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1:1 called (f-7) 'A called apostle,' i.e. an apostle by (divine) calling. Cf. ver. 7 'called saints,' and see note there.
9:3 brethren, (b-16) I apprehend, in the apostle's mind the phrase 'for my brethren' is connected with both 'pain in my heart' and 'a curse from Christ;' he parenthetically states how far his heart had gone for Israel, and then continues the phrase. This want of strict continuation of grammatical structure is very common with the apostle from the ardour of his style, and only adds force to what he says. He had loved them as much as Moses. (Exodus 32:32 .) His pain was continuous. but the wish, 'to be a curse,' was like that of Moses, a moment's earnest appeal, as beside himself.
9:4 adoption, (c-7) As ch. 8.23. service, (d-19) As latreuo . See Note l to Matthew 4:10 .
9:5 all, (e-18) 'Who is over all' is emphatic. he exists and subsists as such. It may be translated also 'is' or 'exists God over all.'
9:7 thee. (f-20) See Genesis 21:12 .
9:9 promise, (g-6) See Genesis 18:10 . Sarah. (h-21) The apostle's object is, not to state what the word of promise is, but that the word he quotes, on which all depended, is a matter of promise.
9:12 her, (i-5) See Genesis 25:23 .
9:13 written, (k-5) See Malachi 1:2 .
9:15 Moses, (l-5) See Exodus 33:19 .
9:17 Pharaoh, (m-6) See Exodus 9:16 . thus (n-22) I have said 'that I might thus ' because the word translated 'that' does not signify the ultimate end, but the means or way of doing it. The same word is translated 'so that' in the next clause.
9:25 Hosea, (a-6) See Hosea 2:23 .
9:26 God. (b-28) See Hosea 1:10 .
9:27 Israel, (c-5) See Isaiah 10:22 ,Isaiah 10:23 .
9:29 before, (d-6) See Isaiah 1:9 .
9:30 righteousness, (e-16) As ch. 5.21, dikaiosune , and so to ch. 10.10.
9:32 of (f-13) 'As of works.' Ek , here translated 'of,' is translated 'on the principle of' in chs. 1.17; 5.1; 9.32. But this sense is clearer here in having simply 'of' after the 'as,' and the sentence less encumbered. stumblingstone, (g-20) Christ is the stumblingstone, as Paul goes on to explain.
9:33 written, (h-5) See Isaiah 8:14 and 28.16.
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Darby, John. "Commentary on Romans 9". "John Darby's Synopsis of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29