Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 22:1

Then he showed me a river of the water of life, clear as crystal, coming from the throne of God and of the Lamb,
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Church;   Crystal;   Heaven;   Jesus Continued;   Lamb of God;   Readings, Select;   River;   Vision;   Thompson Chain Reference - Future, the;   Heaven;   Heavenly;   Home;   Living Water;   Rivers;   Water;   Water of Life;   Wells;   The Topic Concordance - Coming of the Lord Jesus Christ;   Living Waters;   Servants;   Tree of Life;   Truth;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Water;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Apocalyptic literature;   Eschatology;   Evil;   Healing;   Heaven;   Lamb;   Mission;   Paradise;   Revelation, book of;   Temple;   Vision;   Water;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Drink;   Heaven, Heavens, Heavenlies;   Water;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Obedience;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Crystal;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Paradise;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Crystal;   Fountain;   Heaven;   Heavenly City, the;   Minerals and Metals;   Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Jewels and Precious Stones;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Ascension (2);   Fellowship (2);   God;   Lamb;   Mediator;   New Jerusalem;   River ;   River (2);   Sanctify, Sanctification;   Street;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Crystal;   Lamb;   Revelation, the;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Crystal;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - River;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Crystal;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Crystal;   Jerusalem, New;   Life;   Revelation of John:;   River;   Stones, Precious:;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Eden, Garden of;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Pure river of water of life - This is evidently a reference to the garden of paradise, and the river by which it was watered; and there is also a reference to the account, Ezekiel 47:7-12. Water of life, as we have seen before, generally signifies spring or running water; here it may signify incessant communications of happiness proceeding from God.

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Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-22.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And he showed me a pure river of water of life - In the New Jerusalem; the happy abode of the redeemed. The phrase “water of life,” means living or running water, like a spring or fountain, as contrasted with a stagnant pool. See the notes on John 4:14. The allusion here is doubtless to the first Eden, where a river watered the garden (Genesis 2:10, seq.), and as this is a description of Eden recovered, or Paradise regained, it was natural to introduce a river of water also, yet in such a way as to accord with the general description of that future abode of the redeemed. It does not spring up, therefore, from the ground, but flows from the throne of God and the Lamb. Perhaps, also, the writer had in his eye the description in Ezekiel 47:1-12, where a stream issues from under the temple, and is parted in different directions.

Clear as crystal - See the notes on Revelation 4:6.

Proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb - Flowing from the foot of the throne. Compare Revelation 4:6. This idea is strictly in accordance with Oriental imagery. In the East, fountains and running streams constituted an essential part of the image of enjoyment and prosperity (see the notes on Isaiah 35:6), and such fountains were common in the courts of Oriental houses. Here, the river is an emblem of peace, happiness, plenty; and the essential thought in its flowing from the throne is, that all the happiness of heaven proceeds from God.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-22.html. 1870.

The Biblical Illustrator

Revelation 22:1

A pure river of water of life, clear as crystal

The life river

I.
It is a river of heaven. They that drink of it must drink immortality and love. “It is the river of God.”

II. It is a river of grace. It flows from the throne of the Lamb; and everything that has connection with the Lamb is necessarily of grace.

III. It is a river of power. It comes from the throne--the throne of God; and therefore possessing the properties of that throne. It communicates power into the soul of every one that drinks, or even that walks along its banks. The power and authority of God are in it; for it issues from the fountainhead of universal power.

IV. A river of purity. “A pure river of water of life!” Like the Lamb from whose throne it comes, who is without blemish, and without spot! Like the city through which it flows, into which nothing that defileth shall enter! As it pours its heavenly waters on us now, it purifies.

V. A river of life. Wheresoever the river cometh it quickeneth (Ezekiel 47:9). Each drop is life-giving; it contains everlasting life, for the Spirit of life is in that river.

VI. A river of brightness. The words “clear as crystal” should be “bright as crystal”--the same word as in Revelation 22:16, “the bright and morning star.” It is river of splendour, Divine and heavenly splendour. (H. Bonar, D. D.)

The river of life: or the spiritual enjoyments of the heavenly life

I. The spiritual enjoyments of the heavenly life are abundant in their measure. “And He showed me a pure river.” Great cities are generally built on the banks of rivers to ensure health, commerce, and pleasure. The spread of the Gospel is sometimes set forth under the emblem of a river (Ezekiel 17:1; Habakkuk 2:14; Psalms 16:4). Here, however, we have the spiritual enjoyment of redeemed and glorified humanity imaged forth. St. John did not see a brook, or a well, but a river flowing from the great Throne. The spiritual enjoyments of heaven are not scanty. On this river the richest products will be borne to glorified humanity.

II. The spiritual enjoyments of the heavenly life are pure in their nature. “Pure”--“Clear as crystal.” Are we to judge of the purity of water by its cleansing properties? Then none so pure as this which flows from the Throne of God, as it can purify the unclean soul. It can wash out sins of the deepest dye from the garments of the moral nature, and make them white as no fuller on earth can whiten them; hence, the faultless multitude before the throne.

III. The spiritual enjoyments of the heavenly life are invigorating in their energy. “Water of life.” This great river of heaven is not sluggish in its flow, but quick and rapid. It gives life and verdure wherever it comes. The things of earth are dead and barren, but when touched by the influence and grace of the Divine Spirit they teem with vitality. But the life of the soul now is nothing in intensity as compared with what it will be when it attains the enjoyment of heaven. Then it will become possessed of an immortal vitality which shall know from decay or decline.

IV. The spiritual enjoyments of the heavenly life eternally meet the needs of the human soul. The thirsty there have a river at which they can drink, and which will never be exhausted. The Divine gifts in heaven will be adapted to the requirements of our renewed and glorified natures. Thus the soul will be made glad.

V. The spiritual enjoyments of the heavenly life are the outcome of the sovereign mercy of God. “Out Of the Throne of God and of the Lamb.” And so all the spiritual enjoyments of heaven, in abundance, in purity, in life, in satisfaction, and in perpetuity will be the outcome of the Sovereign Grace of God as exercised through and manifested in the mediatorial work of Jesus Christ. Lessons:

1. That we should prize the ordinances through which the water of life is conveyed to men.

2. Contemplate the active spiritual enjoyment of the good. (J. S. Exell, M. A.)

Divine love river

I. Exhaustless. It rises from the infinitude of the Divine nature--a source unfathomable.

II. Universal. This river rolls everywhere. It rolls under the universe: and all things float on its waves. It refreshes and beautifies all.

III. Ever flowing. The inexhaustible fountain is always active, outpouring itself. Creation is a work never finished, for the river of Divine love is overflowing.

IV. Restorative. It at once resuscitates and cleanses: it quenches thirst and removes defilement. Christ is the channel through which flows this soul-restorative love. (Homilist.)

Christianity a transcendental system

I. It is transcendental in its Value. What on earth is of such worth as water? But what is the character of this water?

1. It is a “river”--not a stagnant pool, a sleeping lake, or a purling brook; but a river, profound in depth, majestic in volume, resistless in movement.

2. It is a “pure” river. How pure is Christianity! How holy its morals, how morally perfect its leading character--Christ!

3. It is a pure river of life.

4. It is a pure river of life that is transparent. “Clear as crystal.”

II. It is transcendental in its Origin.

1. It proceeds from “the throne”--the centre of universal authority. Christianity is a code rather than a creed, more regulative than speculative.

2. It proceeds from the “throne of God.” Christianity is a Divine system; its congruity with all collateral history, with our moral intuitions, with all our a priori notions of a God, proves its Divinity.

3. It proceeds from the “throne of God and of the Lamb.” Christ has to do with it. Conclusion: Such is the gospel. Value river. Kind Heaven, speed the course of this river! May it penetrate every region of the world, and roll its waves of life through every heart! (Homilist.)

