Attention!
Tired of seeing ads while studying? Now you can enjoy an "Ads Free" version of the site for as little as 10¢ a day.

Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Romans 1

Verse 1

Paul. Paul's name heads all his Epistles, except Hebrews.

servant . Greek. doulos. App-190 . Compare 2 Corinthians 4:5 .Galatians 1:1 , Galatians 1:10 . Philippians 1:1 , 1 Timothy 1:1; 1 Timothy 1:1 .

Jesus Christ . App-98 . XL

called, &c . Literally a called apostle; called at his conversion (Acts 26:17 , Acts 26:18 ).

apostle . App-189 .

separated = set apart. Greek. aphorizo. Compare Acts 13:2 ; Act 19:9 . 2 Corinthians 6:17 . Galatians 1:1 , Galatians 1:15 ; Galatians 2:12 . Note the three stages in Paul's "separation" for God's purpose: birth (Galatians 1:1 , Galatians 1:15 , Galatians 1:16 ); conversion (Acts 9:15 ); work (Acts 13:2 ).

unto . Greek. eis. App-104 .

the gospel of God: i.e. the "gospel of the grace of God" (Acts 20:24 . Compare Acts 15:7 ), not the "gospel of the kingdom". See App-140 . .

God . App-98 .

Verse 2

had . Omit.

promised afore . Greek. proepangello. Only here: epangello occurs fifteen times; always rendered "promise", save 1 Timothy 2:10 ; 1 Timothy 6:21 (professing).

Prophets . App-189 .

scriptures . Greek. graphe. Occurs fifty-one times (sing, and plural) Fourteen times by Paul, but only here with adjective hagios, holy.

Verse 3

Concerning . Greek. p eri. App-104 .

Son . Greek. huios. App-108 .

Jesus . . . Lord . In the Greek these words follow after "dead" in Romans 1:4 . Figure of speech Hyperbaton. App-6 .

Lord . App-98 .

Which was made = Who was born (Galatians 1:4 , Galatians 1:4 , Revised Version.)

seed: i.e. of David's line, but ending specifically in Mary, who was here the "seed" of David. App-99 . And Christ was "the Seed" of the woman (Genesis 3:15 .Isaiah 7:14 .Matthew 1:23; Matthew 1:23 ).

David . Compare John 7:42 . 2 Timothy 2:8 .

according to . Greek. kata . App-104 .

flesh = human nature. Greek. sarx . See Romans 9:3 , Romans 9:5 .

Verse 4

declared = marked out. Greek. horizo. See Acts 2:23 . Compare Psalms 2:7 .

Son of God . App-98 .

with power = in (Greek. en) power (Greek. dunamis. App-172 .); i.e. powerfully. Compare Philippians 3:10 .

spirit . App-101 .

holiness . Greek. hagiosune. Only here, 2Co 7:1 . 1 Thessalonians 3:13 . Nowhere in Greek. literature. It is the Genitive of apposition ( App-17 .) The expression is not to be confounded with pneuma hagion ( App-101 .) His Divine spiritual nature in resurrection is here set in contrast with His human flesh as seed of David.

resurrection . Greek. anastasis. App-178 . Compare Acts 26:23 .

from = of.

dead . App-139 . See Matthew 27:52 , Matthew 27:53 .

Verse 5

grace and apostleship . Some see here the Figure of speech Hendiadys ( App-6 ), and read "apostolic grace".

grace . Greek. charis. App-184 .

apostleship . See Acts 1:25 .

obedience to the faith = faith-obedience.

faith . App-150 .

among . Greek. en . App-104 .

nations = Gentiles. Greek. ethnos. Occurs in Romans twenty-nine times; translated "Gentiles" except here, Romans 4:17 , Romans 4:18 ; Romans 10:19 ; Romans 16:26 .

for = on behalf of. Greek. huper. App-104 .

name . See Acts 2:21 .

Verse 6

the called . Compare 1 Corinthians 1:24 .

Verse 7

all, &c.: i.e. all God's beloved ones in Rome.

beloved . Greek. agapetos. App-135 .

saints . See Acts 9:13 , and compare Psalms 16:3 .

our Father . Compare Romans 8:15 ; Galatians 1:4 , Galatians 1:6 ; and see App-98 .

the = our.

