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Bible Commentaries
Romans 11

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1


1) “I say therefore," (lego oun) "Therefore I logically say what I say;" I conclude - Paul had shown four things 1) that God had not pledged eternal life unconditionally to all Abraham’s seed, 2) that God was sovereign in mercy grants, 3) that the Old Dispensation was for the purpose of preparing for the later, and that 4) Faith of the Gentiles and unbelief of the Jews was foretold in the Old Testament.

2) "Hath God cast away his people?" (me aposato ho theos ton laon autou) "God has not set aside his people, has he?" The casting off of "his people," the Jews, it has been maintained, and is to be further shown, is not to be forever. It is a long chastening for them as God’s unfaithful wife, not an eternal abandonment, Jeremiah 3:1-14; Amos 9:8-9. As an adulterous wife, natural Israel now has a bill of divorcement.

3) "God forbid," (me genaito) May it not be so assumed;" God will not cast off or abandon his chosen nation forever, Psalms 94:14, though he did and has cut them off for a time of national chastisement, among the nations, as he warned them in their law, Deuteronomy 28:15-68.

4) "For I am an Israelite," (kai gar ego Israelites eimi) "For even I am an Israelite," both nationally and spiritually, a true Israelite, which means "man of God;" If he cut off, even all national Israel forever, he would even cut me off, Paul is asserting. He is an Israelite, a man of God by faith in Jesus Christ, Romans 4:16.

5) "Of the seed of Abraham," (ek spermatos Abraam) "Out of the natural seedline of Abraham"; as such he had the future hope of the restoration of national Israel, as well as a national Jewish heritage. In this he took Holy pride and expressed it, 2 Corinthians 11:22; Acts 26:4-5.

6) "Of the tribe of Benjamin," (phules Beniamin) "Of the tribe (file) of Benjamin," circumcised, marked, and identified as an Israelite of the stock of Israel, tribe of Benjamin, and an Hebrew of the Hebrews, of national descent, Philippians 3:5; Acts 23:1-6.

Tho Israel as a nation was unfaithful to God he abides faithful to his oft-repeated promises that they should possess a fixed land-grant territory in peace and he would send His Son to reign over them. That Israel has not been cut off or set aside forever is the theme of this chapter: Genesis 15:18; Genesis 17:7-8; Luke 1:32-33.

Verse 2

1) "God has not cast away," (ouk aposato ho theos) God has not discarded, set aside forever, or abandoned;" This is a positive reply to the "cast away" question Paul raised in Romans 11:1. The answer is a positive, absolute, "no"! Romans 11:29.

2) "His people whom he foreknew," (ton laon autou he proegno) "The people of him, those (national Israel) whom he foreknew," Romans 8:29; his people whom he knew beforehand, in the sense that he gave to them the Law and made custodians of his worship and service for so long a time, Romans 3:1-2.

3) "Wot ye not what the scripture saith of Elias?" (e ouk didate en Elia ti legei he graphe); "Do you all not comprehend, perceive, or realize what the scripture says in Elias?" or with regards or reference to Elias, in giving the history of Elias.

4) "How he maketh intercession to God," (hos entugchanei to theo) "How he supplicates to or toward God;" pleads with God against Israel, in the sense that he plead with him in bringing charges against Israel for her slaying God’s prophets, forsaking his covenant, and destroying his altars, 1 Kings 19:10.

5) "Against Israel, saying," (kata tou Israel); "How in behalf of Israel, against her enemies, he supplicates," as follows:

Verse 3

1 ) "Lord, they have killed thy prophets," (kurie, tous prophetas sou apekteinan) "Lord they have killed, cut down or slain thy prophets," the prophets that belonged to you, or your true prophets. National Israel in obstinate disobedience to God, in her own land had apostatized to the point that she slew her own prophets, who stood for truth and right according to the law, Acts 7:52; Matthew 21:35; 1 Thessalonians 2:14-15.

2) "And digged down thine altars," (ta thusiasteria sou kateskapsan) "Thine altars (sacrifice places) they have also digged down," or leveled to the ground, debased or desecrated, destroyed, shown contempt for the messages true prophets preached around the sacrifice altars. Isaiah 53:4-11; Acts 10:43; 1 Kings 19:14; 1 Kings 19:18; 2 Chronicles 36:14-18; These were people of national Israel who desecrated, debased, and destroyed God’s people and work.

3) "And I am left alone," (kago hupeleipthen monos) "And I was left behind, forlorn, or alone," much as Paul was later in the Roman prison, and as Jesus was when under trial, all forsook him and fled, 2 Timothy 1:15; 2 Timothy 4:10-11; 2 Timothy 4:16; Matthew 26:56; Mark 14:50; and the servant is not greater than his Lord, John 15:20.

4) "And they seek my life," (kai zetousin ten puchen mou) "And they seek (search for me), my life," or the soul of me, to destroy or kill me.

Verse 4

1) "But what saith the answer of God to him?" (alla ti legei auto ho chrematismos) "But what says the Divine response (or what does God say), replying to him?" When Elias, had come to the conclusion that he was the only true witness God had left, and said so, God rebuked him. Note, great and good men, by isolation, can become super-pious and develop a, wrong spirit or disposition, measuring all others by themselves, and assuming unknown things with wild, evil imaginations, Genesis 8:21; Romans 12:3.

2) “I have reserved to myself seven thousand men," (katelipon emauto heptakischilious andras) "I reserved seven thousands of men to myself," to my care, use, or service. God oversees his own irrevocable covenants and men are to have faith that what he has promised to, and in Israel, he is able and will perform, as surely as what he has promised every Gentile believer, and every member of our Lord’s church, Romans 4:21; Hebrews 10:19-25; Matthew 16:18-19; Matthew 28:20; Ephesians 3:21; 2 Corinthians 11:2; Revelation 19:5-9.

3) "Who have not bowed the knee to Baal," (oitines ouk ekampsan gonu te Baal) "Ones who bowed not even a knee to Baal"; The 3 Hebrew children and Daniel did not bow to "kiss a calf," or even the Idol of Nebuchadnezzar, 1 Kings 19:18; Daniel 3:16-18; Daniel 3:25-26. To bow down to an idol was for the purpose of "kissing it" as a pledge of sincere heart and emotional allegiance to the idol or imaginary god it symbolized, a thing forbidden in the scriptures, Exodus 20:4-5; Hosea 8:5-6; Hosea 13:2. To kiss the idol calf was blasphemy against God in Israel and before the World, Psalms 115:5-9.

To "kiss a calf," may seem repulsive to true Christians, as it should be, but it is no less idolatry to kiss the toe of a statute of Peter, a pope, or some other fallible man, see? Read again Exodus 20:4-5; 1 Kings 19:18 Hosea 13:2; Romans 14:11-12; Acts 4:12; Colossians 3:17.