Heaven

I. Wherein the glorified life in heaven will be similar to, and wherein it will differ from, spiritual life on earth.

1. The first truth that meets us in this passage is, that the influences which will sustain the future life in heaven are described in precisely the same figurative language as that used by our Lord and the inspired writers in relation to the spiritual life on earth. That which John saw flowing in the midst of the street from its perennial source in the throne of God and the Lamb was a river of “water” of life. This is exactly the language used in Scripture to indicate the powers and influences which sustain the spiritual man in this world. Isaiah invites men to partake of spiritual blessings in the words: “Ho! every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters.” Jeremiah thus laments over the unfaithfulness of the Jews: “‘For my people have forsaken me, the fountain of living waters, and have hewn out to themselves cisterns, broken cisterns, that can hold no water.” “If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith unto thee, Give Me to drink, thou wouldst have asked of Him, and He would have given thee living water.” We are clearly taught, therefore, by this vision of the apostle, that while the outward condition of the life in heaven will be vastly changed, the weak and sinful body giving place to one like the glorified body of Christ--yet the life itself will be the same. We shall then continue to be what we begin to be now. Heavenly life, in its deepest and inmost reality, is begun on earth. As, in the unopened bud, there are in microscopic form all that will afterwards expand into the flower; as, in the child, there are all the incipient faculties that will afterwards develop into the full power and maturity of manhood; so with man as a spiritual being. Grace is the infancy of glory, and glory is the manhood of grace. Natural death, which, when seen from the human side, appears an overwhelming catastrophe, can have no power over that life--it only separates the germ from the material husk in which it has been enclosed.

2. As then the future life will be a continuation under changed conditions of the life we possess now, it follows not only that present experience must in its measure be the only true interpretation of the future, but, further, the glory of that future life reflects light back upon the present. It becomes us not only to fix our hopes upon the blessings yet in reserve, but to prize highly those we have already received. While we think of heaven as the one hope of the present life, let us learn to set more value on and use more diligently the grace which sovereign mercy has already bestowed.

II. Wherein the glorified life in heaven will differ from spiritual life on earth.

1. Observe, as the first special characteristic of this water of life, that it flows in a river, at once suggesting the idea of unfailing abundance. Our great rivers never become dry. Generations of men are born and perform their part in life and then die, while the rivers of which they drank, and beside which they built their cities, remain the same. Some, like the Nile, have been flowing from long before historic times. “Men may come, and men may go, but they flow on for ever.” And the blessings that will be given in the future to sustain the spiritual life of the believer are here symbolised by a river of water of life, denoting certainly, among other things, that in heaven there will be an unfailing abundance of whatever is necessary to sustain the life and growth of the spiritual nature. No pressing need will ever darken the brightness of that Divine home, or promote the decay of spiritual vigour. The river flows from the throne of God and the Lamb. Its source is perennial. Sooner shall all the powers of the universe fail; sooner shall God Himself cease to be God, than the fountains from which spiritual blessings flow become dry or empty.

2. Observe, as a second point, that John saw the river of water of life flowing in the midst of the street. To understand the symbolism here, we must remember that the street is the place where men meet together, where they pursue their varied occupations. And the golden undefiled street of the New Jerusalem represents the scene of the common activities of the life there. And the position of the river flowing in the midst of the street teaches the truth that whatever the occupations may be, there will be nothing in them antagonistic to the highest interests of the spiritual life. Now the street is the scene of ears and toil. Here on earth it is the place where temptations have to be met, where sin assaults and wickedness displays itself. No river of water of life flows in the midst of our streets, but rather the waters of ungodliness and iniquity. The man who longs for communion with God does not go into the open highways of human traffic to find strength and peace: he goes, rather, into his closet. He must put the world outside in order to pray for the lessening of the power of the world within. But in heaven fellowship with God will need neither abstraction nor privacy. Every occupation will harmonise with the highest aspirations of man’s renewed nature. All outward things will perfectly accord with and promote the well-being of his spirit.

3. Observe, further, John speaks in the most emphatic manner of the purity of that river. “A pure river of water of life clear as crystal.” Spiritual influences, the truth that enlightens, the Divine grace that quickens and sustains the spirit, are in themselves always pure. But how continually on earth they become dimmed and weakened by mixing with what is human and worldly! How strangely truth becomes mixed with error, and Divine influences marred and weakened by human passions and prejudices! What man can maintain that he has received and holds only the truth? that he has made no mistakes? that in him the grace of God is unmarred by any human weaknesses or by any contrary affections? But in heaven the river of water of life is “pure, clear as crystal”; it has no admixture of error or imperfection; it has never become adulterated by inferior elements.

4. Then observe, as a last point, this vision of John teaches that in heaven faith will give place to sight. John “saw the river of water of life proceeding from the throne of God and the Lamb.” How much of unbelief and misbelief mingles with the strongest faith on earth! How insidiously doubts creep into our minds and rob them of their joyful confidence! There are times when our fear suggests that the ground of our faith is slipping away from beneath our feet. But those who will drink of that pure stream will behold the source whence it comes; they will have no need of faith, and they will have no temptation to doubt. Every joy will be permeated and intensified by a sense of blessed certainty that it is the true gift of the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb. (W. H. King.)

The river of life

I. Its source.

II. Its progress.

III. Its properties.

1. Living. “Water of life” (John 4:10).

2. Pure (Ezekiel 36:25; Ephesians 4:30).

3. Bright. “Clear as crystal.” Radiant with light. Illuminating.

IV. Its effects.

1. Quickening (Ezekiel 47:9; John 4:14; John 7:37-39).

2. Beautifying (Isaiah 35:1; Isaiah 35:6-7; Isaiah 58:11).

3. Fructifying (Revelation 22:12; Jeremiah 17:8; Psalms 1:3; Isaiah 55:1; Revelation 22:17). (E. H. Hopkins.)

Gleaming as crystal

If we are to understand the New Jerusalem properly, we almost need to have been citizens of the old. Observe, then, that the ancient Jerusalem was not situated, as most cities, on the banks of some river, or the shore of some sea. It stood in a peculiar position, at some distance from either: it was badly watered; we read of a pool or two, of a little brook, of an aqueduct and some other artificial water-structures. Bearing this fact in mind, you will understand how forcible an appeal to the imagination would be contained in the verse of the 46th Psalm, which tells of a river that should “make glad the city of God.” In evidence of the foregoing you may notice the following remark of Philo on the verse quoted: “The holy city, which exists at present, in which also the holy temple is established, is at a great distance from any sea or river, so that it is clear that the writer here means figuratively to speak of some other city than the visible city of God.” It is evident, therefore, that the mention of a pure, fresh stream flowing through the midst of Jerusalem was a figure of a very striking nature; and we say that the basis of this magnificent description in the Apocalypse lies in the insufficiency of the water supply of the ancient city. The life of the future, and by that we mean heaven on earth as well as heaven, shall be as different from that which you are now realising as the water supply of Jerusalem would be if a river flowed in the midst, from what it is now with merely Kidron and Bethesda and Siloam and Solomon’s Pools.

1. It is not a standstill life: no one can stand still who lives with God. There must be fresh discoveries of truth and duty every day; and fresh inquisition made into the heights and depths of Redeeming Love. Abandonment to God must mean advancement in God.

2. Neither in earth nor in heaven is the life to be an intermittent one. There should be no such word as “revival” in the dictionary of the Christian Church: we want “life,” not “revival.” You hear people saying of certain religious movings--“They are having quite a revival”; alas! and were they dead before? Indeed, I am sure this intermittent fountain expresses only too accurately the lives of many of us. The best that God can do with us is to make us an occasional blessing--a sorrowful thing to confess when there are suffering ones around waiting and watching the surface of our hearts to see whether there is any moving of the water.

3. It is not a life for which the world is too strong, and which cannot therefore be kept pure. It is not figured by a little brook, as Kidron, defiled with all the impurities of a city, and that an Oriental city. And yet how many lives there are of which we have to say, “The world is too strong for them”; well-intentioned people, but feeble in grace, and who have received but little of the Life of God.

4. It is not a humanly-devised life, as Solomon’s aqueducts. Our faith stands not in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God. The Divine Life is not sect, and it is not system. The channel of a sect! it is a pipe that bursts when the tide of life rises beyond a certain point. The channel of a system I it is an aqueduct through which, if one stone be taken out, the water ceases to reach you. If one travels on the continent, one can see (I think it is at Avignon) the ruins of the ancient Roman aqueduct; but the Rhine and the rest of the rivers of God flow on still, full of water.

5. Finally, we may say, that the Life is one of absolute dependence, and is conditioned on the sovereignty of God and of the Lamb. Grace and the Holy Ghost are the portions of the dependent soul: they only flow from the throne of God and of the Lamb. (J. Rendel Harris.)

