Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 22:16

"I, Jesus, have sent My angel to testify to you these things for the churches. I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star."
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Angel (a Spirit);   Church;   Jesus Continued;   Readings, Select;   Stars;   Thompson Chain Reference - Astronomy;   Future, the;   Heaven;   Heavenly;   Home;   Living Water;   Morning Star;   Names;   Star, Morning;   Stars;   Titles and Names;   Water;   Water of Life;   Wells;   The Topic Concordance - Coming;   Jesus Christ;   Kingdom of God;   Light;   Sending and Those Sent;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Morning;   Stars, the;   Titles and Names of Christ;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Lucifer;   Star;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - David;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Condemnation;   Mission;   Samuel, First and Second, Theology of;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Jesus Christ;   Obedience;   CARM Theological Dictionary - Heaven;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Dayspring;   Daystar;   Star, Morning;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Balaam;   Branch;   Day;   Isaiah;   Jesus Christ;   Lucifer;   Revelation of John, the;   Holman Bible Dictionary - David;   Revelation, the Book of;   Root;   Stars;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Genealogy of Jesus Christ;   Lie, Lying;   Revelation, Book of;   Star of the Magi;   Stars;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Christ in Art;   David;   David ;   Day;   Day-Star;   First and Last ;   Genealogies of Jesus Christ;   Mediator;   Reading ;   Revelation, Book of;   Root ;   Son of David;   Star;   Star (2);   Morrish Bible Dictionary - David ;   Genealogy of the Lord Jesus;   Jesse ;   Revelation, the;   Star, the Morning;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Christ;   Lucifer;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Names titles and offices of christ;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Bright;   Christ;   Morsel - moth;   Root;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - On to Canaan;   Jesus of Nazareth;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Astronomy;   David, Root of;   Morning;   Revelation of John:;   Root;   Text and Manuscripts of the New Testament;  
Devotionals:
Daily Light on the Daily Path - Devotion for February 6;   Every Day Light - Devotion for October 29;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

I Jesus - The Maker, the Redeemer, and Judge of all men.

Have sent mine angel - An especial messenger from heaven.

I am the root and the offspring of David - Christ is the root of David as to his Divine nature; for from that all the human race sprang, for he is the Creator of all things, and without him was nothing made which is made. And he is the offspring of David as to his human nature; for that he took of the stock of David, becoming thereby heir to the Jewish throne, and the only heir which then existed; and it is remarkable that the whole regal family terminated in Christ: and as He liveth for ever, he is the alone true David and everlasting King.

The bright and morning star - I am splendor and glory to my kingdom; as the morning star ushers in the sun, so shall I usher in the unclouded and eternal glories of the everlasting kingdom.

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Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-22.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

I Jesus - Here the Saviour appears expressly as the speaker - ratifying and confirming all that had been communicated by the instrumentality of the angel.

Have sent mine angel - See the notes on Revelation 1:1.

To testify unto you - That is, to be a witness for me in communicating these things to you.

In the churches - Directly and immediately to the seven churches in Asia Minor Revelation 2:3; remotely and ultimately to all churches to the end of time. Compare the notes on Revelation 1:11.

I am the root - Not the root in the sense that David sprang from him, as a tree does from a root, but in the sense that he was the “root-shoot” of David, or that he himself sprang from him, as a sprout starts up from a decayed and fallen tree - as of the oak, the willow, the chestnut, etc. See this explained in the notes on Isaiah 11:1. The meaning then is, not that he was the ancestor of David, or that David sprang from him, but that he was the offspring of David, according to the promise in the Scripture, that the Messiah should be descended from him. No argument, then, can be derived from this passage in proof of the pre-existence, or the divinity of Christ.

And the offspring - The descendant; the progeny of David; “the seed of David according to the flesh.” See the notes on Romans 1:3. It is not unusual to employ two words in close connection to express the same idea with some slight shade of difference.

And the bright and morning star - See the notes on Revelation 2:28. It is not uncommon to compare a prince, a leader, a teacher, with that bright and beautiful star which at some seasons of the year precedes the rising of the sun, and leads on the day. Compare the notes on Isaiah 14:12. The reference here is to that star as the harbinger of day; and the meaning of the Saviour is, that he sustains a relation to a dark world similar to this beautiful star. At one time he is indeed compared with the sun itself in giving light to the world; here he is compared with that morning star rather with reference to its beauty than its light. May it not also have been one object in this comparison to lead us, when we look on that star, to think of the Saviour? It is perhaps the most beautiful object in nature; it succeeds the darkness of the night; it brings on the day - and as it mingles with the first rays of the morning, it seems to be so joyous, cheerful, exulting, bright, that nothing can be better adapted to remind us of Him who came to lead on eternal day. Its place - the first thing that arrests the eye in the morning - might serve to remind us that the Saviour should be the first object that should draw the eye and the heart on the return of each day. In each trial - each scene of sorrow - let us think of the bright star of the morning as it rises on the darkness of the night - emblem of the Saviour rising on our sorrow and our gloom.

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Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-22.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

I Jesus have sent mine angel,.... As John, the writer of this book, sets down his own name, who was an eye and ear witness of the things contained in it, that they might be more surely believed, Revelation 22:8 so Christ, the author of it, puts his name Jesus to it, to engage the greater attention to hear and read, and keep the words of it, as well as to make it plain and manifest, who is the person speaking of his coming, Revelation 22:7 and who that has any value for Jesus the Saviour, but will give credit, and pay a regard to this revelation of his, which he sent by his angel, one of his ministering spirits, made by him, and under his command, he being the Creator, Lord, and head of angels: this expresses the dignity of his person, and is no inconsiderable proof of his deity: and this was done, in order

to testify, to bear witness to the truth of the things contained in it; to signify and show them, to set them forth in emblems and visions:

unto you these things in the churches; to the servants of the Lord, Revelation 22:6 to John, and by him to others, to the pastors of the seven churches, who were επι, "over" the churches, as it may be rendered, and to the members of the churches, to all that were in them; for the Alexandrian copy, the Vulgate Latin and Arabic versions read εν, "in"; the Syriac version renders it, קדם, "before the churches". What John saw he wrote in a book, and sent it to these churches, Revelation 1:11. The words may be rendered, "concerning the churches"; and then the sense is, that the angel was sent to show to John, and by him to others, even to all the saints in all ages, the things relating to the church of Christ, in the several periods of time, represented in succession by the seven churches of Asia. Christ gives a further account of himself, for the greater confirmation of the faith of his people, in the certain accomplishment of the things herein written, by saying,