Verse 5

1) "Even so then," (houtos own kai) "Just like this also," or even so, in like manner; this is the same phrase used in John 3:14, "even so must the Son of Man be lifted up"; and the thing hereafter set forth is just as true and correct.

2) "At this present time," (en to nun kairo) "in the present and ongoing time, period, or season," the Gentile or church time, age, period or dispensation.

3) "Also there is a remnant according to the election of grace," (leimma kat’ eklogen charitos gegonen) "There has become (or come to be, to exist) a remnant according to or based on the outreason - purpose - or provision of grace," which has appeared or been made manifest to, toward, or in behalf of all men, Titus 2:11. God provided it for all men and each who accepts it becomes a spiritual Israelite (man or child of God) according to or based on God’s own will, purpose, and provision of redemption; 1) First every believer in Christ becomes a person of the election of grace, when he believes; 2) Second, every believer, of the election of grace individually, becomes a member of (the elect, the church), called from among the Gentiles for his names sake, when he is baptized and becomes a covenant member of a church congregation to carry on the worship and service of God, and 3).Third, natural Israel, the Jews, are spoken of as God’s elect, his wife, now given a bill of divorcement, put away among the Gentiles, till the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled. This is in essence a statement of the nature, purpose, and fulfillment of God’s foreordination, predestination, election, and callings set forth in his Old Testament and New Testament covenants, in relationship to the redemption and restitution of all things to his glory thru Jesus Christ.

Verse 6

1) "And if by grace," (ei de chanti) "and (moreover) if it, (the remnant) is or exists by grace"; and it does, by God’s unmerited favors. Both 1) the spiritual Israel, as a remnant of redeemed, baptized, covenant church workers, and 2) the existence of a remnant of national, Jewish Israel exist by God’s grace today.

2) "it is no more of works," (ouketi eks ergon) "Then it does not at all exist out of works, or have it’s being from overt deeds or works. Regeneration and preservation in salvation or a place of church, individual, or national service to God, are not initiated or do not have their origin in works of men or the law, Titus 3:5.

3) "Otherwise grace is no more grace," (epei he choris ouketi ginetai charis) "Since the grace no more becomes or exists (as) grace," if the remnant has its origin or existence, in any manner by means, instrument, or agency of moral, ethical, social or religious deeds or works, or if one is regenerated by works, grace is a farce, does not exist!

4) "But if it be of works, then it is no more grace"; The better Gk, manuscripts omit this and the following clause, though the idea is set forth in the verse previously. The conclusion of Paul, the inspired logician of legal mind, is that grace and works no more mix to obtain salvation than oil and water mix.

5) "Otherwise work is no more work"; It is incontestably set forth in the scriptures that neither Jew nor Gentile was ever saved or purposed to be saved (redeemed) either by works or any mixture of his works and God’s grace, a position abhorrent to the scriptures and to the holiness of God.

While moral standards, ethical conduct, and religious services, were to be rendered under the law, none was for the purpose of obtaining redemption or reconciliation with God, but to witness that one needed such, Isaiah 1:18; Isaiah 53:4-11; Isaiah 55:6-7; Acts 10:43; Romans 4:4-8; Romans 4:16.

Verse 7


1 ) "What then?" (ti oun) (What therefore); How is the present situation of national, unbelieving Israel to be described in context of God’s sovereignty, covenants, commands, and mercies?

2) "Israel hath not obtained," (touto ouk epetuchen Israel) "This (objective) Israel obtained not," or has not (as yet) obtained, an earthly kingdom in peace and righteousness, for which she sought thru law-keeping, while rejecting the giver of righteousness, who came to fulfill the law, Romans 9:31; Romans 10:3-4; None will be in God’s future righteous kingdom, except he be born again first, John 3:3; John 3:5.

3) "That which he seeketh for"; (ho epizetei Israel) "What Israel seeks after"; Pursuing their own self righteousness they rejected Him who was made righteousness for them, to be accepted by and imputed to each by faith in Jesus Christ, Romans 4:4-8; Romans 4:16; 2 Corinthians 5:1.

4) "But the election hath obtained it," (he de ekloge epetuchen) "Yet the outreasoned or purposed has obtained it"; those who received the Grace that was personified and manifested in Jesus Christ, John 1:11-14. The few, of the Jews, who received Jesus at his coming are referred to as the election, those who received and confessed him, many of whom were baptized, helped begin his church, Matthew 4:13-20; Acts 1:21-23.

5) "And the rest were blinded," (hoi de loipoi eporothesan) "And the remaining (the hesitating, loitering, procrastinating ones) were hardened;" because they would not believe, Romans 9:31-32; Romans 10:3; 2 Corinthians 4:3-4. The hardening of the willfully unbelieving was as a result of their of obdurate choice of rejecting God’s will and call to them, 2 Peter 3:9; Proverbs 1:22-30.

Verse 8

1 ) "According as it is written," (kathaper gegraptai) "Just as it has been written"; Israel’s dispersion had been foretold and Paul considered that in their dispersion and rejection of Christ certain scriptures were fulfilled, Isaiah 6:9; Psalms 69:24-27.

2) "God hath given them the spirit of slumber," (edoken autois hotheos pneuma katanukseos) "God gave them (the hesitating, procrastinating) a spirit of torpor or slumber," Isaiah 29:10-14; Psalms 69:23. This spirit of stupor is not sent arbitrarily or unjustly from the Lord, but after frequent, often reproof, Proverbs 29:1 ; Acts 7:51.

3) "Eyes that they should not see," (ophthalmous tou me Blepein) Eyes of heaviness (he gave them) that they might not actively keep seeing, as they once did prior to their willful loitering, hesitating, procrastinating obedience to his call and pleas to them, Jeremiah 5:21.

4) "And ears that they should not hear" (kai ota tou me akouein) "And ears not to keep hearing, as they heard before their loitering, hesitating, and procrastination to obey his voice and heed his call, Ezekiel 12:2; John 12:37-43.

5) "Unto this day," (heos tes semeron hemeras) "Until the present day," the day of Paul’s writing Deuteronomy 29:4; and to a great degree until this day of their continuing blindness, deafness, and rebellion in following their blinded and deafened forefathers who rejected Jesus Christ, in and thru whom God’s Grace appeared to, toward, or in behalf of all men, John 1:14; John 1:17; Titus 2:11. Blind eyes, hardened hearts, and deaf ears are the heritage of national Israel, and shall continue till the Gentile and church era are finished, Romans 11:25-26; 2 Corinthians 4:3-4.

Verse 9

1) "And David saith," (kai David legei) "And David says," speaks as follows, regarding this matter. Note Paul was not only inspired but also one who verified or documented revealed truth when it was in harmony with previously prophesied truth on the same or a similar subject; the quotation is from.