The throne of God and of the Lamb.--

The coronation of the Lamb

Regarding here the mere grammar of the words, we have a partnership Deity presented. But the matter I have now in hand is not the plurality encountered, but the name; to trace the ascending progress, issued in the final coronation, of the Lamb. The ascending stages of this progress we shall best discover if we glance at the Scripture record of the story. The word “lamb” begins of course at the creature, and the creature required, first of all, to be created, having just the qualities of innocence, inoffensiveness, incapacity of resentment and ill-nature, ready submissiveness to wrong, necessary to the intended meaning, and the finally sacred uses, of the word. Lambs of nature were first-stage symbols, for the due unfolding of the Lamb of religion. Then follows, we may see, a process in which artificial meanings are woven into and about the words and images provided, by the religious uses of sacrifice; for God is now to be displayed in the dear passivities of sacrifice. Abel. Sacrifice of Isaac. Passover (Isaiah 3:1-26; Isaiah 53:1-12.). At last the fulness of time is come; when a strange new prophet appears, announcing the kingdom of God now at hand. “Behold the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world.” Now at last the advances and preparations of so many ages are ended, the Lamb of God is come. And then what does He Himself do, three years after, when He encounters the two disciples going back, heavy-hearted, into the country, but open to them all the ancient scripture, showing out of it how certainly Christ ought to suffer, and so to be the Lamb of prophecy. And what does He give them to see, in this manner, but that all sacrifice and passover are now fulfilled forever in His Divine passion? Then, passing on a stage farther, we are completely certified in our impressions, by the discovery that, at this same Lamb and passover blood, all apostolic preaching begins. God’s new gospel of life is the revelation of the Lamb. For this, says Philip to the eunuch, is the prophet’s “lamb that was dumb before His shearers.” And this, says Peter, is “the precious blood of Christ as of a lamb without blemish and without spot.”

1. What does it signify, that God has now the Lamb throned with Him, but that He is now to be more and more distinctly conceived as a susceptible being; to be great, not as being absolute, or an infinite force, not as being impassive--a rock, a sea, a storm, a fire--but as having great sentiments, sympathies and sensibilities. Nothing has been so difficult for men as to think of God in this manner. The human soul is overborne, at first and for long ages, by the satutral dimensions of God; filling up this idea with mere quantities; putting omnipotence in the foreground, and making Him a grand positivity of force; adding omniscience, or absolutely intuitive knowledge, adding also will, purpose, arbitrary predestination, decrees: exalting justice, not as right or rectitude, but as the fearful attribute of redress, that backs up laws regarded mainly as rescripts of will in God, and not as principles. He has always been at work to mend this defect in us; protesting by His prophets, in the matter of His sensibilities, that He is “hurt,” “offended,” “weary,” “was grieved forty years,” that “in the affliction of His people He was afflicted, and bare and carried them all the days of old.” All this in words to little or no effect; but now He shows us in the Lamb, as the crowning fact of revelation, that He is a God in moral sensibility--able to suffer wrong, bear enemies, gentle Himself to violence, reigning thus in what is none the less a kingdom, that it is the kingdom and patience of Jesus. Physical suffering is of course excluded by the fact of His infinite sufficiency, but that is a matter quite insignificant for Him, compared with His moral suffering. Under such conceptions of God we of course approach the great matter of atonement, in a wholly different predisposition. We shall look for something that belongs to the Lamb, something in the nature of suffering patience, and sorrow. What we call grace, forgiveness, mercy, is not something elaborated after God is God, by transactional work before Him, but it is what belongs to His inmost nature set forth and revealed to us by the Lamb, in joint supremacy.

2. God’s nature itself is relational to both sin and redemption. Sometimes we begin to imagine that the sense of sin is likely, as things are just now going, to quite die out. No, the Lamb is in the throne, and it is impossible henceforth, that a God unrelational to sin, or a fate unbeneficently relational, should ever be accepted by the settled faith of the world. Simply to think the supreme eminence there of the Lamb is to look on Him we have pierced, and see Him rising higher and yet higher, age upon age, and feel the arrows that were hid in His sorrows growing even more pungently sharp in our guilty sensibility. All the more resistless too will be the stabs of bad conviction, that they are meant to be salutary, and are in fact the surgery of a faithful healing power. We are also shown by this revelation of the Lamb in the throne, and shall more and more distinctly see, that the nature of God is, in like manner, relational to redemption. The two points, in fact, go together and are verified by the same evidence. It is not for one moment to be imagined that Christ the Lamb has somehow softened God and made Him better. He came down from God as the Lamb that was slain from the foundation of the world, and the gospel He gave us is called the everlasting gospel, because it has been everlastingly in God, and will everlastingly be. God’s nature is so far relational to redemption, that His glorious possibilities are bleeding always into the bosom of evil. There is a fixed necessity of blood, and He has the everlasting fountain of it in His Lambhood. So that condemnation for evil, or sin, is not a whir more sure to follow than forgiveness, sweetened by self-propitiation.

3. Having the Lamb now in the throne, it will be more and mere clear to men’s thoughts that God’s most difficult and really most potent acts of administration are from the tenderly enduring capacity of His goodness, represented by the Lamb. The richness and patience of His feeling nature, in one word His dispositions, are the all-dominating powers of His reign. What He is in the Lamb--determines what He is and does universally. (H. Bushnell, D. D.)

The throne of God and of the Lamb

I. “Behold the lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.” Look at Him in the dawn of His ministry, when first He comes within the range of mortal vision--a man, a lowly man, one chosen out of the people. He lived and He died in the presence of many witnesses: what further evidence could be desired that Jesus was a man and not a myth, a lamb-like man, and none of your pretenders to greatness? His character, too, is so purely natural that the example of excellence He sets needs no explanation. How lamb-like He is I Thus you see the Lamb of God among men: will you track His footsteps still farther on till He becomes the Lamb of sacrifice, and actually takes the sin of man upon Himself, that He may bear its penalty?

II. Behold the throne. Let us see it first from the Lamb’s side of it. Of course there is only one throne: God and the Lamb are not divided. The Lamb is God, and the interests of God and the Lamb are one. Acknowledging the oneness of the throne, we proceed to inspect it from the point of view in which the Lamb chiefly challenges our notice. You will remember that He is portrayed to us as “the Lamb in the midst of the throne.” The midst of the throne means the front of the throne, according to the Greek. The Lamb was not on the throne in that vision, but standing immediately before it. That is a position in which our Lord Jesus Christ would have us see Him. To the awful throne of God there could be no access except through a mediator. The throne of heaven is the throne of God and of the Lamb. His dominion over nature always appears to me a delightful contemplation. Lord of all the realms of life and death, His providence runs without knot or break through all the tangled skeins of time. All events, obvious or obscure, great or small, are subject to His influence, and fostered or frustrated by His supremacy. The Lord reigneth, and of the increase of His government and peace there shall be no end. Well, that is the aspect of the throne from the side of the Lamb. Let us now take another look and behold the throne of God. The throne of God is the throne of the Lamb. The throne of God, if we view it as sinners, with a sense of guilt upon our conscience, is an object of terror, a place to fly from. Henceforth eternal praises to His name, the throne of God is the throne of the Lamb. It is a throne of righteousness, but no less a throne of grace. There, on the throne of the Almighty, mercy reigns. According to the merit of the sacrifice and the virtue of the atonement all the statutes and decrees of the kingdom of heaven are issued. The altar and the throne have become identical. One fact remains to be noticed--it is this: the throne of God and of the Lamb is in heaven. We must pass beyond this earthly region, and join the company of those who people the celestial realm before we can see the throne of God, so as to obtain a complete view of it. Is not this among the chief joys of heaven? What hallowed communion with Him we shall there enjoy. In His Church below He has given us some pleasant foretaste of His sweet converse; but there the Lamb that is in the midst of the throne shall always feed them, and shall lead them to living fountains of water. (C. H. Spurgeon.)