I am the root and the offspring of David. The former of these is mentioned in the note; see Gill on Revelation 5:5; and the meaning of it is, either that Christ, as God, is David's Lord and head, from whom he had his being, both in a temporal and spiritual sense, and by whom he was supported and sustained; or that, as man, he sprung from the root of David, or descended from him; and so it falls in with the latter, which may be explanative of it, "the offspring of David"; that is, the soft of David, according to the flesh, a frequent name of the Messiah; See Gill on Matthew 1:1. God promised that the Messiah should be of the seed of David, and according to his promise he raised up unto Israel of his seed, a Saviour Jesus, the same person here speaking, Acts 13:23 who adds,

and the bright and morning star; Christ is compared to a "star", as in Numbers 24:17 for its light, the light of nature, and of grace, and of the new Jerusalem state being from him; and for its glory, his glory being the glory of the only begotten of the Father, and he having a glory, as Mediator, which his saints will ever behold, and be delighted with; and for its influence, all the blessings of grace, life, and righteousness, being from him; and to a "bright" star, because he is the brightness of his Father's glory, and so splendid, shining, and illustrious, that he is light itself, and in him is no darkness at all; and to a bright "morning" star, which shows the night is going off and the day is coming on, and is the phosphorus, or bringer of light; as Christ by his first coming, who was then the dayspring from on high, put an end to the night of Jewish darkness, and sprung the great Gospel day, so often spoken of by the prophets, and brought life and immortality to light by the Gospel, and showed the way to eternal life by himself; so by his second coming, to which this character refers, he will put an end to the night of antichristian darkness, Pagan, Papal, and Mahometan; so that there shall be no more night, and shall make an everlasting day, and bring such light into the holy city, that it shall need no candle, nor light of the sun or moon. The dawn of light at the Reformation was a presage of this, Revelation 2:28 called there the morning star. With great propriety and pertinence are these titles here assumed by Christ, as "the root and offspring of David", or David's son, when he was about to sit on the throne of his father David, and possess his kingdom in the most visible and glorious manner; and "the bright and morning star", when he was going to usher in such light into the new Jerusalem, as would make all other light unnecessary. Aijeleth Shahar, in the title of Psalm 22:1 which is a psalm that belongs to the Messiah, is, by some Jewish writersF12Apud Kimchi in loc. , interpreted, כוכב הבוקר, "the morning star", the title of Christ here.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-22.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

8 I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, [and] the bright and morning star.

(8) The second passage of confirmation (as I said) is the speech of Christ ratifying the vocation of John, and the authority of his calling and testimony, both from the condition of his own person being God and man, in whom all the promises of God are Yea and Amen; (2 Corinthians 1:20) and also from the testimony of other people, by the acclamation of the Holy Spirit, who here is an honourable assistant of the marriage of the Church as the spouse: and of each of the godly as members; and finally from the thing present, that of their own knowledge and accord, they are called forth to the participation of the good things of God; (Genesis 22:17).
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-22.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

mine angel — for Jesus is Lord of the angels.

unto you — ministers and people in the seven representative churches, and, through you, to testify to Christians of all times and places.

root  …  offspring of David — appropriate title here where assuring His Church of “the sure mercies of David,” secured to Israel first, and through Israel to the Gentiles. Root of David, as being Jehovah; the offspring of David as man. David‘s Lord, yet David‘s son (Matthew 22:42-45).

the morning star — that ushered in the day of grace in the beginning of this dispensation and that shall usher in the everlasting day of glory at its close.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-22.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

I Jesus (Εγω ΙησουςEgō Iēsous). The last and most solemn attestation to the book that from Jesus (the historic Jesus known to the churches), in harmony with Revelation 1:1.

Have sent (επεμπσαepempsa). First aorist active indicative of πεμπωpempō used here in the same sense as αποστειλαςaposteilas in Revelation 1:1 as his personal messenger. It is the Jesus of history here speaking, who is also the Christ of theology and the Lamb of God.

For the churches (επι ταις εκκλησιαιςepi tais ekklēsiais). For this use of επιepi see Revelation 10:11; John 12:16. It is not just for the seven churches (Revelation 1:4), but for all the churches in the world then and now.

I am the root and the offspring of David (Εγω ειμι η ριζα και το γενος ΔαυειδEgō eimi hē riza kai to genos Daueid). See Revelation 5:5 for “the root of David,” to which John now adds το γενοςto genos in the sense of “offspring” (Acts 17:28.), not of family or race (Acts 4:6; Acts 7:13). Cf. Matthew 22:42-45.

The bright, the morning star (ο αστηρ ο λαμπρος ο πρωινοςho astēr ho lampros ho prōinos). The Davidic King is called a star in Numbers 24:17; Luke 1:78. This “day-star” (πωσποροςphōsphoros) is interpreted as Christ (2 Peter 1:19). In Revelation 2:28 the phrase “the morning star” occurs in Christ‘s words, which is here interpreted. Christ is the Light that was coming into the world (John 1:9; John 8:12).

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-22.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

The root

Compare Isaiah 11:1, Isaiah 11:10. See on Nazarene, Matthew 2:23.

The morning-star

See on Revelation 2:28.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-22.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.

I Jesus have sent my angel to testify these things — Primarily.

To you — The seven angels of the churches; then to those churches - and afterwards to all other churches in succeeding ages.

I — as God.

Am the root — And source of David's family and kingdom; as man, an descended from his loins. "I am the star out of Jacob," Numbers 24:17; like the bright morning star, who put an end to the night of ignorance, sin, and sorrow, and usher in an eternal day of light, purity, and joy.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-22.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

16 I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.

Ver. 16. Have sent mine angel] With weariness of flight, as Daniel 9:21.

I am the root] That bear up David by my Deity; but am born of him in regard of my humanity.

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Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-22.html. 1865-1868.

Sermon Bible Commentary

Revelation 22:16

Two important lessons may be learned from this subject:—

I. All Christians should seek to be sons of the morning. As lamps do not talk, but shine, so should religion shine forth in beneficent and useful lives.

II. We should be striving to make others share in the blessed privileges which we ourselves enjoy. Christians may be saying, both by word and by example, to all with whom they come in contact, "We are travelling eastward to the land of the morning." A new glory is thrown round the Christian character while seeking to make known to others the perfections of God's love and mercy. In order that we may each shine in our measure, we must learn to turn ourselves often towards Him from whom our light is derived.

J. N. Norton, Golden Truths, p. 59.


When Christ rose from the grave, it was not, properly speaking, the Church's sunrise: that has not yet taken place; that will be when He comes again, in the blaze of His glory—one universal glow, like the morning spread upon the mountains. But what rose was that beautiful "star" which harbingers the sunrise, making the early dawn and telling us that the day is coming: its pledge and earnest. Mark the differences. When Christ came out of His grave, it was "not with observation." It was silent and unnoticed. When He shall come again in His kingdom, it will be with the archangel's trump, visible and refulgent, even "as the lightning, that lighteneth out of the one part under heaven, shineth unto the other part under heaven," even as "the morning star" steals upon the night, but the sun rises in his full-orbed splendour. And when Christ walked this earth after His resurrection, it was light, sweet light; but it was partial light, light to a few, light shrouded, light mingled with the darkness. But when He returns it will be a radiant world: "The Lamb will be the Light thereof;" just as "the morning star" shines in twilight, but when the sun comes it is all a sea of brightness. And the risen Christ was to set again; He appeared for a little while, and then He passed away with the light of the Spirit, which shone—we have His own authority for saying it—which shone more brightly than His own. But when He comes back again the light of His presence will never go out; like as "the morning star" sheds its ray for a little space, but the orb of day rolls on in his might, and "rejoices as a giant to run his course." And Christ's mission after He rose was chiefly to speak of the things of the kingdom, to tell of another breaking of love and joy upon this earth, the pioneer to a happier day, again true to the parable of nature, for the "morning star" seems made for little else but to proclaim that the day is coming to us.