2) "Let their table be made a snare," (genetheto he trapeza auto eis pagida) "Let their (own) table become a snare or entrapment (like a spider’s web) unto them"; Depending on the passover and other feasts and devotions to make them righteous, by their own deeds, ceremonial and ritual efforts, Israel was snared like a bird, fish, or wild animal, Romans 10:3; Titus 3:5; Deuteronomy 32:13-15.

3) "And a trap," (kai eis theran) "And for an entangling net," as a net that traps fish, fowls, or animals; at the tables where they lingered in gluttony and often sensual conduct; Isaiah 5:4-7; the trap signifies a sudden destruction. The Law misunderstood became an entrapment to the Jews, Mark 7:1-13.

4) "And a stumblingblock," (kai eis skandalon) "And for a scandal unto them," or an occasion for their stumbling; The fate or judgment of natural Israel is not the consequence of any unconditional decree of God, but Divine judgment of which God forewarned Israel as a result of her willful disobedience, Deuteronomy 28:1-68.

5) "And a recompence unto them," (kai eis antapodoma autois) "And for a recompence (just done, just and fair payment) to them," because of their willful, hesitating, loitering, procrastinating, disobeying, and turning away from the overtures of God’s Grace-call, first to them, Romans 10:21; Acts 4:11-12; John 1:11-12; John 8:24; Romans 9:32.

Verse 10

1) "Let their eyes be darkened," (skotisthetosan hoi ophthalmoi auton tou) "Let, their eyes become darkened," This is what is termed an "imprecable prayer" of David to God, praying judgment upon a willfully disobedient Israel, Proverbs 29:1, that they might become utterly blinded to holiness and truth.

2) "That they may not see", (me blepein) "that they may not keep on seeing - or may not see"; that their sight, vision, might become darkened by Divine Judgment. They who close their eyes to the light of God, turn their ears away from the commands and voice of God, and harden their hearts and resist the spirit’s call will one day be brought to serious judgment, without excuse, Proverbs 1:24-26; Proverbs 1:29-30.

3) "And bow down their back alway " (kai ton noton auton dia pantos sugkampson) "And let their willful rebellion against, and disobedience to, a rejection of the offered Grace of God to them;

One may willfully sin against God, sowing to the flesh, and going on in know wickedness and rejection against God, so that nothing is left to him but Divine punishment or retribution, Galatians 6:7-8; Ecclesiastes 12:13-14; Isaiah 1:15; Jeremiah 7:16; Jeremiah 11:14.

As one who willfully broke the ten commandments knowing each breaker was to be put to death, and committed the sin unto death, from which prayer was not to release them, even so nations and individuals may so sin against God that prayers by or for them will no longer avail; Such sin is called a sin or pursuit of "sin unto death," 1 John 5:16; Deuteronomy 9:14; Deuteronomy 9:24-28; The rich man is hell prayed, but it was too late, Luke 16:19-31; Romans 14:11-12; Romans 3:19.

Verse 11

1 ) "I say then," (lego oun) "Therefore I say, assert, or affirm," the proposition of Israel’s fall, blindness, deafness, being cut off, set aside as a nation from performing God’s work and worship for a season.

2) "Have they stumbled that they should fall?" (me eptaisan hina pesosin); "Have they (not) stumblei-for the purpose (in order that) they might fall?" God does not plan, fix, or decree the fall or judgment of any man or nation, without first calling him or them to truth and right. Man’s stumbling and fall, individually and nationally, does not surprise God or cause his nature to change. All things work "together," not separately to or toward God’s glory, even the fall of men and nations, Romans 8:28.

3) "God forbid," (me genoito) "May it not be so concluded," on the basis of the righteousness of God, who is righteous "in all his ways," Psalms 19:9; Psalms 119:137; Jeremiah 12:1-8.

4) "But rather through their fall," (alla to auton paraptomati) "But by means of their trespass," their imposition on the longsuffering, goodness, and forbearance of God, Romans 2:4-7; Romans 10:21; through national Israel’s fall - apostasy from his call, that ended in their being driven in blindness among all nations, Luke 21:1 to Luke 24:53.

5) "Salvation is come unto the Gentiles", (he soteria tois ethnesin) "Salvation came to the heathen, races, nations, or masses of humanity". The responsibility to bear the message of personal salvation and redemption, that Israel once had, has now come, through Israel’s fall, to the church, called from among the Gentiles, Romans 1:15-16; John 20:21.

6) "For to provoke them to jealousy", (eis to parazelosai autous) "in order to provoke them (national Israel) to jealousy;" Acts 13:46-47; Acts 22:18; Acts 22:21; Acts 28:24; Acts 28:28.

Verse 12

1) "Now if the fall of them," (ei deto paraptoma auton) "Yet if their trespass," their imposition on the will of God for them, their apostasy that led them to be cast off, for a time.

2) "Be the riches of the world," the world-order, is for all the world’s benefit, and it has been, Ephesians 2:12; Ephesians 4:18. The unsearchable riches of Christ are preached to the world, occasioned by Israel’s fall.

3) "And the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles," (kai to hettema auton ploutos ethnon) "and the defect or (defection) of them (their turning their back, as a nation of God) is the (source of) the riches of the Gentiles," the Gentile season or times of the Gentiles; Ephesians 2:4-5; Ephesians 2:7; as surely as the Gentiles have benefited thru the fall of Israel, they shall also partake of a store of riches in store for both them and Israel, at her restoration. Even the church shall honor Christ and serve him in that golden restoration era, Luke 22:29-30; Ephesians 3:21.

4) "How much more their fulness," (poso mallon to pleroma auton) "by how much more their fulness?" When Jesus returns to sit on David’s Throne and rule over the House of Israel, and all nations, Luke 1:32-33; Psalms 72:8-11; Isaiah 46:6-8; Isaiah 60:3; to restore the nation of Israel, the remnant to former glory and praise to God, Zechariah 2:10-11; Zechariah 8:7-8; Zechariah 8:13; Zechariah 8:22-23.,

The riches in each instance used in this verse refers, to both temporal and eternal benefits that come to those who receive the gospel, as in 2 Corinthians 8:9.

Verse 13

1) "For I speak to you Gentiles," (humin de lego tois ethnesin) "Yet I speak to you, the Gentiles"; Paul, both a national and spiritual Israelite, as a called and commissioned apostle to the Gentiles, addressed the Roman brethren as Gentiles who were located in Rome, the then center of the one world Gentile Roman Empire.