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Bibliographical Information
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "Revelation 22:1". The Biblical Illustrator. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/revelation-22.html. 1905-1909. New York.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And he showed me a pure river of water of life,.... Not baptism, which used to be administered in rivers and pools of water; and which engaged to purity of life; and, the power and authority of administering which was from God and Christ; but in this Jerusalem state there will be no use nor need of ordinances; for Revelation 22:1 belongs to the preceding chapter, and is a continuation of the same account, this being not a new vision, but a part of the former, which the same angel, as in Revelation 21:9 proceeds to show to John: nor is the Holy Ghost intended by this river, whose gifts and graces are sometimes, for their plenty, purity, and quickening virtue, compared to rivers of living water; and who is a pure and holy Spirit, and proceeds from the Father and the Son: nor the doctrine of the Gospel, which comes from the blessed God, and is the Gospel of Christ; and, when purely and faithfully preached, is clear as crystal; and is the means of conveying spiritual life to men, and of supporting it in them: nor the ultimate joys of heaven, which may be called a river of pleasure, for the fulness and variety of delight; pure, and clear as crystal, for the holiness and perfect knowledge of that state; and be said to proceed from the throne of God and the Lamb, being the free gift of God through Christ; but this state is not designed here: rather, therefore, by this river is meant the everlasting love of God, which may be compared to a river for its largeness and abundance, its height and depth, its length and breadth; and for the large displays of it in this state, when its waters will increase, and be a broad river to swim in, and be unpassable; and for the streams of it in election, redemption, calling, justification, pardon, adoption, and eternal life, which make glad the city of God; and for the pleasure it yields, and the fruitfulness it gives to those who drink of it: it may be called a river "of water of life", because in the present state of things it quickens such who are dead in trespasses and sins; revives the saints when dead and lifeless, supports their spirits, and is a cordial that preserves from fainting; it keeps and secures from dying the second death and is the spring and source of eternal life; and that itself will last and flow for ever, it is ever running water, it is everlasting love: and it may be said to be pure and

clear as crystal, it being free from all hypocrisy and dissimulation, being real, hearty, and sincere, both in the Father and in Christ, of which the fullest proofs and demonstrations are given; and being clear of all motives and conditions in the creature, by which it might be influenced; and it engaging to purity and holiness of life and conversation; for the doctrine, which brings the account of it, and the inward principle of grace, which is the fruit of it, and every discovery of it, have a tendency hereunto:

proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb; not taking its rise from man's obedience, nor from his love to God, nor from his faith in Christ; for the love of God is prior to all these, and is the spring and cause of them, and therefore cannot be moved and influenced by them; but it has its origin from the sovereignty of God and of Christ, signified by the throne of both, who will be gracious to whom they will be gracious; nor can any reason be given why they love any of the sons of men, but their own sovereign will and pleasure; this is the sole motive, spring, and cause of their love; and God and the Lamb being mentioned together, shows both the equal dignity of their persons, being on the same throne, and the equality of their love to the inhabitants of the new Jerusalem: and thus, as a river adds to the pleasure, use, convenience, and wholesomeness of a city, this glorious city is commended by such a river running by it, or in the midst of it: there may be an allusion to the river which ran out of the garden of Eden, for this will be a paradisiacal state, Genesis 2:9 or rather to the waters in Ezekiel 47:1 which came from under the threshold of the Sanctuary; though this river proceeds not from the temple, there being no temple in this state, but from the throne of God and the Lamb, which is instead of it.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
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Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-22.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And 1 he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

(1) Here is absolved and finished the description of the celestial Church (as I showed before) {See (Revelation 21:12) } by the effects in (Revelation 22:5), and then this book is concluded in the rest of the chapter. The effects proceeding from God, who dwells in the Church, are these: the everlasting grace of God, in this verse, the eternal life of the godly, as in (Revelation 2:7) the eternal fruits which the godly bring forth to God, themselves and others, (Revelation 22:2), freedom and immunity from all evil, God himself taking pleasure in his servants, and they likewise in their God, (Revelation 22:3). The beholding and sight of God, and sealing of the faithful from all eternity, (Revelation 22:4) the light of God and an everlasting kingdom and glory, (Revelation 22:5).
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-22.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Revelation 22:1-21. The river of life: The tree of life: The other blessednesses of the redeemed. John forbidden to worship the angel. Nearness of Christ‘s coming to fix man‘s eternal state. Testimony of Jesus, His Spirit, and the Bride, any addition to which, or subtraction from which, shall be eternally punished. Closing benediction.

pure — A, B, Vulgate, and Hilary 22, omit.

water of life — infinitely superior to the typical waters in the first Paradise (Genesis 2:10-14); and even superior to those figurative ones in the millennial Jerusalem (Ezekiel 47:1, Ezekiel 47:12; Zechariah 14:8), as the matured fruit is superior to the flower. The millennial waters represent full Gospel grace; these waters of new Jerusalem represent Gospel glory perfected. Their continuous flow from God, the Fountain of life, symbolizes the uninterrupted continuance of life derived by the saints, ever fresh, from Him: life in fullness of joy, as well as perpetual vitality. Like pure crystal, it is free from every taint: compare Revelation 4:6, “before the throne a sea of glass, like crystal.”

clearGreek, “bright.”

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-22.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

He shewed me (εδειχεν μοιedeixen moi). The angel as in Revelation 21:9, Revelation 21:10 (cf. Revelation 1:1; Revelation 4:1). Now the interior of the city.

A river of water of life (ποταμον υδατος ζωηςpotamon hudatos zōēs). For υδωρ ζωηςhudōr zōēs (water of life) see Revelation 7:17; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:17; John 4:14. There was a river in the Garden of Eden (Genesis 2:10). The metaphor of river reappears in Zechariah 14:8; Ezekiel 47:9, and the fountain of life in Joel 3:18; Jeremiah 2:13; Proverbs 10:11; Proverbs 13:14; Proverbs 14:27; Proverbs 16:22; Psalm 36:10.

Bright as crystal (λαμπρον ως κρυσταλλονlampron hōs krustallon). See Revelation 4:6 for κρυσταλλονkrustallon and Revelation 15:6; Revelation 19:8; Revelation 22:16 for λαμπρονlampron “Sparkling like rock crystal” (Swete), shimmering like mountain water over the rocks.

Proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb (εκπορευομενον εκ του τρονου του τεου και του αρνιουekporeuomenon ek tou thronou tou theou kai tou arniou). Cf. Ezekiel 47:1; Zechariah 14:8. Already in Revelation 3:21 Christ is pictured as sharing the Father‘s throne as in Hebrews 1:3. See also Revelation 22:3. This phrase has no bearing on the doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Spirit.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-22.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Pure

Omit.

Clear ( λαμπρὸν )

See on Luke 23:11. Rev., bright.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-22.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

And he showed me a river of the water of life — The ever fresh and fruitful effluence of the Holy Ghost. See Ezekiel 47:1-12; where also the trees are mentioned which "bear fruit every month," that is, perpetually.

Proceeding out of the throne of God, and of the Lamb — "All that the Father hath," saith the Son of God, "is mine;" even the throne of his glory.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-22.html. 1765.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

Proceeding out of the throne, &c.; so described in order to represent the happiness of heaven, here prefigured under the symbol of a river, as derived from the presence and influences of God and the Lamb.

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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/revelation-22.html. 1878.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

Ver. 1. A pure river] Not muddy as Nile, but clear as Calirrho. The allusion seems to be to that earthly paradise so well watered, Genesis 2:8-14, or else to Ezekiel 47:1-12. This river is Christ, John 4:14, and so is that tree of life, Revelation 22:2. The second Adam is a quickening spirit. Apollonius telleth us (lib. 3, Argonaut.) that in the court of Aeta, king of Colchis, were three fountains, which flowed, one with milk, another with wine, and a third with honey. In heaven there is all this and more.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-22.html. 1865-1868.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

St. John in this and the four following verses, goes on with the description of the heavenly Jerusalem, which he had begun in the former chapter; and here we have observable,

1. The city described, as having a clear river running through it, and this of the water of life; an illusion doubtless to the earthly paradise, Genesis 2:4-20 which was well watered, without which accommodation no place can be happy; the heavenly paradise here, or the New Jerusalem, is said to have a pure river of water in it, denoting the pure and unmixed joys of heaven, and those rivers of pleasure which are at God's right hand for evermore. Here is not a well of water, but a river, not a muddy or feculent water, but clear as crystal, not corruptible or dead, but living water, water of life.

