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Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
Romans 11



Verse 1

I say then (λεγω ουνlegō oun). As in Romans 11:11. ΟυνOun looks back to 9:16-33 and Romans 10:19-21.

Did God cast off? (μη απωσατο ο τεοσmē apōsato ho theoṡ). An indignant negative answer is called for by μηmē and emphasized by μη γενοιτοmē genoito (God forbid). Paul refers to the promise in the O.T. made three times: 1 Samuel 12:22; Psalm 94:14 (Psalms 93:14, lxx); Psalm 94:4. First aorist middle indicative (without augment) of απωτεωapōtheō to push away, to repel, middle, to push away from one as in Acts 7:27.

For I also (και γαρ εγωkai gar egō). Proof that not all the Jews have rejected Christ. See note on Philemon 3:5 for more of Paul‘s pedigree.

Verse 2

Whom he foreknew (ον προεγνωhon proegnō). The same form and sense as in Romans 8:29, which see. Probably the Hebrew sense of choice beforehand. The nation of Israel was God‘s chosen people and so all the individuals in it could not be cast off.

Wot ye not? (ουκ οιδατεouk oidatė). “Know ye not?” Why keep the old English “wot”?

Of Elijah (εν Ελειαιen Eleiāi). “In the case of Elijah.” Cf. “in the bush” (Mark 12:26).

He pleadeth (εντυγχανειentugchanei). See Romans 8:27. ΕντυγχανωEntugchanō means to happen on one and so to converse with (Acts 25:24), to plead for (Romans 8:27, Romans 8:34), to plead against as here with καταkata but the “against” is in καταkata f0).

Verse 3

They have digged down (κατεσκαπσανkateskapsan). First aorist active indicative of κατασκαπτωkataskaptō to dig under or down. Old verb, here only in N.T. (critical text). lxx has κατειλανkatheilan “pulled down.” Paul has reversed the order of the lxx of 1 Kings 19:10, 14, 18.

Altars (τυσιαστηριαthusiastēria). Late word (lxx, Philo, Josephus, N.T. eccl. writers) from τυσιαζωthusiazō to sacrifice. See note on Acts 17:23.

And I am left alone (καγω υπελειπτην μονοςkagō hupeleiphthēn monos). First aorist passive indicative of υπολειπωhupoleipō old word, to leave under or behind, here only in N.T. Elijah‘s mood was that of utter dejection in his flight from Jezebel.

Life (πσυχηνpsuchēn). It is not possible to draw a clear distinction between πσυχηpsuchē (soul) and πνευμαpneuma (spirit). ΠσυχηPsuchē is from πσυχωpsuchō to breathe or blow, πνευμαpneuma from πνεωpneō to blow. Both are used for the personality and for the immortal part of man. Paul is usually dichotomous in his language, but sometimes trichotomous in a popular sense. We cannot hold Paul‘s terms to our modern psychological distinctions.

Verse 4

The answer of God (ο χρηματισμοςho chrēmatismos). An old word in various senses like χρηματιζωchrēmatizō only here in N.T. See this use of the verb in Matthew 2:12, Matthew 2:22; Luke 2:26; Acts 10:22.

To Baal (τηι ααλtēi Baal). Feminine article. In the lxx the name ααλBaal is either masculine or feminine. The explanation is that the Jews put Bosheth (αισχυνηaischunē shame) for Baal and in the lxx the feminine article occurs because αισχυνηaischunē is so, though here the lxx has the masculine τωιtōi f0).

Verse 5

Remnant (λιμμαlimma). Old word, but only here in N.T., but in papyri also and with this spelling rather than λειμμαleimma From λειπωleipō to leave.

According to the election of grace (κατ εκλογην χαριτοςkat' eklogēn charitos). As in Romans 9:6-13. The election is all of God. Romans 11:6 explains it further.

Verse 6

Otherwise (επειepei). Ellipse after επειepei (since), “since, in that case.”

Is no more (ουκετι γινεταιouketi ginetai). “No longer becomes” grace, loses its character as grace. Augustine: Gratia nisi gratis sit gratia non est.

Verse 7

What then? (τι ουνti ouṅ). Since God did not push Israel away (Romans 11:1), what is true?

The election (η εκλογηhē eklogē). Abstract for concrete (the elect).

Obtained (επετυχενepetuchen). Second aorist active indicative of επιτυγχανωepitugchanō old verb, to hit upon, only here in Paul. See Romans 9:30-33 for the failure of the Jews.