I. Now, see it thus in your heart, if "the Lord is risen upon you." The light is there. And there is a distinct, clear beam. But as yet the chief effect of that is twofold: it makes the darkness of your heart more perceptible and more felt, and your desires are being sent on by it more longingly for a day which it testifies to you to be very near. Therefore avoid two mistakes. Do not think that you are not risen, or rather that Christ is not risen in you, because there is much surrounding darkness in your soul, and you feel that darkness deeper and drearier than you ever felt it before. That sense of darkness is an index of "the morning star." Without "the star" you would scarcely know that it was dark. Only, it shows that it is not yet day, not that "perfect day" for which we look. On the other hand, do not expect to live a resurrection-day as if it were an ascension-day. We are now living a resurrection-life, as many of us as are indeed baptised into the Lord Jesus Christ; and every Easter comes to remind us of our resurrection-life, and every Easter we should get a little higher than before. A believer's life is full of resurrections. But persons sometimes speak of resurrection-life as if it were to be a life of confidence and no fear, all praise and no prayer; but it is just because it is resurrection-life that you are to walk humbly, watchfully, expectingly. Resurrection-life is spiritual, but it is not glorified, just as our Lord in "the forty days" was spiritual, but not glorified till He ascended into the heavens. You are under "the bright and morning star," but you have not yet the sun.

II. And here is the solution of the secret of our earth in its present state. There is the light of the truth in this world, light just enough to show that more light is wanted, and what light can be, and what light will be. But the light of truth is straggling in the best; sometimes it seems nothing to cope with the thickness of the error and the wickedness which are about on every side. It can scarcely penetrate it. Nevertheless the light shows God's presence and God's faithfulness; and it keeps faith and hope alive, for it is the interval of the reign of the "morning star" before the sun comes. "But," you say, "is this all that Christ is to His Church now: only a star?" Yes, by comparison with what He will be. But, remember, "the morning star" makes the daybreak sure; and "the morning star" is lovely and brilliant compared to the midnight that would be without it: and nobody can tell what the state of this world would be without the direct and indirect rays of the Lord Jesus Christ.

III. But let me reduce the image to one or two practical instructions. Christ gradually develops. The believer's light gradually but certainly increases. It was not a sun, but a "star," that shone on Bethlehem; and the sun itself pales and loses itself in the new Jerusalem, before that brightness where "the Lamb is the Light thereof." It is "the morning star." Every lesson of Easter Day is a lesson of earliness. The women were early; the angels were early; Christ was early. "The morning star" is early. To a Christian view every new morning, as it springs out of night, is a little resurrection. Let it find you early, since it is the characteristic of the things that are high that they are early. Resurrection and earliness go together. They say that in nature all vegetation springs the fastest and makes its largest shoots in the very early mornings. And it is a fact as certain in grace as it is in nature that in due time the "morning star" becomes the "evening star," and he who in his youth has had the "morning star" will find it his "evening star" in his age and death. And life ought to be a joyous thing. True, it is in the midst of things that are within and without still steeped in sorrow; but the path of religion is a line of light, which falls true athwart the darkness; and every Christian walking there, catching something of the brightness of "the morning star," is to be himself in this world a reflection to break the gloom and speak for God. He stands in the track of the promises; and he should be a man radiant in his spirit. Nevertheless, however many your joys may be, the best of this world is, after all, twilight. Some of us know it too well. The clouds that wrap us in are still so black, the sin within, the trials and perplexities around us, our own and others' griefs. But if Jesus has risen in your soul, I tell you, by that faint streak of light, however faint, it is morning, real morning, a morning that will never quite darken over again. There are, and there will be, shadows till He comes; but, by the token of that faint light, "the night is far spent, and the day is at hand."

J. Vaughan, Sermons, 9th series, p. 165.


The book of Revelation has a peculiar charm which all readers of Scripture more or less feel. It attracts the child by its shifting scenes, its bright pictures, its grand, mysterious glimpses of the future. It satisfies the man of more mature understanding and taste with the lofty truth and harmony that reigns all through its mighty world of symbols and visions—a world which exhausts the stores of the Old Testament, and then imagines new. In more senses than one this book is the "revelation of Jesus Christ." No part of the Bible so fully unfolds the glories of His reign, adorns Him with such a profusion of titles, or pours out such a tide of love and adoration on His person. The style is transfigured, like the person, adding to the depth and tenderness of the Gospel the lofty sweep and rich colouring of the prophets. The whole book is, as it were, linked together by the one grand figure of the first of our texts, taken from the close: "I am the bright and morning star," as it returns upon its beginning: "And I will give him the bright and morning star."

I. Christ is to His people the morning star of time, and will be to them the morning star of eternity, because His light shines after darkness. Every sinner to whom Christ has not appeared walks in darkness. All Christians alike have come out of darkness, and come out of it at the signal of Christ's rising. All trace the grand transition to His appearing in their day, and with a full and swelling heart take up the same words of thanksgiving: "Through the tender mercy of our God, the dayspring from on high hath visited us."

II. Christ is to His people the morning star of time, and will be to them the morning star of eternity, because His light transcends all comparison. "In all things He hath the preeminence." Christ is pre-eminent—(1) in His titles; (2) in His offices; (3) in His history. (4) What He is to His people, He is alone.

III. Christ is the morning star of time, and will be the morning star of eternity, because His light ushers in perpetual day. Christ is not compared to the evening star, though it be in itself as bright as that of the morning, and indeed the same, because in that case the associations would be too gloomy, and the victory would seem to remain for a time on the side of darkness. With Christ as the morning star, the victory is decided from the first, and Night can never resume her ancient empire. The dawn may be overcast, but the day still proceeds.

J. Cairns, Christ the Morning Star, and Other Sermons, p. 1.


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Bibliographical Information
Nicoll, William R. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Sermon Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sbc/revelation-22.html.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Observe here, 1. That the Lord Jesus Christ is the author of this Revelation, and owneth it to be his; the angel did but declare it, St. John did but write it, Christ himself was the inditer of it; they were not the inventions of St. John, nor the sayings of the angel, but the revelation was Christ's; which leaves all men inexcusable who believe not the same, but question the divine authority thereof.