Observe, 2. The head or spring of this river declared, from whence it doth arise; not from the hills, which may be cut off, diverted, or dried up, but it proceeds out of the throne of God and of the Lamb, and therefore can no more fail than God and Christ can fail; no river can fail, unless the springs that feed it fail; the saints in heaven shall be refreshed with such consolations as flow from the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and their comforts cannot fail until they fail. He showed me a pure river, &c. proceeding out of the throne of God.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-22.html. 1700-1703.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 22:1. ποταμὸν(238)) See App. Ed. ii. In the mention of clothing, the Apocalypse more than once uses together καθαρὸν λαμπρὸν; in other places, either καθαρὸν separately, or λαμπρὸν separately, as by far the most weighty part of the authorities here read.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-22.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

REVELATION CHAPTER 22

Revelation 22:1,2 The river and tree of life.

Revelation 22:3-7 The glorious state of the servants of God.

Revelation 22:8,9 John is forbidden by the angel to worship him,

Revelation 22:10,11 and commanded to seal up the prophet.

Revelation 22:12,13 Christ’s coming and eternity.

Revelation 22:14-17 The blessedness of them that do God’s commandments.

Revelation 22:18-20 Nothing must be added to or taken from this prophecy.

Revelation 22:21 The concluding benediction.

And he; the angel, who showed him all before mentioned.

Showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal: no place can be happy without the accommodation of water; those places have the best accommodation of it that are near a river, especially a pure river. To let us know, that in heaven there shall be no want of any thing that can make the saints happy, it is described as having by it, or running through it, a pure river, whose water is clear, and no ordinary water, but such as giveth and preserveth life. What could this signify, but the pure and unmixed joys of heaven?

Proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb; flowing from the saints thee enjoying of God and Jesus Christ.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-22.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

рекужизни Эта река непохожа ни на какую реку на земле, потому что здесь нет круговорота воды. Река воды жизни символизирует непрерывное течение вечной жизни от Божьего престола до жителей небес (см. пояснение к 21:6).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-22.html.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

God the Holy Ghost in this Chapter finisheth the Subject of all the Prophecies; and with it, the whole Canon of Scripture. The Lord gives the Church a further Account of the Holy City. Here is spoken of, the River of Life, and the Tree of Life; and the Lord's Promise, of coming quickly. A gracious Invitation at the End, to all the People of God. A solemn Caution, not to add to, or take from, the Things written herein.

Revelation 22:1

And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

With what a blessed fulness this Chapter opens! A river of water of life. Not a stream, not a pool, which might be subject to dry; but a river. And not only a river, but of water of life; giving life wheresoever it shall come. And what can this prefigure, but the everlasting, ever-living, and ever-flowing love of Jehovah, in his three-fold character of Persons; Father, Son, and Holy Ghost? And what, a thought it is, to refresh the soul of a child of God this river hath been running in love to the Church in Christ from all eternity. Yea, there never was a moment in the eternal world, call that moment in the language of eternity by whatever name you may, in which it can be said that God began to love the Church, For this Would imply a change in God. A thing impossible. Hence, if it be asked, when God's love to the Church began; it must be said, from the same time God began to be; even from all eternity. Reader pause, and ponder well this love of God; and then look at this river so running from out of the throne of God and the Lamb!

But though running from all eternity, and to all eternity; yet you and I could trace nothing of it, until by the washing from it, in regeneration, we were quickened into spiritual life to behold its pure and living streams. It ran, hidden from all view, in the secret purposes of God, until by rising above ground in the time-state of the Church, it ran down from the first opening of creation, through redemption in Christ's blood; and the water of regeneration by the Holy Ghost, and all the streams, made glad the city of God, Ephesians 1:7; Titus 3:3-5; Psalms 46:4.

The properties of this river are most blessed. It is said to be pure. And, as it flows from God, how shall it be otherwise than pure; and how sure to make clean all hearts wheresoever it comes. It is said to be clear as crystal. Yes! everything is clear in divine truths, when God is the Teacher. God the Father gives clear revelations of his Son, Eph 1. God the Son maketh himself known to his people otherwise than he doth to the world, Joh 14. And God the Spirit taketh of the things of Christ, and showeth to the people, when giving testimony in the heart of the child of God to the Father's revelation of Jesus. Reader! do not fail to observe that this river was seen by John proceeding out of the throne of God and the Lamb. This proves the existence of Three Persons in the Godhead. For when Christ spake of the Holy Ghost, as being, given to the Church, he described him as rivers of living Water, John 7:37-39. Here then we see it. This river proceeded from God and the Lamb. And let not the Reader overlook the blessed qualities of this river. It is a River, full, pure, clear, yea, the water of life; giving life wheresoever it comes. Blessed be God for opening to the Church's view, through John, a sight of this river. And, Reader! if a sight of it be blessed; what must an enjoyment of it be! the blessedness to drink of it, to wash in it, and to have everlasting life from it, in the united mercies of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/revelation-22.html. 1828.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

REV:22

"The vision in this last chapter of Revelation is directly continuous with what has preceded."[1] There are many things in this glorious vision which lie beyond our total comprehension; but so it was with the ancient prophecies of the Old Testament. What could have been more incomprehensible than the prophecies that a holy virgin would conceive and bear a son, that a man should die and not see corruption in the grave, or that one despised and rejected by man should be established forever upon the throne of David? "Yet the pious Jew preserved his faith amidst all these wonderful, and in appearance, contradictory intimations."[2] Just so, Christians should receive the great prophecies of the New Testament in the fullest confidence that, despite having no accurate knowledge of how these things shall all be fulfilled, they shall nevertheless come to pass exactly as God has said. The ultimate triumph of Christianity over all the corruptions of earth is the will of God; and nothing can stand in the way of that.

In this chapter, for the first time, "The imagery of the paradise of Eden, linking the end of history with its beginning, appears."[3] John took the motif of the Fall in Genesis 3 and described the complete reversal of it to convey the ultimate glory of man in Christ Jesus."[4]

Those scholars are wrong who connect the imagery of these glorious chapters with pagan myths, folklore, apocryphal writings, and the literature of classical paganism. The apostles of Christ knew nothing of such things. It is likely true that certain vestiges of ancient truth handed down through Adam's posterity in a garbled, distorted, and perverted condition might indeed have been preserved and referred to in pagan myths of folklore; "But our apocalyptist and the Old Testament writers from whom his imagery is taken are without doubt unconscious of such primitive connections, if they exist."[5] Even the Old Testament prophecies which seem to be reflected in much of the terminology of Revelation must not be thought of as determining John's meaning here. Those interpreters who take the obvious reference of certain Old Testament prophecies to the literal Jerusalem as proof that the visions in Revelation must also be applied to literal Jerusalem have missed the point altogether. These final chapters do not refer to a return of Jews to Jerusalem (literally). "That interpretation is far-fetched and is not borne out in the scriptures."[6] Many have simply overlooked the truth that John did not receive this vision from a study of the Old Testament, nor from pagan or secular literature. The vision came from God through Jesus Christ to the apostle John. "He (the apostle), not the Old Testament prophets, determined what the content and meaning of his words should be."[7]

[1] George Eldon Ladd, A Commentary on the Revelation of John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1972), p. 286.

[2] Floyd Myers, Difficult Passages in Revelation Examined (Pekin, Indiana: Floyd Myers, 1960), p. 170.

[3] G. R. Beasley-Murray, The Book of Revelation (Greenwood, South Carolina: The Attic Press, 1974), p. 330.

[4] Douglas Ezell, Revelations on Revelation (Waco: Word Books, 1977), p. 109.

[5] Isbon T. Beckwith, The Apocalypse of John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1919), p. 764.

[6] Joseph M. Gettys, How to Study Revelation (Philadelphia: John Knox Press, 1955), p. 111.

[7] Ibid., p. 112.

And he showed me a river of water of life, bright as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb, (Revelation 22:1)

River ... water of life ... This metaphor was used by Jesus himself in his conversation with the woman of Samaria (John 4:10), and in his reference to "living water" (John 7:37,38). This is in no sense a literal river. Ponce de Leon's search for "the fountain of youth" was a wild goose chase; he did not find it, nor will it be in heaven, literally. However, the reality symbolized by it will be there. Therefore, all of the arguments about where, precisely, this river is located in the city of God are unnecessary. The point is that eternal life will belong to those who enter it.

Proceeding out of the throne ... This is the throne of God and of the Lamb, so Beasley-Murray is right in saying, "The river flows from Christ."[8] However, he is wrong in the view that "Christ took the place of the temple."[9] Just the opposite is true: secular Israel had permitted the temple to take the place of Christ who is the true temple.