2) "Inasmuch as I am the apostle of the Gentiles," (eph’ hoson men oun eimi ego ethon apostolos) "Inasmuch as I am, 0 exist as) an apostle of the Gentiles, of the nations, races, or masses, beyond national Israelites. The term "apostle" means "one sent out with authority of administration, or one commissioned;" Paul was specially called of the Lord, commissioned to the Gentiles, Acts 9:15; Acts 22:21; Acts 26:15-20; Galatians 2:7-8; Paul was not only called by the Lord to be a preacher to the Gentiles but he was also ordained and sent (commissioned) by church authority, Acts 13:2-4; 1 Timothy 2:7-8; Ephesians 3:7-8; Ephesians 3:10.

3) “I magnify mine office", (ten diakonian mou doksazo) "I magnify my ministry," as an apostle, and the office of administration to which I have been called, and chosen, and sent. From the above passages of reference it is evident that Paul was called and ordained a preacher, 2) commissioned or sent forth as a missionary, by church authority, 3) to serve as a minister and a witness of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles world, as an apostle born "out of due season", one who was not either baptized by John the Baptist or did not witness the entire public ministry of Christ, as was required of the twelve apostles, 1 Corinthians 15:7-10; Acts 1:17-22.

The office Paul magnified was that of the church, the office of apostleship, in which he was placed and sent out, commissioned by the church, Matthew 28:18-20; Acts 13:4. God did the sending of Paul, but he did it thru the church to whom he had delivered all authority, in administration of his worship and service. As a minister, a witness, a preacher, and an administrative apostle in teaching, in disputing, in writing, in soul-winning, and in fund-raising, he magnified his office.

Verse 14

1) "If by any means," (ei pos) "If somehow," by some deed of service, witnessing, disputing, teaching, preaching, and writing, --this phrase breathes compassion for the lost.

2) “I may provoke to emulation," (parazelose) "I may provoke to jealousy," arouse, awake, or excite to personal concern, care or conviction; He knew that God’s spirit aroused and awakened him,, perhaps, beginning with the mighty message and witness of Stephen, as he stood by consenting to and encouraging his stoning to death Acts 7:54-58; Acts 9:1-7; Acts 9:15.

3) "Them which are my flesh," (mou ten sarka) Those of my flesh," of the natural seed of Abraham. This care and compassion he often reflected in his writings and preaching, Romans 1:16; Romans 9:1-3; Romans 10:1-4.

4) "And might save some of them," (kai soso tinas eks auton) "And save some out from among them" that he might by "all means save some," or be instrumental at least in saving some, 1 Corinthians 9:20-23; Of the natural seed of Abraham who had nationally rejected the Savior, branded him as an impostor, Paul desired to be used at least to save some. If one have not compassion for the salvation of his own family flesh, how can he for others! Moses did, Paul did, and Jesus did. Little wonder that the Baptist Church covenant pledges each church member "to seek the salvation of our kindred and acquaintance," Psalms 126:5-6; John 4:35-38.

Verse 15

1) "For if the casting away of them," (ei gar he apobole auton) "For if the casting away, casting off, or cutting them away;" the cutting off of the Jews from administering God’s worship and service program, Matthew 23:37-39.

2) "Be the reconciling of the world, " (katallage kosmou) "Is reconciliation of the world order", or exists in, and because of their cold and bold rejection of God’s gift of reconciliation for the whole world;- Yes, good men would not have slain their own redeemer, but Israel did, and God overruled it for universal good, 1 Thessalonians 2:14-15; Romans 8:28.

3) "What shall the reconciling of them be," (tis he proslempsis) "What shall the reception," future reconciliation, or restoration of them to God’s favor (be).

4) "But life from the dead," (ei me zoe ek nekron) Except life from (out of) the dead, as dead corpses. This concerns the restoration of life to Israel’s "dry bones," described by Ezekiel so aptly, Ezekiel 36:24-38; Ezekiel 37:1-14. Israel was told by the Lord that "these bones should rise again... and they will, Isaiah 26:16-19.

Verse 16

1) "For if the firstfruit be holy," (ei de he aparche hagia) "And (moreover) if the firstfruit (is) holy," exists as a holy fruit, and it does, sanctified, and set apart, as Israel was called as a holy people. Their land was to be sanctified, the people, and their cattle and the firstfruits of their crops, Numbers 15:19-21.

2) "The lump is also holy," (kai to phurama) "The lump is also holy," sanctified, or set apart, though now set apart, cut off to chastisement till the time of the Gentiles be fulfilled, Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 14:21; Deuteronomy 26:19; Deuteronomy 28:9; Daniel 12:7.

3) "And if the root be holy," (kai ei he hriza hagia) "And if the root (is) holy" sanctified, set apart; the root-stock of Abraham, and it was, made holy by Abraham’s believing the gospel and God’s imputing it to him for righteousness, Galatians 3:6-8; James 2:23.

4) "So are the branches", (kai hoi kladoi) "The branches (are) also holy, sanctified, or set apart;" the offspring, those springing forth of the faith of Abraham, Genesis 15:6; Galatians 3:8; Romans 4:16. After Abraham was saved he was called, commissioned, and obeyed God by going into a land that was later promised to him and his posterity.

Verse 17

1) "And if some of the branches be broken off," (ei de tines ton kladon ekelasthesan) "Yet, if some of the branches were broken off"; a part of national Israel, in fact the greater part, and they were, Matthew 23:37-39.

2) "And thou, being a wild olive tree," (su de agrillaios on) "And thou being or existing (as) a wild olive"; the Gentiles of Rome, Gentile Christians, or believers who were Gentiles by natural birth. They were grafted into spiritual Israel, when they believed, John 1:11-12.

3) "Wert graffed in among them", (enekentristhes en autois) "Wast grafted in among them"; found an intimate place or position among true believers, who from among the Jews accepted Christ, were saved, baptized and helped constitute his church, as saved Jews, called from among the Gentiles in Galilee, Matthew 4:13-20; Acts 10:37.

4) "And with them partakest;”- (Kai sugkoinonos egenou) "And in close affinity with them did become a common partaker, a sharing one with them"; not only of salvation which came of the Jews, by Jesus Christ, John 4:22; but also with the first Christian Jews who were members of our Lord’s church, who were promised positions of ruling and reigning with the Christ, in his coming reign on earth, over Israel, Luke 22:29-30; Romans 8:17-18.

5) "Of the root and fatness of the olive tree," (tes hrizes tes piotetes tes elaias) "Of the root of the fatness by the olive tree"; the root refers to God’s pledge to Abraham that his offspring should possess the promised land in peace and their Lord would reign in it over them in a prosperous way, a manner of fatness, plenty, etc., a matter that is surely yet to be fulfilled, Isaiah 2:2-5; Luke 1:32-33; 1 Corinthians 15:25; Hebrews 1:8; Revelation 5:9-10.

Verse 18

1 ) "Boast not against the branches," (me katakaucho ton kladon) "boast not against or (of) the branches"; against the branches that have been taken off -- that had been severed from positions of Divine Religious trust and service.