Observe, 2. The titles here by Christ given of himself,

1. The root of David, that is, as God, from whom by creation David and all mankind had their being, and did spring.

2. The offspring of David, according to his humanity; Christ as God was the root of David: but considered as man, David was the root of Christ, There shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots. Isaiah 11:1

3. Christ styles himself the bright morning star, that is, the light of the world, enlightening and enlivening the new creation; the fountain of all knowledge, grace, and comfort, on earth, and of all glory and happiness in heaven. As the morning star first brings light to the world, so Christ first published the light of the gospel, and now, by this revelation, gives a superadded light to his people, informing them what shall befall his church until his second coming to judgment.

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Bibliographical Information
Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-22.html. 1700-1703.

Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae

DISCOURSE: 2533

CHRIST THE MORNING STAR

Revelation 22:16. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.

THE Revelation which had been made to John, contained predictions of an uninterrupted series of events from that time even to the end of the world. They had indeed been made to him through the instrumentality of an angel: but they were nevertheless as certain, as if they had been delivered immediately by God himself; seeing that the angel had received his commission and instructions directly from Jesus, who is “the Lord of the holy prophets [Note: Compare ver. 6. with the text.].” It seems to have been with a view to assure John, together with the saints in all succeeding ages, of the truth and certainty of all that had been spoken, that Jesus gave this description of his own character: in which we may see,

I. His personal character—

That Jesus was “the offspring of David,” is obvious enough—

[He was to be so according to the Scriptures [Note: Isaiah 11:1.]: and that he was so, both by his father’s and his mother’s side, the genealogies that are given of him expressly affirm [Note: Matthew 1 and Luke 3.]. Indeed Divine Providence so ordered it, that, in consequence of a taxation decreed throughout the Roman Empire in the time of C ζsar Augustus, his reputed father was under the necessity of going up to Bethlehem, to be taxed there: by which means there was a public enrolment of the name of Jesus, (who was born there at that time,) as belonging to the house and lineage of David [Note: Luke 2:1-6.].”]

But He was no less “the Root” also of David—

[How this could be, was but little understood, till after the day of Pentecost. Jesus did indeed often speak of himself as God; but still his Disciples did not clearly apprehend his meaning. Yet that the Messiah, who was to be “a Child born and a Son given,” was also to be “the Mighty God,” even “God with us,” was fully and distinctly revealed in the prophetic writings [Note: Isaiah 9:6 and Isaiah 7:14. with Matthew 1:23.]. But the most learned of the Jewish Rabbins, when a remarkable prophecy to this effect was adduced from the Psalms by our blessed Lord, were unable to solve the difficulty proposed to them: they could not explain how David’s Son could possibly be David’s Lord [Note: Psalms 110:1. with Matthew 22:41-46.]. Nor can our modern Socinians ever return a satisfactory answer to our Lord’s question; which can only be answered by acknowledging, that Jesus is God as well as man; the Creator of all things in his Divine nature, though himself a creature according to his human nature. It is in this sense that he was “the Root,” at the same time that he was also “the Offspring,” of David: and to this agree the most decided testimonies of Holy Writ [Note: John 1:1; John 1:14. Romans 1:3-4; Romans 9:5.] — — —]

Our Lord proceeds to mention,

II. His official character—

The voice of prophecy announced him as “a Star that should come out of Jacob [Note: Numbers 24:17.].” But in our text he designates himself as “the Morning star.” Now it is the office of the morning star, not merely to give light, as others do, but to usher in the day: and in this particular view the title assumed by our Lord should be exclusively considered. We observe then, that,

1. By his first rising in the world he introduced the Gospel day—

[Previous to his appearing, there were some faint glimmerings of light, by means of the types and shadows of the Mosaic law: but as soon as he entered on his ministry, he diffused a light around him; dispelling the mists by which the Pharisees had obscured the law, and exhibiting in his own person a perfect pattern of that obedience which the law required. By his death he accomplished the prophecies, and shewed more clearly what were the designs of God respecting the redemption of the world: and by his resurrection and ascension, and sending down the Holy Ghost to testify of him, he gave to the benighted world the light of perfect day. Then he appeared as “the Day-spring from on high [Note: Luke 1:78.],” even as “the Sun of Righteousness, that had arisen with healing in his wings [Note: Malachi 4:2.]”]

2. By his rising in the heart he now introduces the day of salvation into the soul—

[That there is to be a manifestation of Christ to the hearts of men, different from any thing that is vouchsafed to the unregenerate soul, is certain [Note: John 14:21-23.]: and St. Peter speaks of it expressly as “the day-star arising in our hearts [Note: 2 Peter 1:19.].” What kind of a manifestation this is, may be conceived from the history of Zaccheus, to whose soul it was made, and who experienced the instantaneous benefits arising from it [Note: Luke 19:5-6; Luke 19:9.] — — — This change was by no means peculiar to him; it is wrought in all who truly embrace the Gospel [Note: Acts 26:18.], though, in respect of suddenness, it may greatly vary. The distinguishing effect of this manifestation is, that the glorious character of Christ, which was before hidden from our eyes, is now distinctly seen [Note: John 1:4-5; John 1:9; John 1:14 and 2 Corinthians 4:6.]; and he is embraced, as the most valued treasure of the soul [Note: Philippians 3:7-8.], the ground of ineffable and eternal joy [Note: 1 Peter 1:8.].]

3. By his present light he gives us an assured prospect of yet a brighter day even in this world—

[It is certain that there is a day approaching, when the light now vouchsafed to the Church shall be greatly increased; when “the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be seven-fold, as the light of many days [Note: Isaiah 30:26.].” This will surely take place in the Millennium, when “the Lord will bind up the breach of his ancient people the Jews, and heal the stroke of their wound.” Then the whole Gentile world also shall be made to behold his glory: and “the knowledge of the Lord shall cover the earth as completely and as deeply as the waters cover the sea.” This idea seems to be peculiarly referred to, inasmuch as the morning-star is the sure forerunner of a brighter state under the influfluence of the rising sun. In this view, all that has hitherto been done for the Church shall be only as the drop before the shower, seeing that the whole world shall form, as it were, but one great temple, which “God himself will fill with his glory, and the Lamb shall be the light thereof [Note: Revelation 21:23.].”]

4. By his appearing at the end of the world, he will introduce eternal day—

[He tells us that at that period he will “give to his obedient people the Morning star [Note: Revelation 2:28.].” Yes, he will come again in his glory, and in all the brightness and majesty of the Godhead: and then will all remaining darkness be for ever banished. Now we “know but in part,” and “see but as in a glass darkly: but then shall we see face to face.” Then all the mysterious designs of God from the beginning will be brought forth to light, together with the reasons of all his dispensations: then will all the perfections of God shine forth with united splendour, not only in the work of redemption as wrought out by Christ, but in the salvation of every individual amongst his people. And how will the wisdom of a life of godliness then appear! — — — Then indeed will be consummated the happiness of man; and God be glorified in all.]