The throne of God and of the Lamb ... In the fact of the eternal throne of God being here identified also as the throne of the Lamb is also the inherent truth that, "The kingdom in which Christ now reigns may be called also the kingdom of God."[10] There are not two kingdoms any more than there are two thrones.

[8] G. R. Beasley-Murray, op. cit., p. 331

[9] Ibid.

[10] John T. Hinds, A Commentary on the Book of Revelation (Nashville: Gospel Advocate Company, 1962), p. 307.

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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-22.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

"And he showed me" signals new aspects of the city that John"s angel-guide proceeded to point out. The pure river seems to be symbolic of the refreshment and sustenance that God provides through eternal life (cf. Jeremiah 2:13; Jeremiah 17:13; Psalm 36:9; Proverbs 10:11; Proverbs 13:14; Proverbs 14:27; Proverbs 16:22; Zechariah 14:8), though it, like the city itself, is probably also a literal river (cf. Genesis 2:10; Genesis 2:14). We should not confuse this river with the one flowing from the Jerusalem temple during the Millennium ( Ezekiel 47:1; Ezekiel 47:9; Ezekiel 47:12; Zechariah 14:8). John described the river he saw as bright or clear as a crystal; it was a shimmering, sparkling stream of unpolluted water. [Note: Robertson, 6:479.] This river proceeded from the throne that belongs to God and the Lamb (cf. Revelation 22:3; Revelation 3:21; Isaiah 35:6-9; Ezekiel 47:1; Zechariah 14:8; Hebrews 1:3). This throne evidently stood at the head of the main street of the city so that looking down this street the throne appeared to be in its middle. Revelation 22:1-2 make slightly better sense if we take the clause "in the middle of its street" as describing the location of the throne. In this case it completes the thought begun in Revelation 22:1. The other option is to take it as describing the location of the tree. In this case it begins the thought that continues through Revelation 22:2.

"This is a symbolic way of describing the reign of eternal life in the age to come [and God as its source]. The symbolism of a river of life is a common one in biblical thought [cf. Psalm 46:4; Ezekiel 47:1-12; Zechariah 14:8; John 4:10; John 4:14]." [Note: Ladd, p286.]

"The point of the passage is to teach that in the eternal state God"s people will live at the source of the life-giving stream, the very presence of God Himself ..." [Note: Thomas, Revelation 8-22, p482. See Mounce, p386.]

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-22.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 22:1. And he showed me a river of water of lift, bright as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb. No scenery is complete without water; and more especially to the Jew, accustomed to a burning climate and a thirsty land, water was the constant symbol of all that was refreshing and quickening to men. The joy of the heavenly city could not, therefore, be perfect without it, ‘There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God, the holy place of the tabernacles of the Most High’ (Psalms 46:4; comp. also Ezekiel 47:1-12). The river here spoken of corresponds to that of Genesis 2:10, but it is a still brighter stream. It comes ‘out of the throne of God and of the Lamb,’ out of the highest and most blessed of all sources, God Himself, our God, revealed to us in His Son in whom He is well pleased. The waters are those of peace and spiritual life: Jerusalem’s ‘peace is like a river, and the glory of the Gentiles like a flowing stream’ (Isaiah 66:12). Not only so; the waters are ‘bright as crystal,’ of sparkling purity and clearness.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-22.html. 1879-90.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

A river of water of life, or of living water. It is spoken with allusion to the rivers of paradise and to the tree of life. (Witham)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/revelation-22.html. 1859.

A Study of the Prophetic Book of Holy Scriptures

5. THE NEW RIVER .

Revelation 22:1.

"And he shewed me a pure "RIVER OF WATER OF LIFE," clear as crystal, proceeding out of the Throne of God, and of the Lamb."

The waters of earthly rivers are not crystal clear. Many of them are muddy and contaminated with sewerage. This wonderful river is called the River of the "Water of Life," because of its "life giving" properties. Earthly streams have their source in some mountain spring, but the "River of Life" has its source in the Throne of God. Revelation 22:1.

Somewhere on that "Pyramidal Mountain" in the centre of the City, probably on its summit, will rest

"The Throne of God,"

from under the seat of which shall flow down in cascades, from terrace to terrace, the crystal stream that shall feed that wonderful "River of Life."

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Larkin, Clarence. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". A Study of the Prophetic Book of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/clr/revelation-22.html.

Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books

Water is vital to man"s earthly survival. Jesus told the woman at the well of living water. (John 4:10) He will provide the same type of water for his saints in heaven. This is either the water of eternal life, or water that sustains life. Earth"s waters had been polluted because of man"s wickedness (Revelation 8:10-11; Revelation 16:4-7), but this water is clear as crystal. Notice, it flows out of the throne, which would indicate its divine source. The throne is shared by God and the Lamb. By this time, Christ has given his rule to the Father. (1 Corinthians 15:24)

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Hampton, Gary. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghc/revelation-22.html. 2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

pure. The texts omit.

water of life. i.e. living water.

life. App-170.

out of. App-104.

throne. The throne of the great Priest-King (Zechariah 6:13) of the "thousand years" now gives place to the glorious "throne of God and of the Lamb", for God is now "all in all". Contrast Ezekiel 47:1-11, where the river proceeds from the "house" associated with the altar; here, from the throne.

God. App-98.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-22.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

Pure. 'Aleph (') A B, Vulgate, Hilary, 22, omit.

Water of life - infinitely superior to the typical waters in Paradise (Genesis 2:10-14), and even to those figurative ones in millennial Jerusalem (Ezekiel 47:1-12; Zechariah 14:8), as matured fruit is superior to the flower. The millennial waters represent full Gospel grace; these of new Jerusalem represent Gospel glory. Their continuous flow from God, the Fountain of life, symbolizes the uninterrupted life derived by the saints, ever fresh, from Him: fullness of joy, as well as perpetual vitality. Like pure crystal, free from every taint (cf. Revelation 4:6).

Clear - `bright.'

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-22.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(1) And he shewed me a pure river . . .—The adjective “pure” must be omitted, as it is wanting in the best MSS. The river is full of water, and that water is the emblem of life: it is the beautiful symbol of life in its gladness, purity, activity, and fulness. The garden of Eden (Genesis 2:10) had its river. Even in the wilderness Israel had from the smitten rock the water which gushed out like a river (Psalms 105:41). Prophets, in their pictures of the ages of blessing, almost invariably introduced the river, or broad stream. Joel saw a fountain out of the house of the Lord (Joel 3:18). Zechariah spoke of living waters from Jerusalem (Zechariah 14:8); but Ezekiel had the fullest vision when he beheld the stream which deepened and broadened in its onward progress from under the threshold of the house of God, and carried life in its train: everything lived whither the water came (Ezekiel 47:9); thus did all prophets speak of the river of God’s pleasures (Psalms 36:8). The teaching of our Lord threw new light on the prophetic imagery; the pure delights of spiritual joy and communion with God were vouchsafed to men by the presence of the Holy Spirit, the Giver of Life. In the bestowal of that spirit of life did Christ give true satisfaction to the thirsting souls of men. (Comp. John 4:10-14; Joh_7:37-39.) The source of the river is in the throne. Ezekiel’s river took rise in the temple; but in our vision there is no temple (Revelation 21:22). We are brought nearer, even to the throne: it is the throne (not “thrones”)—one throne of God and the Lamb. (Comp. Revelation 3:21.)

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-22.html. 1905.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

(1) The river of life--22:1.

The symbols of flowing rivers and streams of water run through the entire body of the scriptures. Literally, for a source of supply and security a great city was situated on the river; and figuratively it was applied to the needs of the soul and the source of all spiritual blessing. The mention of the flowing stream was in the description of the garden of Eden in Genesis 2:10. When God planted the garden for the abode of the first pair it was said that "a river went out of Eden to water the garden"; and its waters were parted into four streams which formed the mighty rivers which compassed the later inhabited land and upon the banks of which great cities were built. The name of the first river was Pison "which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there was gold." The second river was Gihon, which encompassed Ethiopia. The third river was Hiddekel, which bordered Syria; and the fourth river was the famed Euphrates which was called "the great river" (Genesis 15:18; Deuteronomy 1:7); and which formed the eastern boundary of the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 11:24), and of David's conquests (2 Samuel 8:3 -- 1 Chronicles 18:1-3), and beside which the captive Jew wept in Babylon ( Psalms 137:1 ). It was the river associated with the prophecies of Jeremiah (chapters 13:4-7; 46:2-10; 51:63) concerning the fortunes of Israel, and in the apocalypses of Revelation (chapters 9:14; 16:12) in connection with the events pertaining to the tribulation period of the church.