2) "But if thou boast," (ei de katakauchasai) "But if thou boastest;- you are only a branch, supported by the root for "Salvation is (exists) of (originating of) the Jews," John 4:22.

3) "Thou bearest not the root," (ou su ten hrizan Bastazeis) Thou bearest (bringest forth) not the root"; you are not the cause, occasion, or originator of your own salvation, position of service, or rewards. Israel (national) is the root that brought forth the savior of all and head and founder of the church, John 4:22; Matthew 16:18; Acts 20:28; Ephesians 1:21-23.

4) "But the root thee," (alla he hriza se) "But the root didst give birth or life existence to thee;" Romans 4:16. Life of the new olive branch comes from the root and vine of the old; without vital faith, heart belief in Jesus, one may do nothing for God, John 15:5; He that has or holds Jesus (by faith), has life eternal, John 5:12.

As a branch may be on the vine, draw physical life from the vine, but bear no fruit because it is a water-branch, (sucker) with no heart-connections, therefore not abide in the vine; even so, many of Israel had natural connections with Israel, but no vital heart connection, like that of believing Abraham; Romans 4:1-8; Romans 4:14; Galatians 3:6-8; John 15:1-27.

One may rejoice in his salvation but not boast about it, for he neither receives it or retains it by personal merit of his being or his words, Romans 3:27-28; Titus 3:5; Ephesians 2:8-10.


There is a counterfeit olive-tree in Palestine. It is called the wild olive, or the oleaster. It is in all points like the genuine tree, except that it yields no fruit. Are there not many such in the Church? When I see one taking up a large space in Christ’s spiritual orchard, absorbing a vast deal of sunlight and soil, pruned by chastisement and enriched by privilege, yet yielding no real fruit, "Ah," I say, "there is an oleaster."

Verse 19

1) "Thou wilt say then", (ereis oun) "Thou wilt therefore say," or conclude then --concerning the matter or proposition that --- Isaiah 55:8-9. But wait, don’t draw hasty, proud conclusions, Paul would warn, for man’s thoughts are not God’s thoughts.

2) "The branches were broken off"; (ekseklasthesan kladoi) "Branches were broken off, set aside, removed, because of a prefixed decree of God? This is still the hasty and unwarranted conclusion of too many in this age too.

3) "That I might be graffed in", (hina ego egkentristho) "In order that I might be graffed in"; In egotism the Gentile also may look to his moral goodness for position of being graffed into the plan, purpose, and work of God. There is no superiority in person of being in Gentiles over Jews that merits their being graffed in. They have what they have solely by the mercy and grace of God, Acts 3:19; Acts 10:43; Acts 17:30-31; Romans 1:14-16, Titus 2:11-14.

Verse 20

1) "Well," (kalos), very well, good, a proper conclusion this is, -- yet be reminded that there was a moral cause of default in Israel that also led to their being cut off, not merely that Gentiles might be graffed in.

2) "Because of unbelief they were broken off," (te apistia ekseklasthesan) "For unbelief they were broken off, set aside, or cut away from doing God’s work. Because of moral, ethical, and spiritual self -righteousness and obstinate unbelief, rejection of Jesus Christ they were cut off, rejected, Matthew 23:37-39; John 5:43; Romans 12:16; John 8:24.

3) "And thou standest by faith," (su de pistei hestekas) "And thou standest by the faith," Faith in Jesus Christ always gives man a standing with God in salvation and to useful service, Galatians 3:26; Romans 5:1; Ephesians 2:8-10; Romans 4:16.

4) "Be not highminded," (me hupsela phronei) "Be not a highminded one," one with pride, egotism of position or possession of what you are or have, as if it had its origin, existence, and being in you, Galatians 6:14; Philippians 3:3; Philippians 3:7-8. Do not have fleshly pride in your new position, lest you too be cut off thereby, 1 Peter 5:5; Romans 3:27.

5) "But fear," (alla phobou) "But fear", be a person of reverential fear with regards to your possession and position in Christ, his church, and his future kingdom work. This is to be a reverential fear, for God has not given us the spirit of anxious fear, Ecclesiastes 12:13-14; Romans 8:15; 1 Timothy 6:17.

Verse 21

1) "For if God spared not the natural branches", (ei gar ho theos ton kata Phusin kladon ouk epheisato) "Because if God did not spare the natural branches," in their rebellion against and rejection of him as savior, and he did not spare them his chastening judgment; The natural or native branches were those Jews interested only in the physical aspects or fulfillment of the Abrahamic covenant, and they were not spared, Luke 13:34-35; Luke 19:41-44.

2) "Take heed lest he also spare not thee," (oude sou pheisetai) "Neither will he spare thee"; The warning "take heed" is here first directed to the church at Rome, to whom the letter was addressed, and second to the church as an institution, inclusive of each true church of the Lord, as also expressed by John to the Seven Churches of Asia, Revelation 2:1 to Revelation 3:22.

The implication and warning is that pride, self -righteousness, and complacency or indifference to the Word and will of God may cause his church, called from among the Gentiles as a people for his name’s sake, to be cut off from his blessings, and lose her candlestick, or influence. Matthew 4:13-20; Matthew 5:15-16; Acts 15:13; and be spewed out of his mouth, Revelation 2:5; Revelation 3:15-19.

Verse 22

1) "Behold therefore the goodness and severity of God," (ide oun chrestoteta kai apotomian theou) "Behold or perceive thou therefore (the) kindness and severity of God;" the kindness or goodness of God by grafting you, the Gentiles, in and the severity of God in cutting off Israel, as a nation because they rejected his covenant, Exodus 24:6-8; Psalms 1:1-6.

2) "On them which fell, severity," (epi men tous pesontas apotomia) "upon the ones on one hand severity has fallen," the Christ-rejecting nation of Israel, in abandoning them among all nations, Luke 21:24; Daniel 12:7.

3) "But toward thee goodness," (epi de se chrestotes theou) "Upon thee, on the other hand, kindness of God has fallen, or come down"; on the Gentiles in general and the church in particular, called from among the Gentiles as people for his names’ sake, Matthew 4:13-20; Acts 15:13; Acts 10:37; Matthew 28:18-20.

4) "If thou continue in his goodness"; (ean epimenes te chrestoteti) "if thou continuest, keepest on in the way of his kindness," in doing what he has commissioned you to do, John 20:21; John 3:17; Luke 19:10; Matthew 28:18-20; Acts 1-8. As he "went about doing good," the will of his Father so should his people today, Acts 10:38; John 15:14.

5) "Otherwise thou also shalt be cut off," (epei kai su ekkopese) "Since thou also wilt be cut off, one day," when the time of the Gentiles is fulfilled, Romans 11:26; John 15:2; 1 Corinthians 15:2; Hebrews 3:6; Hebrews 3:14. The things written of Israel were for our profit, good, and warning, 1 Corinthians 10:5-6; 1 Corinthians 10:11-12.