Address—

1. To those who have never yet beheld the glory of Christ—

[As in the days of his flesh, so in this day, it is not every one to whom the light comes, that duly apprehends it [Note: John 1:5; John 1:10-11.]. Satan is yet successful in blinding the eyes of many [Note: 2 Corinthians 4:4.]. If you have never yet seen Jesus as “fairer than ten thousand, and altogether lovely,” this is your unhappy state. O pray then that God would open your eyes, and “call you out of darkness into his marvellous light!” Till then you can have no real fellowship with God, nor any hope of acceptance through the blood of Jesus [Note: 1 John 1:6-7.].]

2. To those who profess to know and love him—

[Happy is it for you if your profession be justified by your actual experience. But you must remember, that there are many who “say, they are in the light, and yet are in darkness even until now;” yea, they “walk in darkness, and know not whither they go, because that darkness hath blinded their eyes.” Would you know, who are in that state: I answer, All they who, in the midst of a profession of religion, are indulging any of those tempers that are contrary to love and charity [Note: 1 John 2:9-11.]. Hear ye this, O ye censorious and uncharitable, ye proud and envious, ye fretful and passionate professors! Talk not of the light ye have in your heads, whilst there is such darkness in your hearts. You must be able to say of your tempers, as well as of your principles, “The darkness is past, and the true light now shineth [Note: 1 John 2:8.].” If you cannot appeal both to God and man for the truth of this, deceive not your own souls: for if you are children of light indeed, you must walk in the light, “even as Christ himself walked [Note: 1 Thessalonians 5:5-8. 1 John 2:8.].” But, let such a change be wrought in your whole spirit and conduct, and Christ will surely “give you the morning star,” even the full enjoyment of his presence and glory in the eternal world.]

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Simeon, Charles. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/shh/revelation-22.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 22:16. ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις) The genuine reading,(248) to which, as not being understood, one has prefixed ἐν, another ἐπί. If either particle had been originally written, the copyists would not so easily either have changed or omitted it. But, as Wolf well reminds us, they who are intended by the particle you, are distinguished from the churches. For ὑμῖν is the dative, and ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις the ablative, as ch. Revelation 8:3-4. The seven churches in Asia altogether are witnesses to the individual churches, and these to their individual angels and hearers.— ἀστὴρ λα΄πρὸς πρωϊνός) He does not say ἑωσφόρος, nor φωσφόρος, but uses a new appellation, ἀστὴρ λα΄πρὸς πρωϊνός. This greatly increases the force of the signification.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-22.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

See Poole on "Revelation 22:13"

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-22.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

Ангела Моего См. 1:1.

в церквах Семь церквей в Асии, которые первые получили эту книгу (1:11).

корень и потомок Давида Христос является корнем жизни Давида и произошедших от него потомков, что подтверждает Его сущность Бога. Он также является потомком Давида («семя»), что говорит о его человеческой природе. Эта фраза является весомым свидетельством того, что Христос – это Богочеловек (ср. 2Тим. 2:8).

звезда светлая и утренняя Это самая яркая звезда, возвещающая начало дня. Когда придет Иисус, Он будет самой яркой звездой, которая рассеет тьму ночи человечества и возвестит зарю славного Божьего дня (см. пояснение к 2:28).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-22.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

The root and the offspring of David; these words are commonly interpreted to mean that Christ is the root of David-the ground of his being-in respect to his divine nature; and his offspring in respect to his human nature. Compare Psalms 110:1; Matthew 22:42-46; Acts 2:34-36. But a comparison with Isaiah 11:1, to which there is a plain reference, leads rather to the idea that Christ is called the root and offspring of David as growing out of his root; that is, as being his true progeny according to the promises of the Old Testament.

The-morning star; ushering in upon his people the splendors of eternal day.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-22.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.

As we are here drawing nigh to a close, the Lord Jesus doth here again as he did at the beginning, take to himself his own sovereign power and Godhead, and saith, I Jesus have sent mine Angel. And who but God sends Angels? Oh! how sweet are these accumulated testimonies of Christ's Godhead, to the people of God. How overwhelming to Christ's enemies? But Jesus adds another. He calls himself the root and the offspring of David. A circumstance impossible, upon any principle of common sense, but as God and Man, (as Christ indeed is,) in one Person. For, as God, he is the root of David and of all things. And, as man, he is the offspring of David, after the flesh, 2 Timothy 2:8. But suppose for a moment, his Godhead was not, how could he have been the root of David. Take away his manhood, and how could he be the seed of David. Oh! blessed testimony, as Jesus himself stated it to the Pharisees of old, Matthew 22:42 to the end, compared with Psalms 110:1; Romans 1:4; 2 Timothy 2:8. Beautiful is the similitude the Lord makes of himself to the Morning Star. For, as the root of David, in the old testament-dispensation, and long before he arose in his incarnation as the Sun of Righteousness, he shone bright and glorious like a star of the fast magnitude, and as the sure pledge of day in the firmament of the scriptures, both by David and the other Prophets. And to this hour he continues in his morning risings, as the day dawn, and day star in the hearts of his people. So that this is a sweet figure in the morning planet of our Jesus, when in the wintry days, he ariseth as the sure harbinger of the Sun of Righteousness, which will follow.

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/revelation-22.html. 1828.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things for the churches. I am the root and offspring of David, the bright, the morning star.

Up to this verse, we have been studying God's authentication of this prophecy (Revelation 22:6-15). See outline under Revelation 22:6. This verse through Revelation 22:19 is the authentication of Jesus the Lord. "Revelation again takes on the aspect of a legal document. Note the legal formula, "I Jesus,' showing that Jesus is bearing witness that his angel was divinely commissioned to show the visions to John."[68] Thus God and Christ attest the authenticity of Revelation; "Two witnesses are wholly sufficient."[69] Thus, this book and all of its words are established as faithful and true (Revelation 22:6) by two witnesses and two attestations, that of God by his angel, and that of Christ himself.

I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify ... We may therefore place infinite trust in what is here revealed. In order that the full weight of just who is testifying here may be seen, Jesus further identified himself in the next lines.

These things for the churches ... This requires that we understand the brief individual messages to the seven churches in the beginning of Revelation as an introduction; the whole book is intended for all of them.

I am the root and the offspring of David ... the morning star ... This ties the end of the New Testament with the very first verse of it (Matthew 1:1); and the mention of the star recalls the light that led the wise men to the manger in Bethlehem (Matthew 2:10f).

The bright, the morning star ... "Christ is the Star of the Dawn, and what James Stewart once in a convocation at Edinburgh called "The Star of the Eschaton.'"[70] This particular pair of metaphors, the root and the star, occurs together nowhere else in the Bible. Perhaps a little closer look at them will prove helpful.

CHRIST; THE ROOT AND THE STAR

Can anyone imagine two things more unlike than a root and a star? This proves that the Holy Spirit gave these words, for no man would ever have dared to describe the Lord in one breath as a root and a star. Yet, both terms are frequently applied to Christ in Scripture. The metaphor of the root appears in Revelation 5:8; Romans 15:12; Isaiah 11:1,2; and in this passage. That of the star is in Numbers 24:17; Matthew 2:2; 2 Peter 1:19. It is the contrast in these metaphors which we shall emphasize.