The beauty and blessing of the church was made the object of prophetic psalmody by the singer of Israel in the figurative cadence of Psalms 46:1-11 : "There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God, the holy place of the tabernacles of the most High. God is in the midst of her; she shall not be moved: God shall help her, and that right early. The heathen raged, the kingdoms were moved: he uttered his voice, the earth melted." This sublime psalm blends into the visions of Revelation. The Psalmist identified this "city of God" by his reference to the holy place of the tabernacles--the old and the new tabernacles-and the holy place of the old was the type of the new. It was a thousand years before the establishment of the church that David swept the harp of psalm-prophecy and sang of this city of God. It was the new Zion, the new Jerusalem, His church of the new covenant, in which the river of divine love should perpetually flow; the streams whereof--the channels of his love--should distribute the benefits which make glad the people of God.

The breadth and length and depth and height of infinite love (Ephesians 3:18) cannot be finitely comprehended, but in the symbolism of the New Jerusalem, with its ever widening and deepening stream, it flows through the church to bring blessings abundant.

The pure river of the New Jerusalem had no pollution. It was clear as crystal , without mingled elements to obscure its entrancing brightness. It proceeded out of the throne of God , its source was perennial and no force of man could stop its flow.

It was in the midst of the street, where without respect of persons it was accessible all to drink of its water freely. It was symbolic of the fullness of life and salvation in which the redeemed shared with unhindered and unrestrained access.

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Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-22.html. 1966.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.
A pure
Psalms 36:8; 46:4; Isaiah 41:18; 48:18; 66:12; Ezekiel 47:1-9; Zechariah 14:8; John 7:38,39
water
7:17; 21:6; Psalms 36:9; Jeremiah 2:13; 17:13; John 4:10,11,14
clear
21:11
proceeding
3:21; 4:5; 5:6,13; 7:10,11,17; John 14:16-18; 15:26; 16:7-15; Acts 1:4,5; 2:33
Reciprocal: Genesis 2:10 - a river;  Numbers 20:8 - speak;  Numbers 21:16 - Gather;  Deuteronomy 30:20 - thy life;  2 Kings 8:10 - the Lord;  Job 20:17 - the rivers;  Job 28:17 - crystal;  Psalm 23:2 - leadeth;  Psalm 30:5 - in his;  Psalm 42:2 - thirsteth;  Psalm 65:9 - the river;  Psalm 78:15 - GeneralPsalm 87:7 - all my;  Song of Solomon 2:3 - his fruit;  Song of Solomon 4:15 - a well;  Isaiah 12:3 - with joy;  Isaiah 30:25 - upon every high;  Isaiah 32:2 - rivers;  Isaiah 35:6 - for;  Isaiah 55:1 - every;  Isaiah 64:4 - have not;  Joel 3:18 - and a;  Luke 16:24 - in water;  Luke 20:38 - for all;  Luke 22:69 - on;  John 1:4 - him;  John 1:29 - Behold;  John 3:34 - for God;  John 5:18 - God was;  John 5:26 - so hath;  John 7:37 - If;  John 8:42 - for;  John 11:25 - the life;  John 13:32 - shall;  John 14:6 - the life;  John 16:13 - he will show;  Acts 3:15 - Prince;  Romans 8:2 - Spirit;  1 Corinthians 15:45 - a quickening;  Colossians 3:4 - our;  1 Timothy 6:13 - who quickeneth;  2 Timothy 1:10 - and hath;  1 John 5:11 - this;  Revelation 4:2 - and one;  Revelation 4:6 - crystal;  Revelation 22:2 - the midst;  Revelation 22:16 - General

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-22.html.

Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

CONCLUDING VISION (Revelation 22:1-5) AND TESTIMONIES (Revelation 22:6-21).

THE RIVER AND TREE OF LIFE.

1, 2. — "And he showed me a river of water of life, bright as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb. In the midst of its street, and of the river, on this side and on that side, (the) tree of life, producing twelve fruits, in each month yielding its fruit: and the leaves of the tree for healing of the nations." The throne is the prominent object in this concluding vision. It is the public millennial government of God, of which the whole passage (vv. 1-5) treats, and of which the throne is the symbol. The previous portion (Revelation 21:9-27) was introduced similarly to the one before us; there it was the bride (v. 9); here it is the river of life. Thus the whole section, from verse 9 of the previous chapter to verse 5 of our chapter, consists of two distinct yet closely related visions; compare the two introductory statements, "I will show thee the bride, the Lamb's wife," and "he showed me a river of water of life."

As showing how God puts His seal and stamp upon the older Revelation, and authenticates the two Testaments as one, it is interesting to note that the reference in the opening words of the previous chapter to the "first Heaven" and "first earth" is necessarily connected with the first chapter of Genesis; whilst the opening references in the last chapter of the Apocalypse to the river and tree of life link themselves with chapter 2 of the first book of the Bible. Thus Moses and John bridge sixteen centuries, and clasp hands in one united testimony to the truth of Holy Scripture.

1. — "A river of water of life" signifies fulness of life and blessing (Psalms 36:8). "It is the beautiful symbol of life in its gladness, purity, activity, and fulness." It is no muddy nor turgid stream, but bright (as everything is in the holy city) and pellucid as the beautiful crystal. The river of gladness ever flows through the heavenly city. The joy of the bride knows no cessation, no diminution; it rather augments as the river flows and deepens in its course. The reference to Genesis 2:1-25 is undoubted. "And a river went out of Eden to water the garden" (Genesis 2:10). There is no parting of the river in the celestial city "into four heads," as in the Edenic river; nor into east and west, as the living waters of Zechariah (Zechariah 14:8). It is one river which flows throughout the city; one joy common to all, just as there is but one tree of life, not two trees specially named, as in the earthly garden (Genesis 2:9). Moses first mentions the tree of life. John first refers to the river of life.

1. — "Proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb." Here God and the Lamb are associated in the government of the world. The might and majesty of the One, combined with the grace and meekness of the other, secure a character of government in which the Church rejoices, and under which the nations dwell in peace. It is one throne. God is supreme, but the Lamb administers the power and authority of the throne. This, then, is the source from whence the river of grace flows.

Jerusalem below is in many respects the counterpart of Jerusalem above. Both cities are seats of government. Both have living waters, and both have trees of fruit and healing. In the earthly millennial Jerusalem the living waters issue from under the temple (Ezekiel 47:1); whereas in the holy city the river flows from the throne.

Revelation 22:2. — Then in the midst of the street, or broad public pathway, flows the river, on either side of which is the tree of life.{*"Thus, then, as it appears, will at last be unfolded the great ‘mystery of God,' and thus at last will the way be once more opened to THE TREE OF LIFE. Remarkable indeed is the mention of this TREE OF LIFE, occurring as it does in two places only of the Word of God, viz., at the beginning of the mystery of God, and again at its accomplishment." — "The Tree of Life; or, Redemption and its Fruits in Grace and Glory," p. 297. — Rev. H. Shepherd.} Neither man, innocent nor sinful, eat of the tree of life in Eden, we do not say paradise.{*See remarks on Revelation 2:7.} The cherubim and flaming sword stood in the way of access to the tree of life in the garden (Genesis 3:24), and well that it was so, for if sinful man had eaten of its fruit he would have lived for ever a life of misery in this world. But in the city of gold and glory "the way of life is free," neither cherubim nor sword barring it. The two symbolic trees of Eden were the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. The former is the first and last named in the Scriptures. Life in the one and responsibility in the other are the respective principles set forth by these trees.