Verse 23

1) "And they also", (kakeinoi de) "and those also," and even those, national Israel, Isaiah 2:1-5; Daniel 12:1-12.

2) "If they abide not still in unbelief," (ean me epimenosin the apistia) "if they go not on, continue, or linger not in unbelief," if they repent and return, unless they remain on in their unbelief. The willful hardening described Romans 11:7-10 is not to be taken as absolutely beyond remediable measures.

3) "Shall be graffed in," (egkentristhesontai) "Will be grafted in, again, Ezekiel 37:11-14.

4) "For God is able," (dunatos gar estin ho theos) "For the true God is able, dynamic, powerful enough;" when the Jews, as a nation and as individuals, turn from unbelief they will be again used, recognized as the true people of God, Romans 14:4; Ezekiel 38:8.

5) "To graff them in again," (egkentrisai autous) "To graft them in again;" to attach them to the olive tree of his first will, 2 Corinthians 3:16. This will occur when the vail of blindness of the law is removed, Ezekiel 39:25-29.

The Jewish people have since 1918, in the 20th century, been returning to Palestine, their homeland in fulfillment at least in part of this Scripture. Since 1948 in Palestine they have functioned as an organized nation, with a flag. And since 1967 they have overrun Jerusalem, but have not trodden down all Jerusalem, started rebuilding the ancient temple, or restoring the ancient morning and evening oblations of worship, but the day of this prophecy also seems to be drawing very near, not far away, Luke 21:24; Daniel 9:26-27.

Verse 24

1) "For is thou wert cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature," (ei gar su ek tes kata phusin eksekopes agrielaiou) "For if thou wast cut of the natural wild olive tree, the Gentile heathen," or separated from your Gentile, idolatrous ways, as the Ephesian brethren also were, Ephesians 2:1-5; Ephesians 2:12-13, without spiritual culture.

2) "And wert graffed contrary to nature into a good olive tree," (kai para physin enekentristhes eis kallielaion) "And against nature was grafted into a cultivated, good olive tree"; into Jesus Christ the root and stock of the Israel chosen of God, and they had been; Acts 10:28; Acts 10:33-35; Acts 10:43; Acts 11:17-18; Acts 13:47-49; Acts 14:27; Acts 15:7-11; Acts 15:13-17.

3) "How much more shall these," (poso mallon houtoi) "By how much more (shall) these," these Jews, who (in their own nature) belong to the good tree, have their connection with it reestablished!

4) "Which be the natural branches," (hoi kata phusin) "those according to nature (natural branches) of national Israel, the seed of Abraham, after the flesh, with Jewish knowledge and training.

5) "Be graffed into their own olive tree?" (egkentristhesontai te idia elaia) "Will be grafted in their own olive tree?" When the time of regathering has come. Is not God a compassionate, tender, merciful, and restoring God? Paul agreed, if so will he not according his very nature and promises of prophecy reclaim Israel as his own, when they return to him? He will, Deuteronomy 29:29; Deuteronomy 30:1-10; Psalms 2:1-9; Acts 1:9-11.

Verse 25

1) "For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant," (ou gar thelo humas agnolin adelphoi) "For brethren I sincerely will (that) you all not be ignorant,” lacking of knowledge, anymore, now and hereafter. A mystery explained becomes a revelation to those who understand, who have spiritual understanding. The cutting off of the Jews and grafting in of the Gentiles was not an afterthought of God but it was veiled prophecy of the Old Testament revealed in the new as per scriptures following, Matthew 13:1-58.

2) "Of this mystery," (to musterion touto) "to or toward this mystery". That God should call a people for his name’s sake from among the Gentiles, that is the church, graft them (it institutionally) into his revelation purpose, establish and purchase the church, his little flock, with his own blood, and send them to all nations to preach the gospel, Matthew 4:13-19; Acts 15:13-17; Acts 20:28; John 20:21; Matthew 28:18-20; Zechariah 13:7; Matthew 26:31-32; Luke 12:32; 1 Peter 5:2-3; Ephesians 3:9-10; Ephesians 3:21.

3) "Lest ye should be wise in your own conceit," (hina me ete en heautois phronimoi) "in order that you be or exist not wise in yourselves, of your own accord, out of your own ego or conceit"; God did not decide to graft you of the Gentiles, and the church, into his custodial service as an afterthought or cut Israel off impulsively, Ephesians 3:2-11; Ephesians 3:20-21.

Verse 26

1 ) "And so all Israel shall be saved," (kai houtos pas Israel sothesetai) "And thus all Israel will be saved;" Ultimately, in God’s own purpose and time "all Israel" that is Israel, as a nation, not just individual Jews, shall be saved, or delivered from their state of national abandonment under the judgment of God.

2) "As it is written," (kathos gegraptai) "Just as it has been written," once again, though inspired in his writings he gave documented statements of formerly given inspired truth, as supporting evidence of God’s dealing with Israel, as follows:

3) "There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer," (heksei ek Sion ho hruomenos) "There will come (of his own accord) out of Sion the delivering one," the one delivering, liberating, or setting free. He came once, but his own (as a nation) did not receive him, but cried, "let him be crucified," and he was, John 1:11-12; Matthew 27:20-25; Luke 23:13; Luke 23:18-23; He is coming again to deliver from the presence as well as power of sin, Psalms 14:7.

4) "And shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob," (apostrepsei asebeias apo lakob) "He will’ turn away ungodliness (impiety) from Jacob;" Psalms 53:6; Isaiah 59:20-21; "yet a little while," and he that shall come will come, Hebrews 10:37; Israel received and transmitted the scriptures, then brought forth and rejected the Redeemer, Deuteronomy 4:5-8; Romans 3:1-2; John 1:11-12; Matthew 23:37-39. Her greatest glory, as a restored and regathered and repentant nation, awaits her in the return of Christ and the establishment of the Davidic Covenant in the millennial age, 2 Samuel 7:8-17; Zechariah 12:8; Luke 1:32-33; 1 Corinthians 15:24.

Verse 27

1) "For this is my covenant unto them," (kai aute autois he par’ emou diatheke) "And this (is) the covenant from me, with them," this is what I have pledged to do, the Lord declared, Isaiah 27:9; Jeremiah 31:31-37; Hebrews 8:8-13.

The deliverance promised, Romans 11:26-27 though to Israel as a whole, is. an ethical and religious deliverance to be realized in fulness in the Millennial age.

2) "When I shall take away their sins," (hotan apelomai tas hamartias auton) "When I take away their sins, of my own accord," when they repent and believe the gospel, he will save them from their sins, not in their sins, Jeremiah 31:31-34; Matthew 1:21.