Were hardened (επωρωτησανepōrōthēsan). First aorist passive indicative of πωροωpōroō late verb, to cover with thick skin (πωροςpōros). See note on 2 Corinthians 3:14 and note on Mark 3:5.

Verse 8

A spirit of stupor (πνευμα κατανυχεωςpneuma katanuxeōs). The quotation is a combination of Deuteronomy 19:4; Isaiah 29:10; Isaiah 6:9. This phrase is from Isaiah 29:10. ΚατανυχιςKatanuxis is a late and rare word from κατανυσσωkatanussō to prick or stick (Acts 2:37), in lxx, here only in N.T., one example in Pelagia-Legende. The torpor seems the result of too much sensation, dulled by incitement into apathy.

That they should not see (του μη βλεπεινtou mē blepein). Genitive articular infinitive of negative purpose.

That they should not hear (του μη ακουεινtou mē akouein). So here also. See Stephen‘s speech (Acts 7:51.).

Verse 9

David says (Δαυειδ λεγειDaueid legei). From Psalm 69:23; (68:23f, lxx); Psalm 34:8; Psalm 28:4 (combined quotation).

Table (τραπεζαtrapeza). For what is on the table, “a feast.”

A snare (εις παγιδαeis pagida). From πηγνυμιpēgnumi to make fast, old word for snares for birds and beasts. See Luke 21:35. ΕιςEis in predicate with γινομαιginomai is a translation-Hebraism.

A trap (εις τηρανeis thēran). Old word for hunting of wild beasts, then a trap. Only here in N.T.

A stumbling-block (εις σκανδαλονeis skandalon). A third word for trap, snare, trap-stick or trigger over which they fall. See note on 1 Corinthians 1:23; Romans 9:33.

A recompense (εις ανταποδομαeis antapodoma). Late word from double compound verb ανταποδιδωμιantapodidōmi to repay (both αντιanti and αποapo). Ancient Greeks used ανταποδοσιςantapodosis In lxx and Didache. In N.T. only here (bad sense) and Luke 14:12 (good sense).

Verse 10

Let their eyes be darkened (σκοτιστητωσαν οι οπταλμοι αυτωνskotisthētōsan hoi ophthalmoi autōn). First aorist passive imperative of σκοτιζωskotizō to darken. A terrible imprecation.

That they may not see (του μη βλεπεινtou mē blepein). Repeated from Romans 11:8.

Bow down (συνκαμπσονsunkampson). First aorist active imperative of συνκαμπτωsunkamptō old verb, to bend together as of captives whose backs (νωτονnōton another old word, only here in N.T.) were bent under burdens. Only here in N.T.

Verse 11

Did they stumble that they might fall? (μη επταισαν ινα πεσωσινmē eptaisan hina pesōsiṅ). Negative answer expected by μηmē as in Romans 11:1. First aorist active indicative of πταιωptaiō old verb, to stumble, only here in Paul (see note on James 3:2), suggested perhaps by σκανδαλονskandalon in Romans 11:9. If ιναhina is final, then we must add “merely” to the idea, “merely that they might fall” or make a sharp distinction between πταιωptaiō to stumble, and πιπτωpiptō to fall, and take πεσωσινpesōsin as effective aorist active subjunctive to fall completely and for good. ιναHina as we know, can be either final, sub-final, or even result. See note on 1 Thessalonians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 7:29; Galatians 5:17. Paul rejects this query in Romans 11:11 as vehemently as he did that in Romans 11:1.

By their fall (τωι αυτων παραπτωματιtōi autōn paraptōmati). Instrumental case. For the word, a falling aside or a false step from παραπιπτωparapiptō see note on Romans 5:15-20.

Is come. No verb in the Greek, but γινεταιginetai or γεγονενgegonen is understood.

For to provoke them to jealousy (εις το παραζηλωσαιeis to parazēlōsai). Purpose expressed by ειςeis and the articular infinitive, first aorist active, of παραζηλοωparazēloō for which verb see note on 1 Corinthians 10:22. As an historical fact Paul turned to the Gentiles when the Jews rejected his message (Acts 13:45.; Acts 28:28, etc.).

The riches of the world (πλουτος κοσμουploutos kosmou). See note on Romans 10:12.

Their loss (το ηττημα αυτωνto hēttēma autōn). So perhaps in 1 Corinthians 6:7, but in Isaiah 31:8 defeat is the idea. Perhaps so here.

