genesis 19:1-38; Luke 17:32. "Remember Lot’s wife."

4) "Did change the natural use," (metellaksan ten phusiken chresin) "Changed (perverted or distorted) the natural use," of moral chastity and ethical behavior or conduct, Genesis 19; Luke 17:26-27; Luke 17:32; Ephesians 5:3; Ephesians 5:12. So that it was a "shame even to speak of things they did in secret."

5) "Into that which is against nature," (eis ten para phusin) "Into the (kind of use) against nature," such as inter-sex-relations of women with women (lesbianism) and with animals, dogs, beasts, forbidden specifically in the law as former heathen practices; Read especially Exodus 22:19; Leviticus 18:23-24. Where both men and women were forbidden to stand up or lie down to have sex with beasts, as heathens did, and some still do.

Verse 27

1) "And likewise also the men," (homois te kai hoi arsenes) "Likewise also the males," after the same manner of deranged desires of unclean lusts.

2) "Leaving the natural use of the woman," (aphentes ten phusiken chresin tes theleias) "Leaving or turning away from the natural use (need use) of the female," in normal sex relations in sanctify of marriage.

3) "Burned in their lust one toward another," (eksauthesan en to oreksei auton eis allelous) "burned in them the sexual desire of them toward one another," craving and cultivating sex relations men toward men.

4) "Men with men," (arsentes en arsentes) "Males among (with) males, homosexuality exciting and inflaming one another, inclusive of acts of sodomy for momentary excitement of passions. Judges 1:8; Judges 1:10.

5) "Working that which is unseemly," (ten aschemosunen katergazomenoi) Continually repeatedly working that which is shameful, unseemly, morally perverting."

6) "And receiving in themselves," (kai en heautois apoiambanontes) "And in themselves receiving back," as a law of sowing and reaping, Galatians 6:7-8.

7) "That recompense of their error which was meet," (ten antimisthian hen edei tes planes) "The requital (returned dishonor) which their moral error behooved. Those who practice such shall neither enter heaven nor have an heir-setting inheritance in the kingdom of our Lord except they repent. Revelation 21:27; Galatians 5:19; Galatians 5:21.

Verse 28

1) "And even as they did not like," (kai kathos ouk edokimasan) "And as they did not think it fit or proper," leaving God out of their thoughts, desires, and plans, refused to acknowledge him, as set forth in nature’s language and the Word of God.

2) "To retain God in their knowledge," (ton theon echein en epignosei) "To have, hold, or retain God in their knowledge;" They knew him thru nature’s voice, their conscience, the Word of God, and testimony of men, but rejected all these witnesses.

3) "God gave them over," (paredoken autous ho theos) "God gave them up or over," granted them their own liberty of volition (free choice), but not without their accountability of consequences for their decisions and deeds, as Pharaoh, Belshazzar and Nebuchadnezzar, Daniel 5:18-23; Judas Iscariot.

4) "To a reprobate mind," (eis adokimon noun) "Unto a reprobate mind, (unknowing mind)," a mind seared, insensitive to Divine Truth and Wisdom, a mind of ignorance, Proverbs 1:24-32; Proverbs 13:15; Proverbs 29:1; the rich Barn builder and Rich man in hell went this way, Luke 12:20; Luke 16:25-26.

5) "To do those things which are not convenient," (poein ta me kathekonta) "To do the things (homosexual practices) that are not proper or morally good," and ’go on in refusal to worship and serve the Creator, Acts 17:22-32. So long as there is life and one will give heed to God and His Word there is an escape from this wickedness and God’s wrath, Isaiah 55:6-7; Isaiah 1:18; Romans 10:9-10; Romans 10:13.

Verse 29

1) "Having been filled with all," (pepleromenos pase) "Having been filled, obsessed, or controlled with all,"

a ) - Unrighteousness," (adikia), All kinds of unrighteousness, thoughts, attitudes and deeds that are unholy, or out of harmony with God, 1 John 1:9; 1 John 5:17.

b) "Fornication...fornication," Moral impurity, 1 Corinthians 7:2; Matthew 5:32; idolatry or worship of a false God, 2 Chronicles 21:11.

c) "Wickedness," (poneria) Moral deeds, thoughts, and attitudes of inward rebellion and outward disobedience to

d) "Covetousness," (pleoneksai) "Covetousness," selfish desires without regards for God or others, Exodus 20:17; Hebrews 13:5.

e) "Maliciousness," (kakia) "evil," devilish attitudes and behavior in conduct, 1 Corinthians 5:8; Colossians 3:8; 1 Peter 2:16.

f) "Full of envy," (mestous phthonou) "full of envy," resentments, bitterness, and gaul of soul and emotions for success of others, Proverbs 23:17; James 3:14; Galatians 5:21.