On the occasion of President Lincoln’s visit to Richmond, as soon as his arrival became known, the colored people whom he had delivered from bondage crowded around him in wild enthusiasm. They gazed upon the wonderful man; they shouted, they danced, waved their handkerchiefs and hats; they cheered enthusiastically. Some cried, "Glory, glory;- others, "Thank you, dear Jesus, for this!" others, "God bless you Massa Linkum!" others, "Bless de Lord!" What triumphal entry into Rome ever equalled this entry into Richmond by our delivering President? But, ere long, we shall all gaze on a greater than he, with even greater satisfaction than those redeemed ones experienced.


Verse 28

1) "As concerning the gospel," (kata men to evangelion) "On the one hand, according to the gospel," or as relates to the gospel; and the attitude of the Jews, toward it;

2) "They are enemies for your sakes," (echthroi di humas) "They are enemies because of you," or hostile toward it, which incited God’s hostility against them, for the sake of the Gentiles.

3) "But as touching the election," (kata de ten eklogen) "On the other hand, according to the choice," the choice of God made of Israel to be His people, as the offspring of Abraham, the heathen of Ur of Chaldees who believed the gospel when God preached it to him, and he became the Father --example of how all would be saved after him, Genesis 15:6; Romans 4:3-6; Galatians 3:6-8.

4) "They are beloved for the fathers’ sake," (agapetoi di tous pateras) "They are beloved ones because of the fathers," God’s promises to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, Genesis 17:19; Luke 1:54-55, and for their sake; Deuteronomy 7:7-8; Deuteronomy 10:15.

Verse 29

1) "For the gifts," (gar ta charismata) "For the free gifts," the charismatics, gifts of the Spirit; and God’s gift of grace by faith to all men, without respect of person, as regards personal salvation, from which God has never withdrawn his offer, Titus 2:11-15. It has been and is still offered to all who will believe, John 3:16; Romans 1:16; Romans 10:8-13, Ephesians 2:8-9.

2) "And calling of God," (kai he klesis tou theou) "And the calling of God;- this is not a career calling, but a calling of God to the Jews for a place in the messianic, or millennial kingdom age, Romans 9:4-5; Matthew 23:37-39.

3) "Are without repentance," (ametameleta) "are unrepented, not to be taken back, unrepented" - There is no "chance" in God’s mind, in his dealing with Jews and Gentiles, either separately or together, Malachi 3:6; Matthew 3:2, 2 Corinthians 7:9-10; Acts 17:30.

Verse 30

1) "For ye in times past have not believed God," (gar humeis pote epeithesate to theo) "For as you all then disobeyed God," in former times, times past, you all were disobedient toward God, as all unbelievers are. They live in a responsible state of daily disobedience, rebellion, and moral enmity and anarchy against God, Isaiah 55:8-9; Isaiah 59:2; Romans 8:7; at enmity with God, practical atheists, Ephesians 2:12.

2) "Yet have now obtained mercy," (nun de eleethete) "Yet now and for a continuing hereafter ye have obtained mercy," the mercy sacrifice they had obtained by repentance and faith, just as the publican who sought and found it through praying, "God be merciful to me a sinner," Luke 18:13-14. This mercy was not only in redemption but also in granting them service and stewardship honors and rewards in witnessing of Jesus Christ, thru the church, Acts 1:8; Matthew 5:15-16; John 20:21; Ephesians 3:21.

3) "Through their unbelief," (te touton apeitheia) "By or through their disobedience or unbelief or unpersuasion," which caused them to be cut off, as a nation from any national custody or trusteeship of God’s worship and service, which they once administered before all nations, Matthew 23:37-39.

Verse 31

1) "Even so have these also now not believed," (houtos kai houtoi nun epeithesan) "Even so (just like this, or in like manner) these now have not believed," or "have disobeyed," have not believed or been persuaded, Romans 10:1-4.

2) "That through your mercy," (to humetero eleei hina) "in order that by your mercy," your bearing the mercy, grace, and redemption message, as the church at Rome, and members in particular, some may even now be saved among them, Titus 3:5; Matthew 5:7; 2 Corinthians 4:1-2; Hebrews 4:16; La 3:22; Romans 12:1-2; Colossians 3:12.

3) "They also may obtain mercy," (kai autoi nun eleethosan) "They also may obtain mercy"; True believers in general, and baptized members of the Lord’s church in particular, have a Divine charge to carry the message of mercy-redemption to all men. As Jesus came to seek and to save that which was lost, which his Father had sent him to do, even so he said, "So send I you into the World," John 20:21; Luke 10:10; John 3:17.

Verse 32

1) "For God hath concluded them all in unbelief," (sunekleisen gar ho theos tous pantas eis apeitheian) "For God shut them all up or out in (their) disobedience," cut them off or shut them all out nationally in their state of disobedience or unbelief, therefore in their untrustworthiness; Each as all Gentiles are, was concluded under sin, by nature, Romans 3:9; Romans 3:19; Galatians 3:22. God judged them as a nation, in sending them into captivity to all nations, till the Gentile age and church age is finished, Luke 21:24.

2) "That he might have mercy upon all," (hina tous pantas eleese) "in order that he may show mercy to or toward all," In commissioning and sending his Holy Spirit empowered church into all nations to preach the gospel to all nations, and every creature; which he did, Matthew 28:18-20; Mark 16:15; John 20:21; Luke 24:46-49; Acts 1:8. The "ye and you all" of these citations refer to the "church body ye" or "you all"; not to the sum total of all believers.

No person is in the church, the body of Christ, the house, the temple of God, in commissioned (authorized) labors for the Lord, except or unless he has been baptized and entered into sacred covenant with other like believers to carry on a program of worship and service for the Lord; Ephesians 1:22-23; Ephesians 4:11-13; 1 Corinthians 3:16-17; 1 Timothy 3:15; That there is an intangible, mystical body of Christ, made up of all believers, without either baptism or a covenant to worship and serve God together in some particular earthly locality, is a myth, unscriptural and anti -scriptural. Just as the house of Israel always referred to that earthly organized identified people, with a fellowship covenant to do God’s Holy work and service, so does the House of God today refer to the church of the Living God, which Jesus, called out, set up, established, and commissioned before he went back to heaven and told to tarry at Jerusalem until she was empowered to go into all nations, till he returns; Matthew 4:13-20; Matthew 16:18-19; Matthew 20:28; Luke 24:46-48; Acts 1:8-11; Acts 20:28; Ephesians 3:8-10; Ephesians 3:21.

Verse 33

1) "0 the depth of the riches," (ho bathos ploutou) "0 depth of riches," plutocracy. This is an exclamatory doxology of praise regarding the Providence of God’s sovereignty which pervaded the choosing, calling, fore-ordination, and predestination, of God relating to both Israel and the church, 1 Corinthians 2:10; Ephesians 1:7-8; Ephesians 3:18; Colossians 2:2-3.