Lord . App-98 . This salutation is found in all Paul's Epistles save Hebrews and the three Pastorals, where "mercy" is added.

Verse 8

thank . See Acts 27:35 .

through . Greek. dia . App-104 .Romans 1:1 . Compare John 14:6 .

for . Greek. huper , as in Romans 1:5 , but the texts read peri , concerning ( App-104 .)

spoken of . Greek. katangello. App-121 .

throughout . Greek. en . App-104 .

world . Greek. kosmos. App-129 .

Verse 9

witness. Greek. martus ; only here in Romans. Compare 2 Corinthians 1:23 .Philippians 1:1 , Philippians 1:8 . 1Th 2:5 , 1 Thessalonians 2:10 .

serve . Greek. latreuo . App-137 and App-190 .

spirit . App-101 . Compare Philippians 1:3 , Philippians 1:3 .

the gospel of His Son . This expression only here; elsewhere, the Apostle speaks of "the gospel of Christ", 1 Corinthians 9:12 , 1 Corinthians 9:18 ; 2 Corinthians 2:12 .Philippians 1:27 . Compare 2 Corinthians 4:4 .

without ceasing , Greek. adialeiptos. Only here and 1Th 1:3 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:13 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:17 .

make mention. Compare Ephesians 1:16 . Php 1:3 . 1 Thessalonians 1:2 ; 1Th 3:6 . 2 Timothy 1:3 .Philemon 1:4 . The same expression appears in a papyrus of second cent., from the Fayoum, in a letter from a Roman soldier to his sister.

prayers . Greek. proseuche. App-134 .

Verse 10

Making request . Greek. deomai. App-134 .

if by any means . Greek. eipo s. App-118 .

might . . . journey . Greek. euodoumai. Elsewhere, 1 Corinthians 16:2 . 3 John 1:2 .

will . Greek. thelema . App-102 .

come . Greek. erchomai. App-106 .

Verse 11

long . Greek. epipothes. Elsewhere, 1 Corinthians 5:2 ; 1 Corinthians 9:14 .Philippians 1:1 , Philippians 1:8 ; Philippians 2:26 . 1 Thessalonians 3:6 . 2 Timothy 1:4 .James 4:5 . 1 Peter 2:2 .

see . App-133 .

that = in order that. Greek. hina .

impart . Greek. metadidomi. Elsewhere, Romans 12:8 . Luke 3:11 .Ephesians 4:28 . 1 Thessalonians 2:8 .

unto = to.

spiritual . Greek. pneumatikos. See 1 Corinthians 12:1 .

gift . Greek. charisma. App-184 . Compare Romans 12:6 . 1 Corinthians 12:4 , &c.

to the end . Greek. eis. App-104 .

established . Greek. sterizo. Elsewhere, Romans 16:25 .Luke 9:51 ; Luke 16:26 ; Luke 22:32 . 1Th 3:2 , 1 Thessalonians 3:13 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:17 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:3 .James 5:8 . 1 Peter 5:10 . 2 Peter 1:12 .Revelation 3:2 .

Verse 12

That is, &c . = But this (imparting some spiritual gift) is (or means) our being comforted by our mutual faith.

comforted together . Greek. sumparakaleo. Only here.

mutual = in (Greek. en) one another.

Verse 13

would, &c . First of six occurances: Romans 11:25 . 1Co 10:1 ; 1 Corinthians 12:1 . 2 Corinthians 1:8 . 1 Thessalonians 4:13 . See the positive form, 1 Corinthians 11:3 .Colossians 2:1 .

would . Greek. thelo . App-102 .

have you, &c . = that you should be ignorant. Greek. agnoeo. Compare Mark 9:32 .Luke 9:45 .

purposed . Greek. protithemi ; only here, Romans 3:25 .Ephesians 1:9 .

let = hindered. (Anglo-Saxon lettan, to delay.) Greek. kdluo ; Occurs twenty-three times (seventeen times "forbid").

other . Greek. loipos. App-124 . Paul frequently uses the significant term, "the rest", to designate the unsaved. See Romans 11:7 . Ephesians 2:3 ; Eph 4:17 . 1 Thessalonians 4:13 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:6 . See also Revelation 20:5 .

