Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Ezekiel 30:5

Ethiopia, Put, Lud, all Arabia, Libya and the people of the land that is in league will fall with them by the sword."
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Chub;   Ethiopia;   Libya;   Ludim;   Lydia;   Phut;   Thompson Chain Reference - Libya;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Ethiopia;   Libya;   Ludim;   Phut or Put;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Africa;   Ethiopia;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Repentance;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Chub;   Ethiopia;   Lud;   Lydia;   Phut;   Put, Phut;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Arabia;   Chub;   Ludim;   Mingled People;   Phut;   Pul (1);   Holman Bible Dictionary - Chub;   Cush;   Libya;   Lud;   Lydia;   Mingled People;   Put;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Cub;   Lud, Ludim;   Lydia (1);   Mixed Multitude;   Put, Phut;   Seveneh;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Lydia ;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Chub;   Lud, Ludim ;   Phut, Put;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Chub;   Egypt;   Ethiopia;   Libya;   Lydia;   Phut;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Chub,;   Phut, Put;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Division of the Earth;   Egypt;   Ludim;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Covenant, in the Old Testament;   Cub;   Libya;   Lud;   Mingled People (Mixed Multitude);   Put;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Africa;   Arabia;   Cherethites;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Lydia - This place is not well known. The Ludim were contiguous to Egypt, Genesis 11:13.

Chub - The Cubians, placed by Ptolemy in the Mareotis. But probably instead of וכוב vechub, "and Chub," we should read וכל vechol, "and All the men of the land," etc. The Septuagint adds "the Persians and the Cretans."

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/ezekiel-30.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Libya, and Lydia - Or, as in Ezekiel 27:10, Phut and Lud.

The mingled people - Foreigners, who settled in Egypt. The Saite dynasty of Egyptian kings were especially favorable to foreign immigrants. Hophra employed many of them in his armies, and in this way, according to Herodotus, lost the affections of his Egyptian subjects. See Jeremiah 25:20 note.

Chub - The word occurs here only. It was some tribe in alliance with Egypt, either of African race like Lud and Phut, or settlers like the “mingled people.” A not-improbable suggestion connects it with Coptos of which the Egyptian form was Qeb Qebt or Qabt The men of the land that is in league - Rather, the children of the land of the covenant, i. e., of Israel (see Ezekiel 16:8). After the destruction of Jerusalem Jews withdrew into Egypt Jeremiah 43:7. Many of them would naturally enough be found in the Egyptian armies. This is in favor of the later date assigned to this section.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/ezekiel-30.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Ethiopia, Lybia, and Lydia,.... Or, "Cush, Phut, and Lud". Cush and Phut were both sons of Ham, from whom Egypt is sometimes called the land of Ham; and Lud or Ludim was the son of Mizraim, the son of Ham, the common name of Egypt in Scripture, Genesis 10:6. Cush is by us rendered Ethiopia; and is thought by some to be a part of Arabia, which lay near to Egypt. Phut and Lud are properly enough rendered Lybia and Lydia; and both these, with Ethiopia, are represented as the allies and confederates of Egypt, Jeremiah 46:9.

And all the mingled people; the Syriac version renders it, "all Arabia": and so Symmachus, according to Jerom; though others think they are the Carians, Ionians, and other Greeks, which Pharaohapries got together to fight with AmasisF7See Prideaux's Connexion, part 1. p. 93. : and "Chub"; or "Cub"; the inhabitants of this piece are thought to be the Cobii of PtolemyF8Geograph. l. 4. c. 5. , who dwelt in Mareotis, a country of Egypt; though some, by a change of a letter, would have them to be the Nubians, a people in Africa; and so the Arabic version here reads it. Of these StraboF9Geograph. l. 17. p. 541, 563. says, on the left of the stream of the Nile dwell the Nubians, a large nation in Lybia; and which he afterwards mentions along with the Troglodytes, Blemmyes, Megabarians, and Ethiopians, that dwell above Syene: and so PtolemyF11Geograph. l. 5. c. 8. speaks of them along with the Megabarians, and as inhabiting to the west of the Avalites: and PlinyF12Nat. Hist. l. 6. c. 30. calls them Nubian Ethiopians, whom he places near the Nile: and a late travellerF13Norden's Travels in Egypt and Nubia, vol. 2. p. 131, 132. in those parts informs us that the confines of Egypt and Nubia are about eight miles above the first cataract (of the Nile); Nubia begins at the villages of Ellkalabsche, and of Teffa; the first is to the east of the Nile, and the second to the west.

And the men of the land that is in league shall fall with them by the sword; all the nations above mentioned, with whomsoever should be found that were confederates with Egypt, should share the same fate with them. The Septuagint render it, "and those of the children of my covenant"; as if the Jews were meant that were in Egypt, who are sometimes called "the children of the covenant", and of "the promise", Acts 3:25, and so some interpret the place; but it takes in all the allies of Egypt, and does not design the Jews, at least not them only.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/ezekiel-30.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

a Cush, and Libya, and Lydia, and all the mingled people, and Chub, and the men of the land that is in league, shall fall with them by the sword.