Fulness (πληρωμαplērōma). Perhaps “completion,” though the word from πληροωplēroō to fill, has a variety of senses, that with which anything is filled (1 Corinthians 10:26, 1 Corinthians 10:28), that which is filled (Ephesians 1:23).

How much more? (ποσωι μαλλονposōi mallon). Argument a fortiori as in Romans 11:24. Romans 11:25 illustrates the point.

Verse 13

To you that are Gentiles (υμιν τοις ετνεσινhumin tois ethnesin). “To you the Gentiles.” He has a serious word to say to them.

Inasmuch then (επ οσον μεν ουνEphesians' hoson men oun). Not temporal, quamdiu, “so long as” (Matthew 9:15), but qualitative quatenus “in so far then as” (Matthew 25:40).

I glorify my ministry (την διακονιαν μου δοχαζωtēn diakonian mou doxazō). As apostle to the Gentiles (ετνων αποστολοςethnōn apostolos objective genitive). Would that every minister of Christ glorified his ministry.

Verse 14

If by any means (ei pōs). This use of ei with purpose or aim is a kind of indirect discourse.

I may provoke (parazēlōsō). Either future active indicative or first aorist active subjunctive, see same uncertainty in Philemon 3:10 katantēsō but in Philemon 3:11 katalabō after ei is subjunctive. The future indicative is clear in Romans 1:10 and the optative in Acts 27:12. Doubtful whether future indicative or aorist subjunctive also in sōsō (save).

Verse 15

The casting away of them (η αποβολη αυτωνhē apobolē autōn). Objective genitive (αυτωνautōn) with αποβοληapobolē old word from αποβαλλωapoballō to throw off (Mark 10:50), in N.T. only here and Acts 27:22.

The reconciling of the world (καταλλαγη κοσμουkatallagē kosmou). See note on Romans 5:10. for καταλλαγηkatallagē (reconciling). It explains Romans 11:12.

The receiving (η προσλημπσιςhē proslēmpsis). Old word from προσλαμβανωproslambanō to take to oneself, only here in N.T.

Life from the dead (ζωη εκ νεκρωνzōē ek nekrōn). Already the conversion of Jews had become so difficult. It is like a miracle of grace today, though it does happen. Many think that Paul means that the general resurrection and the end will come when the Jews are converted. Possibly so, but it is by no means certain. His language may be merely figurative.

Verse 16

First fruit (απαρχηaparchē). See note on 1 Corinthians 15:20, 1 Corinthians 15:23. The metaphor is from Numbers 15:19. The lxx has απαρχην πυραματοςaparchēn phuramatos first of the dough as a heave offering.

The lump (το πυραμαto phurama). From which the first fruit came. See note on Romans 9:21. Apparently the patriarchs are the first fruit.

The root (η ριζαhē riza). Perhaps Abraham singly here. The metaphor is changed, but the idea is the same. Israel is looked on as a tree. But one must recall and keep in mind the double sense of Israel in Romans 9:6. (the natural and the spiritual).

Verse 17

Branches (κλαδωνkladōn). From κλαωklaō to break.

Were broken off (εχεκλαστησανexeklasthēsan). First aorist passive indicative of εκκλαωekklaō Play on the word κλαδοςklados (branch) and εκκλαωekklaō to break off. Condition of first class, assumed as true. Some of the individual Jews (natural Israel) were broken off the stock of the tree (spiritual Israel).

And thou (και συkai su). An individual Gentile.

Being a wild olive (αγριελαιος ωνagrielaios ōn). This word, used by Aristotle, occurs in an inscription. Ramsay (Pauline Studies, pp. 219ff.) shows that the ancients used the wild-olive graft upon an old olive tree to reinvigorate the tree precisely as Paul uses the figure here and that both the olive tree and the graft were influenced by each other, though the wild olive graft did not produce as good olives as the original stock. But it should be noted that in Romans 11:24 Paul expressly states that the grafting of Gentiles on to the stock of the spiritual Israel was “contrary to nature” (παρα πυσινpara phusin).

Wast grafted in (ενεκεντριστηςenekentristhēs). First aorist passive indicative of ενκεντριζωenkentrizō to cut in, to graft, used by Aristotle. Belongs “to the higher Koiné{[28928]}š ” (literary Koiné{[28928]}š) according to Milligan.

Partaker (συνκοινωνοςsunKoinéōnos). Corinthians-partner.

Fatness (πιοτητοςpiotētos). Old word from πιωνpiōn (fat), only here in N.T. Note three genitives here “of the root of the fatness of the olive.”