Verse 14

the . Omit.

Greeks . Greek. Hellen. See John 7:35 with John 12:20 .

Barbarians . See Acts 28:2 , Acts 28:4 .

wise . Corresponds generally to "learned".

unwise . Greek. anoetos, unintelligent. Such as the Pharisees despised (John 7:49 ). Elsewhere, Luke 24:25 .Galatians 1:3 , Galatians 1:1 , Gal 1:3 ; 1 Timothy 6:9 . Titus 3:3 .

Verse 15

as much as in me is = as for (Greek. kata. App-104 .) me.

ready . Greek. prothumos. Only here. Matthew 26:41 .Mark 14:38 .

preach the gospel . Greek. euangelizo. App-121 .

you, &c . = you also that are at (Greek. en) Rome.

Verse 16

For . This is Figure of speech Aetiologia. App-6 .

I am, &c: i.e. I count it my highest honour and glory to proclaim the gospel. Figure of speech Tapeinosis . App-6 .

ashamed . Greek. epaischunomai. Here, Romans 6:21 .Mark 8:38 . Luke 9:26 . 2 Timothy 1:8 , 2 Timothy 1:12 , 2 Timothy 1:16 . Hebrews 2:11 ; Hebrews 11:16 .

of Christ . All the texts omit.

believeth . App-150 .

first . In point of national precedence and privilege. Compare Romans 2:9 , Romans 2:10 ; Romans 8:1 , Romans 8:2 .

Greek . See Romans 1:14 . Representing all non-Jews.

Verse 17

therein = in (Greek. en) it.

the . Omit.

righteousness of God = God's righteousness.

righteousness . Greek. dikaiosune. App-191 .

revealed . Greek. apokalupto. App-106 .

from . Greek. ek . App-104 .

to . Greek. eis . App-104 . God's righteousness is revealed on the ground of faith (faith-principle) ( ek pisteos) , as the absolute condition of salvation, and is operative only for those who believe ( eis pistin) . For the use of ek pisteos , Compare Romans 3:26 , Romans 3:30 ; Romans 4:16 ; Romans 5:1 ; Romans 10:6 ; Romans 14:23 .Galatians 1:2 , Galatians 1:16 .

written . See Matthew 2:5 (first occ).

just . Greek. dikaios. App-191 .

live . Quoted from Habakkuk 2:4 . Compare Galatians 1:3 , Galatians 1:11 .Hebrews 10:38 .

Verse 18

For . In the gospel not only is God's salvation revealed, but God's wrath also, and both are the revelation of God's righteousness.

the wrath of God . This expression Occurs only here, John 3:36 . Ephesians 5:6 . Colossians 3:6 . Compare Revelation 19:15 . Referred to many times in N.T., e.g. Romans 2:5 ; Romans 5:9 ; Romans 9:22 .Matthew 3:7 . Ephesians 2:3 ; Ephesians 5:6 . Revelation 6:16 , Revelation 6:17 .

heaven . Singular. No article. See Matthew 6:10 .

against . Greek. epi , App-104 .

ungodliness . Greek. asebeia. App-128 .

unrighteousness . Greek. adikia. App-128 .

men . Greek. anthropos . App-123 .

hold = hold down, suppress. Compare 2 Thessalonians 2:6 .

the truth . Greek. alethieia, p. 1511. Compare App-175 and App-2 .

Verse 19

known . See Acts 1:19 .

manifest . Greek. phaneros. App-106 .

hath . Omit.

shewed = manifested. Greek. phaneroo. App-106 .

Verse 20

invisible . Greek. aoratos. Here, Colossians 1:15 , Colossians 1:16 , 1 Timothy 1:17 . Hebrews 11:27 .

clearly seen . Greek. katkorao. Only here.

things that are made . Greek. poiema. Only here and Ephesians 2:10 .

eternal . Greek. aidios. App-151 .

Godhead . App-98 .

so that, &c . = to the end (Greek. eis) of their being. Compare Romans 1:11 .

without excuse . Greek. anapologetos. Only here and Romans 2:1 .