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Scott, Walter. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sor/revelation-22.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

The pronoun he refers to the angel who has been with John all through the vision of this book. There is nothing more pleasing to the eye than a flowing body of water. It signifies something that is constant and moving with majestic procedure. But many rivers are attractive from these standpoints only, while within them may be vicious creatures that would devour helpless victims that came within reach. Also there may be much that is vile and foul, carrying with them the waste materials of the cities. But the river John saw had nothing of that kind because it had not been in contact with any place containing filth. Instead, its source is the throne of God and the Lamb where there can be nothing vile. For this reason the river in pure and also clear as crystal because there are no materials to becloud the stream. It is called water of life because it is always moving (never stagnant) and because of the quality" and purity described in the foregoing comments,

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-22.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 22:1

Revelation 22:1 And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

This

pure rive of water of life

alludeth to these mystical waters of the sanctuary, { Ezekiel 47:1-8; Joel 3:18} called living waters, { Zechariah 14:8-9}

clear as crystal

pure, without any mixture; whereby we may understand all spiritual blessings flowing from Jesus Christ, the fountain of the water of life freely and abundantly. See Revelation 21:6; Revelation 21:17.

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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-22.html.

D.S. Clark's Commentary on Revelation

V:1. John saw the river of water of life proceeding out of the throne of God and the Lamb. No sea there, symbol of restlessness and turmoil, but a river, symbol of springing verdure, refreshment, and perennial life.

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Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Ch. Revelation 22:1. And he shewed me a[Note: Luther has a pure river." But the καθαρό ν is not sufficiently authenticated. Bengel has remarked that καθαρό ν and λαμπρό ν are sometimes in Revelation found together, in respect to garments, but in nothing else. In ch. 15:6, 19:8, 14, the two together make good enough sense; but here καθαρό ν would hardly suit, as the quality of purity is not of moment.] river of the water of life, shining like chrystal; which went from the throne of God and of the Lamb. That we are not to explain with Luther: living water, appears alone from a comparison of ch. Revelation 7:17. It appears likewise from ch. Revelation 21:27, where the book of life is spoken of (the last words of which verse form the connecting link with ours), and Revelation 22:2 here, where we read of the tree of life. If this then is certain, there can be no doubt in regard to the signification of the water, and explanations like that of Bengel, "the power of the Holy Spirit which makes all fresh and fruitful," of themselves fall to the ground. The water signifies, according to the express declaration of the author himself, life, that is, salvation, blessedness (comp. on the notion of life in John at ch. Revelation 7:17). The great fulness of life, which belongs to the glorified church, is represented here under the image of its pouring itself forth as a river. In Ezekiel, Ezekiel 47, a pictorial delineation is given of the greatness of this river. The glorious nature of the life is represented by the "shining like chrystal."

St John was deeply penetrated by the conviction, that man, so soon as he believes in the Son of God, is thereby raised from death to life. But we still are not warranted to say with Koestlin, p. 238, "John is too sure of life, and is always too deeply conscious of its power and blessedness, to think of representing hope in respect to the possession of life as the peculiar mental characteristic of the Christian." The tone of depression that pervades his Gospel is a proof of the contrary, as also the entire description of the Christian state in the last discourses of Christ: The world hates you, you shall have tribulation in the world, you need the Comforter to support you under all your distress and sorrow, you need to have your eye directed to the eternal blessedness and glory, that your heart may not be appalled (John 14:2-3, John 17:24, comp. 1 John 2:25, 1 John 2:28, 1 John 3:2). Were it otherwise, St John would have been an idealistic visionary, which God forbid! There are not two lives, but only one life, which begins the moment we attain to faith in Christ, and continues through all eternity—though this life, during all the period of our sojourn in the world, is still interwoven with manifold troubles and interruptions, both of an inward (1 John 1:8) and an outward kind. In the future state of being alone will the germ of life fully develop itself. Life in the present state of being is as plainly recognized in the Revelation as it is in the Gospel. To be living and not dead is set forth in it as the Christian state (Revelation 3:1). That in the Revelation the future phase of the divine life should be more prominently brought out, the present in the Gospel arises simply from the circumstance that the Gospel must represent, what we have already received through Christ, the Revelation what he will yet give to his servants. Add to this, that the Revelation was seen at a time when dark shadows had settled down on the life of Christians.

The type of the river here is the river that at first watered paradise. That allusion is made to that admits of less doubt, as here, precisely as in Genesis 2:9-10, the river and the tree are placed in immediate connection with each other. In Psalms 36:8, "And thou shalt make them drink of the river of thy pleasures," David sees in this river the type of those streams of delight, which God's love even now pours down to refresh his people. Here the true antitype is transferred to eternity. Then, we ought to compare Joel 3:18. "A fountain goes out of the house of the Lord, and waters the valley of Shittim;" also Ezekiel 47, where a stream flows out of the sanctuary, and, after vivifying and fertilizing the desert, empties itself into the Dead Sea; finally, Zechariah 14:8, "And it comes to pass in that day, that living waters shall go forth out of Jerusalem, their half toward the east sea, and their half toward the west sea, in summer and in winter shall it be." The fountain is the fountain of blessing, of salvation, of life. The waters quicken the dry and thirsty desert of man's necessities (see Christol. II. p. 367). These Old Testament promises find here their last and most glorious fulfilment. The most horrible manifestation of death is being morally dead; the most frightful side of human misery is enmity or indifference toward God. This side of death and misery, which Ezekiel takes quite peculiarly into account, who, as Joel had done before and Zechariah after him, still contemplates the salvation of Christ as one whole, and so comprises in it the life, the bestowal of which has already been celebrated by John in the Gospel—that side has here been already done away. The river of life here pours itself forth only for those, who have died in the Lord, and have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.

That the river here is for quenching the thirst, or satisfying the desire of blessedness, appears from ch. Revelation 21:6, Revelation 22:17. "The poor and needy seek for water, and there is none, their tongue faints for thirst," this is too often verified in the parched wilderness of the present life.

The river goes from the throne of God and of the Lamb, in accordance with the declaration, "All that the Father hath is mine." Bengel: "Here, and in Revelation 22:3, the glory of Christ is described in the most glorious manner, the Father's throne being also spoken of as his throne." Comp. at ch. Revelation 7:17, according to which the Lamb is in the midst of the throne. God is thus set forth as in Christ the dispenser of life or blessing. Christ is called the Lamb, because through his labours and blood he has won for us this crown of all his gifts.

It is a small idea, to suppose that John here alludes to a natural spring under the temple in the Old Jerusalem. This is the less to be imagined, as there really did not exist a proper spring under the temple. Water was merely conveyed to it through a conduit.

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Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-22.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

d. Its river and tree of life—Close of Apocalypse, Revelation 22:1-5.

1.And—The entire passage, Revelation 21:1 to Revelation 22:5, should be read as one unbroken description. He—The angel interpreter of Revelation 21:9; Revelation 21:17.

Clear—Rather, bright, radiant.

Throne—The royal seat of the eternal KING. We may suppose its position central, the most illustrious point in the luminous capital.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-22.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

The river is suggested partly by Ezekiel’s representation of the healing stream which was to issue from the new temple and flow through the dreary Ghor of the Jordan valley (Ezekiel 47:1-12), partly by the reference (in a later apocalypse, Zechariah 14:8) to perennial waters issuing from Jerusalem as the dwelling-place of God in the new age. John has no use for Ezekiel’s idea that the stream would assist in the messianic transformation of nature. He changes the numerous trees on either side of the wady into the (generic) single tree of life, reverting as before (Ezekiel 2:7) to the ideal of the Semitic paradise. Also, he drops the notion of the river sweetening the bitter waters of the Dead Sea. Cf. Pirke Eliezer, 51, aquae putei ascensurae sunt e limine templi atque scaturient prodibuntque. The Babylonian origin of the idea is outlined by Zimmern in Archiv für Relig. Wiss. 1899, 170 f. Unlike the earthly Jerusalem with its inferior stream, the new city is to be richly equipped with conduits and all that makes a city prosperous and secure (Isaiah 33:21).

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-22.html. 1897-1910.

The Bible Study New Testament

1. The river of the water of life. Water means many things in the Bible. It is symbolic of: separation (see 1 Peter 3:20-21); making pure (see Hebrews 9:19); life (see Psalms 107:35-37); the Holy Spirit (see John 7:37-39); salvation (see Ephesians 5:26; Colossians 2:11-12). Note that here it comes from the throne of God and of the Lamb. God accepts as righteous all who “reach out through faith to seize the sacrifice of Christ and make themselves part of it” (compare notes on Acts 2:38). The emphasis in these verses is perfect fellowship with God!

 

 

 

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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Revelation 22:1". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/revelation-22.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.