I. Here is the contrast between the near and the far. A root is near, but a star's distance is measured in light years! Is it not so with Christ? Where two or three are gathered together in his name, there is he; and yet he is at the right hand of the Majesty on High.

II. Here is the contrast between the visible and the invisible. The root is hidden beneath our feet, but the star blazes forth in the sky. That is the way it is with Christ. His influence is hidden and works secretly like leaven in the three measures of meal; but it also blazes forth in all creation. The influence of Christ is so universal and extensive that a fool can see it.

III. Here is a contrast between the earthly and the heavenly. Jesus Christ is both perfect man and perfect God. The New Testament has many examples of the humanity of Christ. He was hungry, tired, sorrowful, etc., like all men; but his miracles proclaim him as God of every God.

IV. Here is the contrast between the local and the universal. A root is fixed. It cannot move, except to creep a short distance from its humble beginning; but a star sweeps through the outer reaches of the universe in an orbit of incomprehensible distances. Its light travels 186,200 miles per second, and that for one million years at a time! A root may be localized and contained in an earthen jar; but a star rises for the whole world to see and hangs a blazing lantern in the sky where none can miss it. Is not also Christ like this? To individuals, Christ is "my Saviour," "my shepherd," etc.; but to the world he is the Christ of the Ages, the Christ of the first century and of the last; he is the Christ of Damascus Road, and the Christ of Every Road. He is the Christ of a little child's bedside and the Christ of all races and conditions of man. He is here; he is also everywhere.

V. Here is the contrast with that which is small and that which is big. A root may be so small that an eye can hardly see it; but a star may be so large that a million worlds cannot be compared with it. Jesus Christ is so great that time and space cannot contain him; but he was also wrapped in swaddling clothes and laid in a manger. Mary clutched him to her breast" and little children sing of the "Little Lord Jesus"; but multitudes of the heavenly host fall down in his presence.

VI. Here is the contrast between the high and the low. A star is high; a root is low. Christ is both:

There's not a friend like the lowly Jesus;

No friend like him is so high and holy;

And yet no friend is so meek and lowly![71]SIZE>

VII. Here is the contrast between that which needs man's care and that which needs nothing. A root must be watered and cultivated; a star needs absolutely nothing from man. Just so, Christ is above and beyond all people. Nothing that men can do can either cause or prevent the everlasting glory that pertains to him; and yet Christ needs people. There are certain phases of his work that cannot get on without men. Christ works through his human children, and their labors are important to the Eternal. "For it is God who worketh in you both and to will and to work for his good pleasure" (Philippians 2:13).

[68] Olivia Crouch, All Things New (Austin, Texas: Firm Foundation Publishing House, 1976), p. 230.

[69] R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 663.

[70] Ralph Earle, Beacon Bible Commentary, Vol. 10 (Kansas City: Beacon Hill Press, 1967), p. 625.

[71] Johnson Oatman, Jr., There's Not a Friend, Hymn No. 267, Great Songs of the Church (Cincinnati, Ohio: Standard Publishing Company).

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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-22.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘I am the root and the offspring of David, the bright and morning star.’

Compare Revelation 5:5; Revelation 2:28. Christ applies to Himself the Old Testament promises in respect of the coming one. He is the promised son of David (Numbers 24:17; Isaiah 9:6; Isaiah 12:1, 10). See also on Revelation 2:28. He is the bright and morning star, the welcomer of the new day (Numbers 24:17). The bright and morning star is an appropriate description with which to end. The night is passing and it is then that the bright and glorious morning star appears. These citations of the Old Testament stress that the One revealed cannot be distinguished from the One promised in the Old Testament. He is the fulfilment of the Old and the New.

Note how this statement of His Davidic descent is in close proximity with His statement that He is the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end (Revelation 22:13). Compare Romans 1:3-4; Mark 12:35-37.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-22.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The combination "I Jesus" occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. Here Jesus used it to stress His role in producing this book and so to strengthen its authority (cf. Revelation 22:7; Revelation 22:12). "My angel" is the main angel who revealed this material to John (cf. Revelation 22:6). The angel gave the whole revelation ("these things") to John, but it was ultimately for all the churches, not just the seven churches of Asia Minor (cf. Revelation 1:4; chs2-3).

David founded old Jerusalem, but David"s greatest son will establish the New Jerusalem. However, Jesus was the ancestor of David as well as His descendant, the root as well as the offspring of David (cf. Isaiah 11:1). Consequently He fulfills all the prophecies concerning David"s family. Jesus also called Himself the morning star prophesied to come the second time (cf. Revelation 2:28). The appearance of the morning star heralds the dawn of a new day. Similarly the Lord"s second coming will herald the dawn of a new day in history. He is the brightest of all personal stars, as the morning star is the brightest physical star in the sky. He is the star that would come forth from Jacob ( Numbers 24:17).

"The "root" is buried in the ground where no one can see it, but the "star" is in the heavens where everyone can see it." [Note: Wiersbe, 2:625.]

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-22.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 22:16. I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things for the churches. The closing message of the Book begins with these words, and it comes from Him who only here, and in His words to Saul (Acts 9:5), calls Himself by the name ‘Jesus.’ The word, therefore, must be understood in its most emphatic sense, the Saviour, He who saves His people from their sins and leads them in triumph to the promised rest. In the words employed by Him He first confirms what had been said in chap. Revelation 1:1, and then points out the persons to whom as well as those for whose behoof the testimony had been given. ‘I have sent,’ it is stated, ‘unto you.’ The persons thus referred to seem to be the ‘angels’ of the churches, not special office-bearers of any kind, but the churches in their action, in their presentation of themselves to the world in life and action. It is indeed possible that, as in Revelation 22:6 of this chapter we found the Seer coming before us as the representative of all those there called God’s ‘servants,’ so here we may have the plural ‘you’ because he is again regarded in the same light. The other explanation, however, is simpler, and finds some confirmation in the connection between so many different parts of the Prologue and the Epilogue. While thus testified to the churches in action, the things contained in this book are testified ‘for the churches,’ i.e for the seven churches mentioned in chap. 1, but considered as a representation and embodiment of the whole Church.—In the first words of this verse the Lord had described Himself as Jesus. The words which follow, I am the root and the offspring of David, the bright, the morning star, enlarge this description, and that in the manner of those double pictures which are so common in the writings of St. John. The first picture is taken from the circle of Jewish associations, the second from the field of the world. By the ‘root’ of David, we are not to understand that root out of which David sprang as if, when taken along with the following words, we had here a declaration that Jesus was both the ‘Lord’ and the ‘Son’ of David (comp. Matthew 22:45). The ‘root of David’ is rather the shoot which proceeds from David after he and his house have fallen, and it only expresses in a figure what is more plainly stated in the use of the word ‘offspring.’ But not only so, Jesus is also ‘the bright, the morning star,’ the most brilliant star in the firmament of heaven, now the harbinger of that day the light of which never dims. This is the Gentile, perhaps more properly the general, portion of the figure. David’s was a local name: the eyes of all nations are fixed with interest and delight upon the morning star (comp. chaps. Revelation 5:5, Revelation 2:28).