Verse 18

Glory not over the branches (μη κατακαυχω των κλαδωνmē katakauchō tōn kladōn). Genitive case after καταkata Present middle imperative second person singular of κατακαυχαομαιkatakauchaomai with negative μηmē “stop glorying” or “do not have the habit of glorying over the branches.” The conclusion of the preceding condition.

Gloriest (κατακαυχασαιkatakauchāsai). Late form αεσαι̇aesai retaining ςs

Not thou (ου συou su). Very emphatic position. The graft was upon the stock and root, though each affected the other.

Verse 19

Thou wilt say then (ερεις ουνereis oun). A presumptuous Gentile speaks.

That I might be grafted in (ινα εγω ενκεντριστωhina egō enkentristhō). Purpose clause with ιναhina and first aorist passive subjunctive. He shows contempt for the cast-off Jews.

Verse 20

Well (καλωςkalōs). Perhaps ironical, though Paul may simply admit the statement (cf. Mark 12:32) and show the Gentile his real situation.

By unbelief (τηι απιστιαιtēi apistiāi) - by faith (πιστειpistei). Instrumental case with both contrasted words (by unbelief, by belief).

Verse 21

Be not highminded (μη υπσηλα προνειmē hupsēla phronei). “Stop thinking high (proud) thoughts.”

Of God spared not (ει γαρ ο τεος ουκ επεισατοei gar ho theos ouk epheisato). It is not ει μηei mē (unless), but the ουκouk negatives the verb επεισατοepheisato (first aorist middle indicative of πειδομαιpheidomai to spare. Condition of first class.

Verse 22

The goodness and the severity of God (χρηστοτητα και αποτομιαν τεουchrēstotēta kai apotomian theou). See Romans 2:2 for χρηστοτηςchrēstotēs kindness of God. ΑποτομιαApotomia (here alone in the N.T.) is from αποτομοςapotomos cut off, abrupt, and this adjective from αποτεμνωapotemnō to cut off. This late word occurs several times in the papyri.

If thou continue (εαν επιμενηιςean epimenēis). Third class condition, εανean and present active subjunctive.

Otherwise (επειepei). Ellipse after επειepei “since if thou dost not continue.”

Thou also (και συkai su). Precisely as the Jewish branches of Romans 11:17 were.

Shalt be cut off (εκκοπησηιekkopēsēi). Second future passive of εκκοπτωekkoptō to cut out.

Verse 23

If they continue not in their unbelief (εαν μη επιμενωσι τηι απιστιαιean mē epimenōsi tēi apistiāi). Third class condition with the same verb used in Romans 11:22 of the Gentile. Locative case of απιστιαιapistiāi here (same form as the instrumental in Romans 11:20).

For God is able (δυνατος γαρ εστιν ο τεοςdunatos gar estin ho theos). See this use of δυνατος εστινdunatos estin in Romans 4:21 rather than δυναταιdunatai This is the crux of the whole matter. God is able.

Verse 24

Contrary to nature (παρα πυσινpara phusin). This is the gist of the argument, the power of God to do what is contrary to natural processes. He put the wild olive (Gentile) into the good olive tree (the spiritual Israel) and made the wild olive (contrary to nature) become the good olive (καλλιελαιοςkallielaios the garden olive, καλλοςkallos and ελαιαelaia in Aristotle and a papyrus).

Into their own olive tree (τηι ιδιαι ελαιαιtēi idiāi elaiāi). Dative case. Another argument a fortiori, “how much more” (πολλωι μαλλονpollōi mallon). God can graft the natural Israel back upon the spiritual Israel, if they become willing.

Verse 25

This mystery (το μυστηριον τουτοto mustērion touto). Not in the pagan sense of an esoteric doctrine for the initiated (from μυεωmueō to blink, to wink), unknown secrets (2 Thessalonians 2:7), or like the mystery religions of the time, but the revealed will of God now made known to all (1 Corinthians 2:1, 1 Corinthians 2:7; 1 Corinthians 4:1) which includes Gentiles also (Romans 16:25; Colossians 1:26.; Ephesians 3:3.) and so far superior to man‘s wisdom (Colossians 2:2; Colossians 4:13; Ephesians 3:9; Ephesians 5:32; Ephesians 6:19; Matthew 13:11; Mark 4:11). Paul has covered every point of difficulty concerning the failure of the Jews to accept Jesus as the Messiah and has shown how God has overruled it for the blessing of the Gentiles with a ray of hope still held out for the Jews. “In early ecclesiastical Latin μυστηριονmustērion was rendered by sacramentum, which in classical Latin means the military oath. The explanation of the word sacrament, which is so often founded on this etymology, is therefore mistaken, since the meaning of sacrament belongs to μυστηριονmustērion and not to sacramentum in the classical sense” (Vincent).