(a) By Phut and Lud are meant Africa and Libya.
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Bibliographical Information
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/ezekiel-30.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

the mingled people — the mercenary troops of Egypt from various lands, mostly from the interior of Africa (compare Ezekiel 27:10; Jeremiah 25:20, Jeremiah 25:24; Jeremiah 46:9, Jeremiah 46:21).

Chub — the people named Kufa on the monuments [Havernick], a people considerably north of Palestine [Wilkinson]; Coba or Chobat, a city of Mauritania [Maurer].

men of the land that is in league — too definite an expression to mean merely, “men in league” with Egypt; rather, “sons of the land of the covenant,” that is, the Jews who migrated to Egypt and carried Jeremiah with them (Jeremiah 42:1-44:30). Even they shall not escape (Jeremiah 42:22; Jeremiah 44:14).

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/ezekiel-30.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia, and all the mingled people, and Chub, and the men of the land that is in league, shall fall with them by the sword.

Lydia — Not the Asiatic, but the Africans placed between some part of Cyrene and Egypt.

The mingled people — The hired soldiers from all parts, a confused mixture of nations.

And Chub — The inhabitants of the inmost Libya; perhaps they may be the Nubians at this day.

The men — All the allies of Egypt.

With them — With the Egyptians.

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Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/ezekiel-30.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Ezekiel 30:5 Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia, and all the mingled people, and Chub, and the men of the land that is in league, shall fall with them by the sword.

Ver. 5. Chub.] Certain Africans, who shall be worse put to it than were those succeeding Africans, who had a prophecy (but not of like credit with this of Ezekiel), that when the Romans sent an army into their country, Mundus cum tota sua prole periret, which made them think the world should then be at an end. But afterwards the Romans sent an army thither under the conduct of one Mundus, who in battle was slain, together with his sons, by the Africans, and discovered the illusion of the devil. The Septuagint render Chub Spaniards, which I like the better, saith Lavater, (a) because Strabo saith Nebuchadnezzar came with his victorious army as far as Spain.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/ezekiel-30.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Ezekiel 30:5. Lybia and Lydia Or, Mauritania and Abyssinia. All the mingled people, mean their mercenaries and auxiliaries; Chub means the Chubians, placed by Ptolemy in the Mareotis. "I do not know (says Calmet) whether the name of Egypt may not be derived from Cub, or Cubti, or Gubti;—Egubti." The men of the land that is in league, mean the neighbouring people, who were confederate with the Egyptians against the king of Babylon.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/ezekiel-30.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Ethiopia, Heb. Cush, which are commonly thought to be the Ethiopians in Africa, but some more inquisitive geographers have found them originally and chiefly in Arabia, which was either subject or ally to Egypt in its prosperity; and these were, as Ezekiel 30:4, in a panic that, lest the Babylonian should pass the sea, and take them in his way home.

Libya, Heb. Phut; hence the Putaens or Phutaans, who afterwards were better known by Libyans, a part of whose country was near to Egypt.

Lydia; Lydians, not the Asiatic, but the Africans, placed between some part of Cyrene and Egypt.

All the mingled people; the hired soldiers from all parts, a confused mixture of nations, such as the Libyans had got together; or all Arabia, so the word 2 Chronicles 9:14 Isaiah 13:20; or all that ravenous sort of people, that like crows fly to slaughters; so soldiers of fortune follow the wars, and the Hebrew word is crow, Leviticus 11:15 Deuteronomy 14:14 Psalms 147:9, as well as mixed.

Chub; Ethiopians beyond Egypt south, the inhabitants of the inmost Libya, which reached to the Nigritae; perhaps they may be the Nubians at this day, a letter easily changed.

The men of the land that is in league; the sons of the land of the covenant: some refer to the Jews, children of the covenant, but this is forced; it is all the people of Egypt’s league, all the allies of the Egyptian kingdom. With them; with the Egyptians.

By the sword; in war by the sword of Babylon.

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Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/ezekiel-30.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

5.Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia — R.V., “Ethiopia [or, Cush], and Put, and Lud.” (See notes Ezekiel 27:10; compare Ezekiel 38:5.) LXX. reads “Persia” for Ethiopia, but Ethiopia about this time had especial prominence in the world’s annals. The Assyrian monarch conquered Tirhakah of Egypt (about 671 B.C.), and called him on a stele of Senjerli “king of Ethiopia” (Kuss), and represented him on the tablet as a little negro with curly hair (B. and O. Record, July, 1891).

Mingled people — It is not known to what people this refers (compare Jeremiah 25:24), if indeed it does not refer to the mercenaries and allies in Hophra’s army.

Chub — R.V., “Cub.” Naville compares with the Egyptian Keneb, the name for the Ethiopians and negroes; Brugsch with Qeb, Qabt (Coptos); Smend reads Lub, with LXX., that is, “Libyans” (compare Nahum 3:9; 2 Chronicles 16:8), which is the most probable, with present knowledge.

Men of the land that is in league — Literally, the children of the land of the covenant, but probably not referring here to the Israelites. Toy reads “Cherethites.” (Compare Ezekiel 25:16.) One version reads “Cretans.” (Compare the khab-iri, “confederates,” mentioned in the Tel-el-Amarna tablets.)

