If you haven't seen it already, I would recommend "The Chosen"! The first episode of Season 2 can be viewed by clicking here!

Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Romans 10

Verse 1

Desire (ευδοκιαeudokia). No papyri examples of this word, though ευδοκησιςeudokēsis occurs, only in lxx and N.T., but no example for “desire” unless this is one, though the verb ευδοκεωeudokeō is common in Polybius, Diodorus, Dion, Hal. It means will, pleasure, satisfaction (Matthew 11:26; 2 Thessalonians 1:11; Philippians 1:15; Philippians 2:13; Ephesians 1:5, Ephesians 1:9).

Supplication (δεησιςdeēsis). Late word from δεομαιdeomai to want, to beg, to pray. In the papyri. See Luke 1:13. It is noteworthy that, immediately after the discussion of the rejection of Christ by the Jews, Paul prays so earnestly for the Jews “that they may be saved” (εις σωτηριανeis sōtērian), literally “unto salvation.” Clearly Paul did not feel that the case was hopeless for them in spite of their conduct. Bengel says: Non orasset Paul si absolute reprobati essent (Paul would not have prayed if they had been absolutely reprobate). Paul leaves God‘s problem to him and pours out his prayer for the Jews in accordance with his strong words in Romans 9:1-5.

Verse 2

A zeal for God (ζηλον τεουzēlon theou). Objective genitive like Philippians 3:9, “through faith in Christ” (δια πιστεως Χριστουdia pisteōs Christou).

But not according to knowledge (αλλ ου κατ επιγνωσινall' ou kat' epignōsin). They had knowledge of God and so were superior to the Gentiles in privilege (Romans 2:9-11), but they sought God in an external way by rules and rites and missed him (Romans 9:30-33). They became zealous for the letter and the form instead of for God himself.

Verse 3

Being ignorant of God‘s righteousness (αγνοουντες την του τεου δικαιοσυνηνagnoountes tēn tou theou dikaiosunēn). A blunt thing to say, but true as Paul has shown in 2:1-3:20. They did not understand the God-kind of righteousness by faith (Romans 1:17). They misconceived it (Romans 2:4).

They did not subject themselves (ουχ υπεταγησανouch hupetagēsan). Second aorist passive indicative of υποτασσωhupotassō common Koiné{[28928]}ลก verb, to put oneself under orders, to obey, here the passive in sense of the middle (James 4:7) like απεκριτηνapekrithēn I answered.

Verse 4

The end of the law (τελος νομουtelos nomou). Christ put a stop to the law as a means of salvation (Romans 6:14; Romans 9:31; Ephesians 2:15; Colossians 2:14) as in Luke 16:16. Christ is the goal or aim of the law (Galatians 3:24). Christ is the fulfilment of the law (Matthew 5:17; Romans 13:10; 1 Timothy 1:5). But here (Denney) Paul‘s main idea is that Christ ended the law as a method of salvation for “every one that believeth” whether Jew or Gentile. Christ wrote finis on law as a means of grace.

Verse 5

Thereby (εν αυτηιen autēi). That is by or in “the righteousness that is from law.” He stands or falls with it. The quotation is from Leviticus 18:5.

Verse 6

Saith thus (ουτως λεγειhoutōs legei). Paul personifies “the from faith righteousness” (η εκ πιστεως δικαιοσυνηhē ek pisteōs dikaiosunē). A free reproduction from Deuteronomy 30:11-14. Paul takes various phrases from the lxx and uses them for “his inspired conviction and experiences of the gospel” (Denney). He does not quote Moses as saying this or meaning this.

Say not in thy heart (μη ειπηις εν τηι καρδιαι σουmē eipēis en tēi kardiāi sou). Second aorist active subjunctive with μηmē like Deuteronomy 8:17. To say in the heart is to think (Matthew 3:9).

That is, to bring Christ down (τουτ εστιν Χριστον καταγαγεινtout' estin Christon katagagein). Second aorist active infinitive of the common verb καταγωkatagō to bring or lead down. It is dependent on the preceding verb αναβησεταιanabēsetai (shall ascend). Τουτ εστινTout' estin (that is) is what is called Midrash or interpretation as in Romans 9:8. It occurs three times here (Romans 9:6-8). Paul applies the words of Moses to Christ. There is no need for one to go to heaven to bring Christ down to earth. The Incarnation is already a glorious fact. Today some men scout the idea of the Deity and Incarnation of Christ.