Wise in your own conceits (εν εαυτοις προνιμοιen heautois phronimoi). “Wise in yourselves.” Some MSS. read παρ εαυτοιςpar' heautois (by yourselves). Negative purpose here (ινα μη ητεhina mē ēte), to prevent self-conceit on the part of the Gentiles who have believed. They had no merit in themselves

A hardening (πωρωσιςpōrōsis). Late word from πωροωpōroō (Romans 11:7). Occurs in Hippocrates as a medical term, only here in N.T. save Mark 3:5; Ephesians 4:18. It means obtuseness of intellectual discernment, mental dulness.

In part (απο μερουςapo merous). Goes with the verb γεγονενgegonen (has happened in part). For απο μερουςapo merous see note on 2 Corinthians 1:14; 2 Corinthians 2:5; Romans 15:24; for ανα μεροςana meros see note on 1 Corinthians 14:27; for εκ μερουςek merous see note on 1 Corinthians 12:27; 1 Corinthians 13:9; for κατα μεροςkata meros see note on Hebrews 9:5; for μερος τιmeros ti (adverbial accusative) partly see note on 1 Corinthians 11:18. Paul refuses to believe that no more Jews will be saved.

Until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in (αχρι ου το πληρωμα των ετνων εισελτηιachri hou to plērōma tōn ethnōn eiselthēi). Temporal clause with αχρι ουachri hou (until which time) and the second aorist active subjunctive of εισερχομαιeiserchomai to come in (Matthew 7:13, Matthew 7:21).

For fulness of the Gentiles (το πληρωμα των ετνωνto plērōma tōn ethnōn) see Romans 11:12, the complement of the Gentiles.

Verse 26

And so (και ουτωςkai houtōs). By the complement of the Gentiles stirring up the complement of the Jews (Romans 11:11.).

All Israel (πας Ισραηλpās Israēl). What does Paul mean? The immediate context (use of παςpās in contrast with απο μερουσ πληρωμαapo merousπληρωμαplērōma here in contrast with ο ρυομενοςplērōma in Romans 11:12) argues for the Jewish people “as a whole.” But the spiritual Israel (both Jews and Gentiles) may be his idea in accord with Romans 9:6 (Galatians 6:16) as the climax of the argument. At any rate we should strive for and pray for the conversion of Jews as a whole. Paul here quotes from Isaiah 59:20.; Isaiah 27:9.

The Deliverer (ρυομαιho ruomenos). Present middle articular participle of ruomai to rescue, to deliver. See note on 1 Thessalonians 1:10; 2 Corinthians 1:10. The Hebrew Goel, the Avenger, the Messiah, the Redeemer (Deuteronomy 25:5-10; Job 19:25; Rth 3:12.). Paul interprets it of Jesus as Messiah.

Verse 27

My covenant (η παρ εμου διατηκηhē par' emou diathēkē). “The from me covenant,” “my side of the covenant I have made with them” (Sanday and Headlam). Cf. Jeremiah 31:31. Not a political deliverance, but a religious and ethical one.

When I shall take away (οταν απελωμαιhotan aphelōmai). Second aorist middle subjunctive of απαιρεωaphaireō old and common verb, to take away.

Verse 28

As touching the gospel (κατα το ευαγγελιονkata to euaggelion). “According to (καταkata with the accusative) the gospel” as Paul has shown in Romans 11:11-24, the gospel order as it has developed.

Enemies (εχτροιechthroi). Treated as enemies (of God), in passive sense, because of their rejection of Christ (Romans 11:10), just as αγαπητοιagapētoi (beloved) is passive.

As touching the election (κατα την εκλογηνkata tēn eklogēn). “According to the election” (the principle of election, not as in Romans 11:5. the elect or abstract for concrete).

For the fathers‘ sake (δια τους πατεραςdia tous pateras). As in Romans 9:4; Romans 11:16.

Verse 29

Without repentance (αμεταμεληταametamelēta). See note on 2 Corinthians 7:10 for this word (αa privative and μεταμελομαιmetamelomai to be sorry afterwards). It is not αμετανοητονametanoēton (Romans 2:5) from αa privative and μετανοεωmetanoeō to change one‘s mind. God is not sorry for his gifts to and calling of the Jews (Romans 9:4.).