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/ezekiel-30.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Ezekiel 30:5. Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia — The names in Hebrew are Cush, Phut, and Lud, which are mentioned together as the Egyptian allies, Jeremiah 46:9. Cush probably signifies Ethiopia here, being joined with Phut and Lud, which were nations of Africa. And all the mingled people — All their mercenary soldiers, consisting of various nations. If we distinguish these from the men of the land, mentioned afterward, they may mean that mixture of Carians, Ionians, and other nations lying upon the Mediterranean sea, which Apries got together to encounter Amasis, who, together with him, were destroyed. And Chub — The Cubii are mentioned by Ptolemy as a people of Mareotis, a province of Egypt. There is no mention of this people anywhere else in the Scriptures. According to Michaelis, the ancient geographers have a mercantile town, Kubee, on the Indian sea, under the eighth degree of north latitude.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/ezekiel-30.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Lydia. Hebrew, "Phut," near Egypt. (Calmet) --- These troops were paid. (Haydock) --- Chub, in Mareotis. --- Covenant: the Jews or auxiliaries. Septuagint add, "the Persians and Cretans." (Calmet) --- There were Persians in Africa who followed Hercules. (Pliny, [Natural History?] v. 8.)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/ezekiel-30.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Libya . Lydia. Hebrew Phut . . . Led. Compare Ezekiel 27:10. Genesis 10:6. These were an African people. Compare Jeremiah 46:9. Nahum 3:9.

mingled people = mixed multitude: i.e. the allies of Babylon. Compare Jeremiah 25:20.

Chub. Perhaps Caba, in Mauretania, or Cobe, in Ethiopia.

men = sons.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/ezekiel-30.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia, and all the mingled people, and Chub, and the men of the land that is in league, shall fall with them by the sword.

All the mingled people - the mercenary troops of Egypt from various lands, mostly from the interior of Africa (cf. Ezekiel 27:10; Jeremiah 25:20; Jeremiah 25:24; Jeremiah 46:9; Jeremiah 46:21).

Chub - the people named Kufa on the monuments (Havernick); a people considerably north of Palestine (Wilkinson); Coba or Chobat, a city of Mauritania (Maurer).

The men of the land that is in league - too definite an expression to mean merely men in league with Egypt; rather, 'son's of the land of the covenant' - i:e., the Jews who migrated to Egypt and carried Jeremiah with them (Jeremiah 42:1-22; Jeremiah 43:1-13; Jeremiah 44:1-30.) Even they shall not escape (Jeremiah 42:22; Jeremiah 44:14).

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/ezekiel-30.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(5) Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia.—Ethiopia and Egypt were closely connected, and during much of their history were often under one government. Ethiopian soldiers served in great numbers in the Egyptian armies. Libya and Lydia are an unfortunate substitution for the original terms, Phut and Lud, which are preserved in Ezekiel 27:10, where see Note. They are there mentioned as furnishing mercenaries to the Tyrian army; and it is known historically that they supplied them to a still greater extent to the Egyptian army.

All the mingled people, and Chub.—There is the same expression, “mingled people,” in reference to Egypt, in Jeremiah 25:20. In the connection here it may be understood especially of the foreign mercenaries from various quarters in the Egyptian armies. Chub is a name entirely unknown. Various conjectures have been hazarded, and various changes in the text proposed, but none are supported by sufficient evidence. It evidently denotes some ally of Egypt, possibly Nubia.

Men of the land that is in league.—Literally, sons of the land of the covenant. The ancient interpreters, St. Jerome and Theodoret, understood this expression of the Jews who had sought refuge from Nebuchadnezzar in Egypt after the murder of Gedaliah (Jeremiah 42, 43, 44), to whom Jeremiah had expressly prophesied that the sword and famine of which they were afraid should overtake them there (Jeremiah 42:16-18). This interpretation is supported by the translation of the Septuagint, made in Egypt, “land of my covenant.” The objection made to this view, that Palestine is never called “the land of the covenant,” and that this must therefore signify some unknown country in alliance with Egypt at the time, seems rather specious than real. If it happens that this expression is never used of Palestine, yet that was unquestionably the land of the people of the covenant, and a particular expression may very well be used once without occurring again.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/ezekiel-30.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia, and all the mingled people, and Chub, and the men of the land that is in league, shall fall with them by the sword.
Ethiopia
Isaiah 18:1; 20:4; Jeremiah 46:9; Nahum 3:8,9
Libya
Heb. Phut.
27:10
all the
Jeremiah 25:20,24; 50:37
men
Heb. children. that is.
Jeremiah 44:27
Reciprocal: Genesis 10:13 - Ludim;  2 Chronicles 12:3 - Lubims;  2 Chronicles 14:9 - Zerah;  Isaiah 66:19 - Tarshish;  Ezekiel 30:9 - messengers;  Ezekiel 38:5 - Libya;  Acts 2:10 - Libya

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Ezekiel 30:5". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/ezekiel-30.html.