g) "Murder," (phonou) "or murder," the premeditated, malice-aforethought-type of taking the life of a human being, and cruelty in word or deed, Matthew 19:19; Jeremiah 7:9; Exodus 20:13.

h) "Debate," (eridos) "of strife," of contentions,

selfish desires expressed over policies, not moral or ethical principles, Isaiah 58:4; 2 Corinthians 12:20.

i)"Deceit," (dolou) "of guile," dishonest deception, lying, even by method of half truths, or insinuations. Psalms 10:7; Proverbs 12:5; Romans 3:13.

j) "Malignity," (kakeetheias) "of malignity," foul, corrupted, contagious attitude to think evil of others.

k) "Whisperers," (Psithuristas) "Whisperers," talebearers, gossipers, backbiters, viper-tongued-discord sovvers.

These are the fruits of evil trees, (of all weather raw crab apples, persimmons, and lemons) Matthew 7:16-20.

Verse 30

1) "Backbiters," (katalalous) railers, against God, godly people and things loosely, and habitually, Psalms 15:3; Proverbs 25:3; 2 Corinthians 12:20.

2) "Haters of God," (thostugeis) "God-haters," Psalms 81:15; Titus 3:3; Proverbs 10:12; Galatians 5:20,

3) "Despiteful," (hubristas) "insolent," to act with contempt toward, or take lightly, a person or concept, Proverbs 1:7; Proverbs 15:32; 1 Thessalonians 4:8.

4) "Proud," (huperephanous) "arrogant," God rebukes them Psalms 119:21; Proverbs 6:17; Proverbs 21:4; Proverbs 28:25; James 4:6, God resists them 1 Peter 5:5.

5) "Boasters," (alazonas) "boasters," braggarts of self-interest things or achievements, 2 Timothy 3:2. Used in evil and good sense, James 3:5; Psalms 44:8.

6) "Inventors of evil things," (epheuretas kakon) "Inventors of evil things," Psalms 106:29; Psalms 106:39; Ecclesiastes 7:29. Devisors and manipulators of methods of doing unrighteousness.

7) "Disobedient to parents," (Goneusin apeitheis) "disobedient toward parents," rebellious against the Divine order of Domestic peace, order, and family tranquillity and harmony, Exodus 20:12; Matthew 15:4; Mark 7:10; Ephesians 6:13; 2 Timothy 3:2. This sin shall continue till the com­ing of the Lord. Ephesians 5:6.

Verse 31

1) "With out understanding," (asunetos) "Undiscerning", uncertain, unstable, not comprehending, Ephesians 4:18; 1 Timothy 1:7.

2) "Covenant breakers," (asunthetous) "faithless," breakers of vows, pledges, and promises, not trustworthy, undependable, Genesis 17:14; Psalms 55:20; Proverbs 2:17; Isaiah 33:8; Jeremiah 22:9; Ezekiel 44:7; and truce-breakers, 2 Timothy 3:3.

3) "Without natural affection," (astorgous), "apart from natural affections," a condition to continue until the last days, 2 Timothy 3:3; Deranged moral values, and perverted affections, where men and women transfer natural affections to beasts (in despising bearing and rearing children) transferring natural human affections to beasts, Exodus 22:19; Leviticus 18:23-24.

4) "Implacable, unmerciful," (aneleemonas), Unmerciful or without mercy," not able to be placated, satisfied with anything, not showing mercy. Some are "cruel, and have no mercy," Jeremiah 6:23; But with the Lord there is mercy," Psalms 130:7; Micah 6:8.

Verse 32

1) "Who knowing the judgment of God," (oitines to dikaioma tou theou epignontes) "Who knowing the holy ordinances of God," prescribing judgment for breakers of the Law, Romans 2:2; Romans 3:19; Genesis 9:6; Genesis 26:11.

2) "That they which commit such things," (hoti hoi ta toiauta prassontes) "That those practicing such kind of things," repeatedly, habitually engaging in such rampant vices, Exodus 21:29; Exodus 35:2.

3) "Are worthy of death," (aksioi thanatou) "Are worthy of (or merit death)," as ordained in the Law, Leviticus 20:11; Leviticus 24:21; Numbers 35:30.

4) "Not only do the same," (ou monon auta poiousin) "Not only do them," in defiance of God, Matthew 27:18; Matthew 21:38; John 15:22.

5) "But have pleasure in them that do them," (alla kai suneudokousin tois prassousin) "But also consent (in colleague) to those practicing them," or become party to and join with them, giving complacent wholehearted assent to those who follow vile, vulgar, immoral, and unethical practices, who concerning punishment, turn their head the other way, Psalms 147:20; They pervert judgment, Deuteronomy 27:19; 1 Samuel 8:3; Proverbs 17:23; Proverbs 31:5; Ecclesiastes 5:8.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Romans 1". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/romans-1.html. 1985.
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