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-22.html. 1879-90.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Revelation 22:16. I Jesus have sent mine angel — It was not thought sufficient to represent the angel as speaking in the person of Christ, but Christ himself also is here introduced speaking in his own person, and confirming the divine authority of this book, and attesting it to be properly his revelation; to testify unto you these things — Primarily to you, the seven angels of the churches; then to those churches, and afterward to all other churches in succeeding ages. I, as God, am the root — And source; and, as man, the offspring of David — And his family; and the bright and morning star — Who wear a glory exceeding that of the most brilliant and celestial luminary, and who put an end to the night of ignorance, sin, and sorrow, and usher in an eternal day of light, purity, and joy.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/revelation-22.html. 1857.

Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books

In verse 6, we had God"s testimony and now Christ adds his to confirm by two witnesses the truthfulness of this message. He had it sent ot all the churches of Asia mentioned in chapters 2 and 3. In Revelation 5:5, we noted the title "Root and offspring of David." As the morning star, Jesus could be said to be the herald of a new day that would dawn in eternity for the church.

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Hampton, Gary. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghc/revelation-22.html. 2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

I. The Lord Himself speaks.

Jesus. App-98.

have sent = sent. App-174.

testify. See p. 1611.

in. Greek. epi. App-104.

churches. See Revelation 1:4 and App-186. The "assemblies" of Rev. 6 and Rev. 8 specifically, during the fulfillment of "the prophecy of this book".

Offspring. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species). App-6. See Acts 17:28.

David. See Revelation 3:7; Revelation 5:5.

and, and. Omit.

morning = the morning. Greek. orthrinos, only here. The texts read ho pro"inos, as Revelation 2:28.

Star. Greek. aster. Fourteenth and last occurance in Rev. See App-197. Compare Numbers 24:17.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-22.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.

Mine angel - Jesus is Lord of the angels.

Unto you - ministers and people in the seven representative churches, and, through you, to Christians of all times and places.

Root ... offspring of David. Appropriate here where assuring His Church of "the sure mercies of David," to Israel first, and through Israel to the Gentiles. Root of David, as Yahweh: offspring of David as man. David's Lord, yet David's son (Matthew 22:42-45).

The ... morning star - ushering in the day of grace in the beginning of this dispensation, and the everlasting day of glory at its close.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-22.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(16) I Jesus have sent mine angel . . .—The warning is followed by the voice of our Lord Himself testifying to the truth of the revelation made, I Jesus sent (not “have sent,” as in the English version) my angel to testify to you these things to the churches. But it is not merely a message, or the confirmation of a message that we have—we have also stated what Christ is—the root and pledge of hope to all. I am the root and offspring of David, and the star, the bright, the morning (star). He is David’s Lord and David’s Son, possessing David’s throne (Matthew 22:42-45; Luke 1:32); He is the bright star which leads up the dawn of everlasting day (Malachi 4:2; 2 Peter 1:19).

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-22.html. 1905.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

Verse 16: I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.

This passage is one of the pinnacles of John's utterances in the book of Revelation, of which there had been many. It affirmed that He who had commissioned his angel to testify the things of the apocalypse was the rightful heir to the kingdom and throne of Judah's sceptre as the legal and regal descendant of David. The statement forms an epexegetical insertion of a leading point for special emphasis--that is, an additional explanatory point, put or set in the text for extra accent; and in this instance the purpose was to focus the attention on who had spoken in the visions. He who was the Son of David according to flesh, the fulfillment of all Davidic prophecies and promises, was in these visions the Bright And Morning Star to herald the dawn for the persecuted church. In numerous other passages he was said to occupy the throne of David (Acts 2:29-33); and to bring the blessings and mercies of David (Acts 13:34); and to set up the tabernacle of David (Acts 15:13-17); and to hold the key of David (Isaiah 22:22 - Revelation 3:7).

All of the prophecies relating to David's throne have been fulfilled in the ascendancy of Jesus Christ to the throne in heaven; from which throne He had been the Speaker of the apocalypse. As the Root and Offspring of David, he had spoken with a sovereign and royal authority above kings of the nations or the emperors of the imperial dynasty; the throne of David was greater than the throne of Caesar; and kingdom of heaven was superior to the dominions of any earthly government. He was the victorious Rider of the white horse and his Cause had triumphed. Christ was the Victor; the persecutors were the vanquished; and the saints of tribulation were the rewarded in the visions that had been concluded.

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Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-22.html. 1966.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.
I Jesus
6; 1:1
to testify
20
See on ver
1,11; 2:7,11,17,29; 3:6,13,22
I am
5:5; Isaiah 11:1; Zechariah 6:12; Matthew 22:42,45; Romans 1:3,4; 9:5
the bright
2:28; Numbers 24:17; Matthew 2:2,7-10; Luke 1:78; 2 Peter 1:19
Reciprocal: Genesis 24:40 - will;  1 Kings 15:4 - give him;  2 Chronicles 10:16 - David;  Job 38:7 - the morning;  Psalm 89:4 - GeneralSong of Solomon 4:6 - day;  Song of Solomon 6:10 - looketh;  Isaiah 11:10 - in that day;  Isaiah 14:12 - Lucifer;  Ezekiel 34:23 - my servant;  Daniel 8:16 - make;  Hosea 6:3 - his going;  Zechariah 12:8 - the house;  Malachi 4:2 - the Sun;  Matthew 1:1 - the son of David;  Mark 10:47 - thou;  Mark 12:37 - and whence;  Luke 1:69 - in;  Luke 18:38 - Jesus;  Luke 20:41 - Christ;  Luke 20:44 - how;  John 1:4 - the life;  John 3:34 - for God;  Acts 13:23 - this;  Acts 27:23 - there;  Romans 15:12 - There;  2 Thessalonians 1:7 - his mighty angels;  Hebrews 7:14 - sprang;  Hebrews 12:1 - witnesses;  Revelation 22:10 - he saith;  Revelation 22:17 - the Spirit;  Revelation 22:18 - testify

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-22.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