2) "Both of the wisdom and knowledge of God!" (kai sophias kai gnoseos theou) "Both of wisdom and knowledge of God!" Solomon was a man of wisdom and knowledge, a "brain," perhaps excelling any who had ever lived in wisdom and knowledge, astounding the Queen of Sheba - and Paul himself was a man of much learning; Yet as he probed the already written, and then being written, inspired Word, will, purpose, and work of God in Redemption, he broke forth in the doxology of praise here, 2 Kings 4:34; 1 Kings 10:1-8; 2 Chronicles 9:22-23; Matthew 12:42.

3) "How unsearchable are his judgments," (hos, aneksereuneta ta trima autou) "How inscrutable (incomprehensive) are his judgments;" which are true, good, and holy, -administered in wisdom, knowledge, and love, in every act and every age, for redemptive purposes. He is too good and holy to do wrong, and too wise to make a mistake, because he knoweth all things, Psalms 19:9; Psalms 36:6; Psalms 119:39; 1 John 3:20; 2 Peter 2:9.

4) "And his ways past finding out! (kai aneksichniastoi hai hodoi autou) "And how unsearchable are his ways!" even past finding out; they can not all be traced in the "footprints in the sand," or in the sea, Psalms 139:18; Ecclesiastes 11:5; Deuteronomy 32:3-4.

Verse 34

1) "For who hath known the mind of the Lord?" (tis gar egno noun kuriou) "’For who (ever) knew the mind of (the) Lord?" What man or angel can comprehend the mind or reasoning of the Lord or Master of the universe? To whom shall the omnipotent God be compared? Read Isaiah 40:18; Isaiah 40:25-28; Isaiah 46:5; Isaiah 46:9-10; Acts 17:29. Man knows the Lord only as and to the extent that he has revealed himself to him in four ways: 1) thru nature, 2) the scriptures, 3) the Holy Spirit, and 4) the church, Romans 1:20; 2 Timothy 3:16-17; 1 Corinthians 2:11-12; 1 Corinthians 2:16; Ephesians 3:8-11; Ephesians 3:21. These are the four avenues through which one may know God, John 17:3.

2) "Or who hath been his counselor?- (etis sumboulos auton eoeneto) "or (ever) became a counsellor or advisor of him?" Isaiah 40:13-14; Isaiah 40:28. Who has ever granted God a favor? 1 Corinthians 4:7; All things come of God’s direct or permissive will in fulfillment of his purpose in all men,

Romans 8:28; 1 Chronicles 29:14.


There is a striking passage in which a great philosopher, the famous Bishop Berkely, describes the thought which occurred to him of the inscrutable schemes of Providence, as he saw, in St. Paul’s Cathedral, a fly moving on one of the pillars. "it requires," he says, "some comprehension in the eye of an intelligent spectator to take in at one view the various parts of the building, in order to observe their harmony and design. But to the fly, whose prospect was confined to a little part of one of the stones of a single pillar, the joint beauty of the whole, or the distinct use of its parts, was inconspicuous. To that limited view, the small irregularities on the surface of the hewn stone, seemed to be so many deformed rocks and precipices." That fly on the pillar, of which the philosopher spoke, is the likeness of each human being as he creeps along the cast pillars which support the universe. The sorrow which appears to us nothing but a yawning chasm or hideous precipice, may turn out to be but the joining or cement which binds together the fragments of our existence into a solid whole That dark and crooked path, in which we have to grope our way in doubt and fear, may be but the curve which, in the full daylight of a brighter world, will appear to be the necessary finish of some choice ornament the inevitable span of some majestic arch.

--Dean Stanley

Verse 35

1) "Or who hath first given to him," (e tis proedoken auto) "Or who previously gave to him?" Who initiated giving, God or man? Did Man ever give anything to God before God first (in priority, initiatively) gave or doled out to man? All things belong to God and none in the universe can give to God, except it be by God’s grace and mercy that he returns of that God has first delivered to his stewardship, 1 Chronicles 29:11-14. It is here asserted that "of thine own have we given to thee"; Luke 6:38.

2) "And it shall be recompensed unto him again," (kai antapodothesetai auto) "And it will be repaid to him?" This would be the reverse manner of Giving and man would require worship as the Creator and originator, instead of God, you see? That is if man gave to God before God first gave to man life, breath and all things, Acts 17:24-28; Psalms 24:1; Psalms 50:10-12; 1 Corinthians 10:26.

Verse 36

1) "For of him," (kai di autou) "Because of him", as a, and "the" first cause; the originator of all things, visible and invisible, the seen world and the unseen world, and the fountain of all goodness, James 1:17; John 1:3.

2) "And through him", (kai di I autou) "And through media, instrument, or agency of his person"; as not only Creator but also sustainer and preserving governor of the universe, La 3:22; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Acts 17:26-27.

3) "And to him, are all things," (kai eis auton ta panta) "And with relationship to him all things exist;" and to or toward this great God thru his creation, his Son, his Spirit, and his church glory and honor and praise and adoration are to be given, Colossians 1:16-17; Colossians 3:17; all things in heaven and on earth are obligated to him for all that they are for without him ye can do nothing, Revelation 5:12-13.

4) "To whom be glory forever. Amen." (auto he doksa eis tous aionas, amen) "Let be unto him the glory into and with relationship to the ages. So may it ever be (amen). He deserves the highest praise and adoration of the holiest nature of every man, forever and always. The compelling desire of every Christian, the driving motive of every saint, and the zeal of the Lord’s House, his church of this age, should be to bear his message to the praise and honor of his glory forever, Ephesians 3:21; Galatians 6:14; 1 Corinthians 10:31; 1 Corinthians 15:28; 1 Timothy 1:17.


"I have read of an author who, whilst he was writing a book he was about to publish, would every now and then look back to the title, to see if his work corresponded thereto, and if it answered the expectation raised thereby. Now the use I would make hereof, and would recommend to you, is for thee, 0 sinner, to look back every now and then and consider for what thou wast created; and for thee, 0 saint, to look back every now and then, and consider for what thou wast redeemed.



By Him all things consist. Every object in nature is impressed with His footprints, and each new day repeats the wonders of creation. Yes, there is not a morning we open our eyes but they meet a scene as wonderful as that which fixed the gaze of Adam when he awoke into existence. Nor is there an object, be it pebble or pearl, weed or rose, the flower-spangled sward beneath, or the star-spangled sky above, a worm or an angel, a drop of water or a boundless ocean, in which intelligence may not discern, and piety may not adore, the Providence of Him who assumed our nature that he might save our souls. If God is not in all the thoughts of the wicked, He is in everything else.


Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Romans 11". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/romans-11.html. 1985.
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