Verse 30

Ye in time past (υμεις ποτεhumeis pote). Ye Gentiles (Romans 1:18-32).

Were disobedient (επειτησατεepeithēsate). First aorist active indicative of απειτεωapeitheō to disbelieve and then to disobey. “Ye once upon a time disobeyed God.”

By their disobedience (τηι τουτων απειτιαιtēi toutōn apeithiāi). Instrumental case, “by the disobedience of these” (Jews). Note “now” (νυνnun) three times in this sentence.

Verse 31

By the mercy shown to you (τωι υμετερωι ελεειtōi humeterōi eleei). Objective sense of υμετεροςhumeteros (possessive pronoun, your). Proleptic position also for the words go with ελεητωσινeleēthōsin (first aorist passive subjunctive of ελεεωeleeō from ελεοςeleos with ιναhina purpose clause). God‘s purpose is for the Jews to receive a blessing yet.

Verse 32

Hath shut up (συνεκλεισενsunekleisen). First aorist active indicative of συνκλειωsunkleiō to shut together like a net (Luke 5:6). See note on Galatians 3:22 for this word with υπο αμαρτιανhupo hamartian (under sin). This is a resultant (effective) aorist because of the disbelief and disobedience of both Gentile (1:17-32) and Jew (2:1-3:20).

All (τους πανταςtous pantas). “The all” (both Gentiles and Jews).

That he might have mercy (ιναελεησηιhinȧ̇eleēsēi). Purpose with ιναhina and aorist active subjunctive. No merit in anyone, but all of grace. “The all” again, who receive God‘s mercy, not that “all” men are saved.

Verse 33

O the depth (Ο βατοςO bathos). Exclamation with omega and the nominative case of βατοςbathos (see note on 2 Corinthians 8:2; Romans 8:39). Paul‘s argument concerning God‘s elective grace and goodness has carried him to the heights and now he pauses on the edge of the precipice as he contemplates God‘s wisdom and knowledge, fully conscious of his inability to sound the bottom with the plummet of human reason and words.

Unsearchable (ανεχεραυνηταanexeraunēta). Double compound (αa privative and εχex) verbal adjective of ερευναωereunaō (old spelling ευ̇eu̇), late and rare word (lxx, Dio Cassius, Heraclitus), only here in N.T. Some of God‘s wisdom can be known (Romans 1:20.), but not all.

Past tracing out (ανεχιχνιαστοιanexichniastoi). Another verbal adjective from αa privative and εχιχνιαζωexichniazō to trace out by tracks (ιχνοςichnos Romans 4:12). Late word in Job (Job 5:9; Job 9:10; Job 34:24) from which use Paul obtained it here and Ephesians 3:8 (only N.T. examples). Also in ecclesiastical writers. Some of God‘s tracks he has left plain to us, but others are beyond us.

Verse 34

Who hath known? (τις εγνωtis egnō̇). Second aorist active indicative of γινωσκωginōskō a timeless aorist, did know, does know, will know. Quotation from Isaiah 40:13. Quoted already in 1 Corinthians 2:16.

Counsellor (συμβουλοςsumboulos). Old word from συνsun and βουληboulē Only here in N.T.

His (αυτουautou). Objective genitive, counsellor to him (God). Some men seem to feel competent for the job.

Verse 35

First driven to him (προεδωκεν αυτωιproedōken autōi). First aorist active indicative of προδιδωμιprodidōmi to give beforehand or first. Old verb, here alone in N.T. From Job 41:11, but not like the lxx, Paul‘s own translation.

Shall be recompensed (ανταποδοτησεταιantapodothēsetai). First future passive of double compound ανταποδιδωμιantapodidōmi to pay back (both αντιanti and αποapo), old word in good sense, as here and Luke 14:14; 1 Thessalonians 3:9 and in bad sense as 2 Thessalonians 1:6; Romans 12:19.

Verse 36

Of him (εχ αυτουex autou), through him (δι αυτουdi' autou), unto him (εις αυτονeis auton). By these three prepositions Paul ascribes the universe (τα πανταta panta) with all the phenomena concerning creation, redemption, providence to God as the

Source (εχex), the

Agent (διdi), the

Goal (ειςeis).

For ever (εις τους αιωναςeis tous aiōnas). “For the ages.” Alford terms this doxology in Romans 11:33-36 “the sublimest apostrophe existing even in the pages of inspiration itself.”


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Romans 11:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Lectionary Calendar
Wednesday, September 23rd, 2020
the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25
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