Verse 7

Into the abyss (εις την αβυσσονeis tēn abusson). See note on Luke 8:31 for this old Greek word (αa privative and βυσσοςbussos) bottomless like sea (Psalm 106:26), our abyss. In Revelation 9:1 it is the place of torment. Paul seems to refer to Hades or Sheol (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31), the other world to which Christ went after death.

To bring Christ up (Χριστον αναγαγεινChriston anagagein). Second aorist active infinitive of αναγωanagō and dependent on καταβησεταιkatabēsetai (shall descend). Christ has already risen from the dead. The deity and resurrection of Christ are precisely the two chief points of attack today on the part of sceptics.

Verse 8

But what saith it? (αλλα τι λεγειalla ti legei̇). That is “the from faith righteousness.”

The word of faith (το ρημα της πιστεωςto rēma tēs pisteōs). The gospel message concerning faith (objective genitive). Only here. In contrast to the law.

Which we preach (ο κηρυσσομενho kērussomen). The living voice brings home to every one the faith kind of righteousness. Paul seizes upon the words of Moses with the orator‘s instinct and with rhetorical skill (Sanday and Headlam) applies them to the facts about the gospel message about the Incarnation and Resurrection of Christ.

Verse 9

If thou shalt confess (εαν ομολογησηιςean homologēsēis). Third class condition (εανean and first aorist active subjunctive of ομολογεωhomologeō).

With thy mouth Jesus as Lord (εν τωι στοματι σου Κυριον Ιησουνen tōi stomati sou Kurion Iēsoun). This is the reading of nearly all the MSS. But B 71 Clem of Alex. read το ρημα εν τωι στοματι σου οτι Κυριος Ιησουςto rēma en tōi stomati sou hoti Kurios Iēsous (the word in thy mouth that Jesus is Lord). The idea is the same, the confession of Jesus as Lord as in 1 Corinthians 12:3; Philippians 2:11. No Jew would do this who had not really trusted Christ, for ΚυριοςKurios in the lxx is used of God. No Gentile would do it who had not ceased worshipping the emperor as ΚυριοςKurios The word ΚυριοςKurios was and is the touchstone of faith.

And shalt believe (και πιστευσηιςkai pisteusēis). Same construction. Faith precedes confession, of course.

Verse 10

Man believeth (πιστευεταιpisteuetai). Impersonal construction, “it is believed” (present passive indicative of πιστευωpisteuō). The order is reversed in this verse and the true order (faith, then confession).

Confession is made (ομολογειταιhomologeitai). Impersonal construction again, “it is confessed,” “man confesses.” Both καρδιαιkardiāi (heart) and στοματιstomati (mouth) are in the instrumental case.

Verse 11

Every one (παςpās). Paul adds this word to the quotation from Isaiah 28:16 already made in Romans 9:33.

Verse 12

Distinction (διαστοληdiastolē). See note on this word Romans 3:22. Here it is followed by the ablative case Ιουδαιου τε και ελληνοςIoudaiou te kai Hellēnos (between Jew and Greek).

Lord of all (Κυριος παντωνKurios pantōn). See Galatians 3:28.

Rich (πλουτωνploutōn). Present active participle of πλουτεωplouteō See note on Ephesians 3:8 “the unsearchable riches of Christ.”

Verse 13

Paul here quotes Joel 3:5 (Joel 2:32, lxx).

Verse 14

How then shall they call? (πως ουν επικαλεσωνταιpōs oun epikalesōntai̇). Deliberative subjunctive (first aorist middle) of επικαλεομαιepikaleomai (see Romans 10:12, Romans 10:13). The antecedent of εις ονeis hon (in whom) is not expressed.

How shall they believe? (πος πιστευσωσινpos pisteusōsiṅ). Deliberative subjunctive again (first aorist active of πιστευωpisteuō just used). Each time Paul picks up the preceding verb and challenges that. Here again the antecedent εις τουτονeis touton before ονhon is not expressed.