Verse 21

knew . Greek. ginosko. App-132 .

glorified . Seep. 1511.

but . Emphatic.

became vain . Greek. mataioomai. Only here. Compare Acts 14:15 .

imaginations = reasonings. See Matthew 15:19 .

foolish . Greek. asunetos, as Romans 1:31 .

Verse 22

Professing, &c . = saying that they were. Greek. phasko . See Acts 24:9 .

became fools . Literally were fooled (i.e. by their perverted mind). Greek. moraino . Here, Matthew 5:13 .Luke 14:34 . 1 Corinthians 1:20 .

Verse 23

changed. Greek. allasso. see Acts 6:14 .

glory . Greek. doxa. See p. 1511.

uncorruptible . Greek. aphthartos. Here; 1 Corinthians 9:25 ; 1 Corinthians 15:52 . 1Ti 1:17 . 1 Peter 1:4 , 1 Peter 1:23 ; 1 Peter 3:4 .

image, &c. = likeness (Greek. homoioma. Here, Romans 5:14 ; Romans 6:5 ; Romans 8:3 .Philippians 1:2 , Philippians 1:7 . Revelation 9:7 ) of an image of.

image . Greek. eikon. Occurs twenty-three times; always so rendered. This is the Figure of speech Pleonasm. App-6 .

corruptible . Greek. phthartos. Here, 1Co 9:25 ; 1 Corinthians 15:53 , 1 Corinthians 15:54 ; 1Pe 1:18 , 1 Peter 1:23 .

birds, &c . In Egypt they worshipped the hawk and the ibis.

fourfooted beasts . Greek. tetrapous. See Acts 10:12 . As the bull and the cow, held by the Egyptians sacred to. Apis and Hathor (Venus); the dog to Anubis ; &c.

creeping things . Greek. herpeton. See Acts 10:12 . The asp, sacred to the gods of Egypt and found in every heathen pantheon; indeed, the worship of the serpent plays a prominent part in all forms of Paganism. The crocodile, tortoise, frog, and the well-known Scarabaeus beetle, sacred to the sun and to Pthah, and used as an emblem of the world (Wilkinson).

Verse 24

also . Omit.

gave them up . See John 19:30 .

uncleanness . Greek. akatharsia. Occurs ten times, always so rendered. The cognate word akathartes in Revelation 17:4 only. Ceasing to know God (Romans 1:21 ) results in idolatry, and idolatry ends in "filthiness of the flesh and spirit" (2 Corinthians 7:1 ).

through . App-104 .

lusts . See John 8:44 .

to dishonour, &c . = that their bodies should be dishonoured. Greek. atimazo. See Acts 5:41 .

between . Greek. en . App-104 .

Verse 25

Who = Since they.

changed . Greek. metallasso ; only here and Romans 1:26 . A stronger word than in Romans 1:23 .

the truth of God into a lie = the truth of God for the lie. Man transferred his worship from God (the Truth) to the devil. Compare John 8:44 .Ephesians 4:25 . 2 Thessalonians 2:9-11 .

a lie = the lie. Greek. to pseudos. Compare 2 Thessalonians 2:11 . The He is that Satan is man's benefactor and is to be worshipped.

worshipped . Greek. sebazomai. App-137 . Only here.

served . Greek. latreuo. App-137 and App-190 .

creature = the things created; not only sun, moon, stars, men, the animate creation, but Satan himself, the arch-enemy, who by means of his "lie" (Genesis 3:4 , Genesis 3:5 ) transferred the worship of man from the Creator to himself, the creature.

more than . Greek. para . App-104 .

blessed . Greek. eulogetos. Compare Romans 9:5 .Mark 14:61 . (The) Blessed One. Not a statement of doctrine, but a well-known Hebraism of praise to God as Creator.

for ever . App-151 . a.

Amen . See Matthew 5:18 . John 1:51 , and p. 1511.