How shall they hear? (πος ακουσωσινpos akousōsiṅ). Deliberative subjunctive (first aorist active of ακουωakouō).

Without a preacher? (χωρις κηρυσσοντοσchōris kērussontoṡ). Preposition χωριςchōris with ablative singular masculine present active participle of κηρυσσωkērussō “without one preaching.”

How shall they preach? (πως κηρυχωσινpōs kēruxōsiṅ). Deliberative subjunctive again (first aorist active κηρυσσωkērussō to preach).

Except they be sent? (εαν μη αποσταλωσινean mē apostalōsiṅ). Second aorist passive deliberative subjunctive of αποστελλωapostellō to send, from which verb αποστολοςapostolos apostle comes. Negative condition of third class. In graphic style Paul has made a powerful plea for missions. It is just as true today as then.

Verse 15

How beautiful (ως ωραιοιHōs hōraioi). A quotation from Isaiah 52:7 more like the Hebrew than the lxx, picturing the messengers of the restoration from the Jewish captivity. Paul assumes that the missionaries (αποστολοιapostoloi) have been sent as implied in Romans 10:14.

Verse 16

But they did not all hearken (ου παντες υπηκουσανou pantes hupēkousan). They heard, but did not heed. Some disbelieve now (Romans 3:3) as they did then. On obedience and disobedience see note on Romans 5:19; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; Galatians 3:2. He quotes Isaiah 53:1 to show how Isaiah felt.

Report (ακοηιakoēi). Literally, “hearing” (Matthew 14:1; Mark 13:7).

Verse 17

By the word of Christ (δια ρηματος Χριστουdia rēmatos Christou). “By the word about Christ” (objective genitive).

Verse 18

Did they not hear? (μη ουκ ηκουσανmē ouk ēkousaṅ). Rather, “Did they fail to hear?” (expecting the negative answer μηmē while ουκouk blends with the verb). See note on 1 Corinthians 9:5 for this construction.

Yea, verily (menounge). Triple particle (menμενουνγεounμεν ουν γεge) as in Romans 9:20.

Sound (πτογγοςphthoggos). Vibration of a musical string. See note on 1 Corinthians 14:7. Only two N.T. examples.

The world (tēs oikoumenēs). The inhabited earth as in Luke 2:1.

Verse 19

Did Israel not know? (μη Ισραελ ουκ εγνωmē Israel ouk egnō̇). “Did Israel fail to know?” See above.

First (πρωτοςprōtos). Moses first before any one else. lxx quotation Deuteronomy 32:21. See note on 1 Corinthians 10:22 for παραζηλωσωparazēlōsō (I will provoke you to jealousy).

With that which is no nation (επ ουκ ετνειep' ouk ethnei). The Jews had worshipped “no-gods” and now God shows favours to a “no-nation” (people).

Will I anger you (παροργιω υμαςparorgiō humas). Future active (Attic future) of παροργιζωparorgizō rare word, to rouse to wrath.

Verse 20

Is very bold (αποτολμαιapotolmāi). Present active indicative of αποτολμαωapotolmaō old word, to assume boldness (αποapo off) and only here in N.T. Isaiah “breaks out boldly” (Gifford). Paul cites Isaiah 65:1 in support of his own courage against the prejudice of the Jews. See on Romans 9:30-33 for illustration of this point.

I was found (ευρετηνheurethēn). First aorist passive indicative of ευρισκωheuriskō f0).

Verse 21

All the day long (ολην την ημερανholēn tēn hēmeran). Accusative of extent of time. He quotes Isaiah 65:2.

Did I spread out (εχεπετασαexepetasa). First aorist active indicative of εκπεταννυμιekpetannumi old verb, to stretch out, bold metaphor, only here in N.T.

Unto a disobedient and a gainsaying people (προς λαον απειτουντα και αντιλεγονταpros laon apeithounta kai antilegonta). “Unto a people disobeying and talking back.” The two things usually go together. Contrary and contradictory (Luke 13:34.).

Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Romans 10". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.