Verse 26

For this cause = Because of ( App-104 .Romans 1:2; Romans 1:2 ) this.

vile affections = passions of infamy (Greek. atimia. Here, Romans 9:21 . 1 Corinthians 11:14 ; 1 Corinthians 15:43 . 2Co 6:8 ; 2 Corinthians 11:21 . 2 Timothy 2:20 ).

affections = passions, or lusts. Greek. pathos . Only here; Colossians 3:5 . 1 Thessalonians 4:5 .

natural . Greek. phusikos. Only here, Rom 1:27 ; 2 Peter 2:12 .

use . Greek. chresis. Only here and Romans 1:27 .

against . Greek. para. App-104 .

Verse 27

also the men = the men also.

men . App-123 .

leaving = having forsaken. App-174 .

burned = were inflamed. Greek. ekkaiomai. Only here.

lust . Greek. orexis. Only here.

toward . App-104 .

working . Greek. katergazomai. Occurs eleven times in Romans, seven in 2 Corinthians. See also James 1:3 , James 1:20 ; 1 Peter 4:3 .

that which is unseemly . Greek. aschemosune. Only here and Revelation 16:15 . Compare Genesis 19:7 .

receiving = receiving back, or in full. Greek. apolambano.

that = the.

recompence . Greek. antimisthia, retribution; only here and 2 Corinthians 6:13 .

error . Greek. plane, literally a wandering = wrong action, wickedness. Here, Matthew 27:64 .Ephesians 4:14 . 1 Thessalonians 2:3 . 2 Thessalonians 2:11 .James 5:20 . 2 Peter 2:18 ; 2Pe 3:17 . 1 John 4:6 . Jude 1:11 .

Verse 28

And even . . . mind . There is a play upon two words here, not easily expressed in Eng. "As they rejected God, God rejected them. "

did . . . like . Greek. dokimazo, to accept after testing, to approve. Compare Romans 2:18 ; Romans 12:2 ; Romans 14:22 . 1 Corinthians 9:27 .

knowledge . App-132 .

reprobate . Greek. adokimos. The negative of dokimos. Compare dokima z o , above. Here, 1Co 9:27 . 2 Corinthians 13:5 , 2 Corinthians 13:6 , 2Co 13:7 ; 2 Timothy 3:8 . Titus 1:16 . Hebrews 6:8 .

convenient . Greek. kathekon. See Acts 22:22 .

Verse 29

filled . Greek. pleroo . App-125 .

fornication . The texts omit.

wickedness Greek. poneria. App-128 .

maliciousness . Greek. kakia . App-128 .

envy = jealousy. Greek. phthonos. Compare Matthew 27:18 .

murder . Greek. phonos. Note the Paronomasia, phthonos, phonos. App-6 . See Acts 9:1 .

debate = strife.

deceit . Greek. dolos. See Acts 13:10 .

malignity . Greek. kakoetheia , literally disposition for mischief. Only here.

whisperers = calumniators. Greek. psithuristes . Only here.

Verse 30

Backbiters = evil speakers (not necessarily behind the back). Greek. katalalos. Only here. Compare 2 Corinthians 12:20 . 1 Peter 2:1 .

haters of God = hateful to God. Greek. theostuges. Only here.

despiteful = insolent. Greek. hubristes. Only here and 1 Timothy 1:13 .

proud . Greek. huperephanos. Here, Luk 1:51 . 2 Timothy 3:2 . Jam 4:6 . 1 Peter 5:6 .

boasters . Greek. alazon. Only here and 2 Timothy 3:2 .

inventors . Greek. epheuretes. Only here.

evil . Greek. kakos . App-128 .

disobedient . See Acts 26:19 .

Verse 31

Without understanding . Greek. asunetos. See Romans 1:21 . Note the Paronomasia with next word. App-6 .

covenantbreakers . Greek. asunthetos. Only here.

without natural affection . Greek. astorgos. Only here and 2 Timothy 3:3 .

implacable . The texts omit.

unmerciful = pitiless. Greek. aneleemon. Only here.

Verse 32

knowing . Greek. epiginosko. App-132 .

judgment = righteous sentence. Greek. dikaioma. App-177 .

commit = practise.

have pleasure in = consent also to. See Acts 8:1 .

do . Same as "commit", above. This list of heathen iniquities is the Figure of speech Synathroesmos. App-6 .

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Romans 1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/romans-1.html. 1909-1922.