This book starts out by telling us that it is the revelation of Jesus Christ (not of "Saint John the Divine" as the heading title erroneously states), and this verse reveals Him introducing himself directly. However, He does not overlook the services of the angel, but faithfully backs up his work by saying that He sent him. To testify means to transmit the testimony to the churches. That Isaiah, to bear testimony to the things that have been showed him throughout the vision of this book. Root and ofispring of David. This means that Jesus was in the direct line of genealogy that came down from Abraham through David. That great man was not the only prominent Hebrew in the line, but there was a distinction in his case. David had two sons by the same woman, Bathsheba, and those sons were Solomon and Nathan ( 1 Chronicles 3:5). At this place the blood line divides and on Solomon's side it comes down to Joseph the husband of Mary. On Nathan"s side it comes down to Mary the mother of Jesus. (See Matthew 1and Luke 3.) There is another fact that makes David of special importance. He was the first king of the Israelites from the tribe of Judah, and it had been predicted ( Genesis 49:10) that the tribe of Judah was to give law to God's people in latter times. The Mosaic law was of the tribe of Levi ( Exodus 2:1-10). David was the first king of the tribe of Judah to sit upon the throne of God's ancient people. That kingdom was destined to be set aside and replaced by another. But God assured David that his throne would not always be vacant. There wast to be one of his descendants who would reign on the throne, only by that time it would be spiritual and not one with temporal government as its purpose. Such a king was worthy of coming to John with an authoritative commission such as this vision. Bright and morning star is what He says of himself in Revelation 2:28. The significance of this phrase is due to its brightness as it precedes the sun in rising, thus announcing that a new day is beginning. (See 2 Peter 1:19.) And truly did the rising of Jesus come as a star to announce that a new day was about to come, the day of the Christian Dispensation.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-22.html. 1952.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 22:16. I Jesus have sent my angel to testify these things to you upon[Note: The ἐ πὶ was a source of perplexity to those who did not rightly understand the ἡ μῶ ν. They hence either dropt it out, or substituted ἐ ν in its place.] the churches. I am the root and the race of David, the bright morning-star. Behind John, the poor instrument, stands a greater than he, whose shoes he is not worthy to loose.

The subject-matter of the book ascends through the medium of the angel to Jesus. Whosoever apprehends his glory (I am the root, &c)., cannot doubt the truth of its contents; he will expect with firm confidence the fulfilment of its promises. The these things refer to the whole contents of the book. To you, my servants, who are represented by John, the prophets (comp. on ch. Revelation 22:6; Revelation 22:9, Revelation 1:1). To testify, not that he, but that I may testify, comp. Revelation 1:2. Upon the churches (the ἐ πὶas in ch. Revelation 10:11; John 12:16), the churches being regarded as the object of the testimony. The whole book is occupied with the future affairs of the church. The churches are the Christian churches generally, not merely the seven of Asia; for to these only the seven epistles specially belonged (comp. i. p. 57). Even in these epistles the promises do not respect alone the seven churches, but the churches generally. The book closes in Revelation 22:21 with the words, "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with all saints."

The root of David, as in ch. Revelation 5:5, is the product of the root, the sprout from the root, that in which the family of David, that had sunk into the lowest depression, again bloomed forth. Because Jesus is the root, he is also the race of David. In him alone is the race preserved; while otherwise it would have vanished without a trace. The race of David is more than his offspring; it indicates that the race of David should, save for Christ, have ceased to exist. The race of David is here brought into view in respect to the unconquerable strength and everlasting dominion promised it by God, (comp. Luke 1:32-33). What he testifies, in whom the glorious race of David culminates, will assuredly go into fulfilment.

Jesus is called the bright morning-star in allusion to Isaiah 14:12, on account of his glorious dominion; comp. on ch. Revelation 2:28. The practical result of the verse is this: You must, therefore, firmly believe what in this book is said of my coming, of the water of life, etc. For, the saying, "whatever he has promised, he holds sacred," stands good with respect to me; I shall not feed my people with empty hopes.

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Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-22.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

16.I Jesus—Giving now in his own person his attestation to this book as really from his commissioned angel.

In the churches—Greek, , literally, upon; but upon as an audience on whom the utterances are expended as to them addressed, Revelation 2:7. So in Revelation 10:11, the same preposition (rendered in our translation before) does not signify that the peoples named would be the subject of the prophecies, (as Dusterdieck insists,) but would be the object of their direct address.

The churches—First the seven Churches of Asia, and through them to the churches of all lands and ages.

Root and the offspring—Note on Revelation 5:5.

The bright and morning star—A beautiful image of the Saviour, presented by St. John here on the threshold of the celestial world. This new world is the morning of our endless existence; in its gray dawn happy is the man upon whose faith beams this bright and morning star, the promise and harbinger of an eternal day.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-22.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Jesus in person now speaks in the colloquy (Revelation 22:16; Revelation 22:13; Revelation 22:12) to ratify what has just been said. This apocalypse is not an individual fantasy (2 Peter 1:21). For the contemporary need of such accrediting, cf. Herm. Sim. ix. 22 and Ascension. Isa. 3:30, 31 (where in the last days “everyone will say what is pleasing in his own eyes. And they will make of none effect the prophecy of the prophets which were before me, and these my visions also will they make of none effect, in order to speak after the impulse of their own hearts.”)— , not John (Weiss, Wellh.) but the angelus interpres (cf. on Revelation 1:2; Revelation 1:20).— , the plural here and in Revelation 22:6 (cf.Revelation 1:1) might suggest that John’s apocalypse incorporated some visions of other members belonging to the prophets in the Asiatic circle or school (cf. the tradition about the co-operative origin of the Fourth gospel, in the Muratorian canon). But while any Jewish Christian sources may have been drawn from this quarter, the final authorship and authority is claimed by (or, for) John himself (cf.Revelation 22:8).— . Like most early Christians, John attached more weight to the Davidic descent of Jesus as messiah (Baldensperger, 82 f.), than Jesus himself allowed. Here Christ’s authority in revelation is bound up with his legitimate claim to be messiah, and thus to inaugurate the new and eternal day of God. As (the dawn = ) was already a messianic symbol, and employed in LXX (Jeremiah 23:5, Zechariah 3:8; Zechariah 6:12) to denote the messianic branch or stem, this double usage explains the imagery here (so Justin, Apol. i. 32). Jesus has not only the historic preparation of Israel behind him but the infinite future before him. In one sense he was the climax of Hebrew expectation; in another, he is of world-wide significance. In connexion with the heavenly Jerusalem it was natural that Jesus should be hailed as the scion of the David who had founded the first Jerusalem. The star-metaphor reflects the significance of the morning-star which meant the beginning of a new day for toilers in the Levant; but its eschatological outlook was taken ultimately from Babylonian astro-theology, where Nebo-Mercury (nebî = prophet), the morning-star, announced the new era, or from Egyptian theology where (cf.E. B. D. p. cxliii.) Pepi the dead king “goeth forth into heaven among the Stars which never perish, and his guide the Morning-Star leadeth him to Sekhet-Hetep [the fields of peace]”. The phraselogy brings out the conviction of the early church that the present trial was only the cold, dark hour before the dawn. Their faith in Jesus assured them that an eternal prospect of bliss awaited them, and that this vista of hope was hound up with the person of the risen Jesus (cf.Revelation 22:13). The watchword was, sunrise and morning-star (cf.Expos. Dec. 1902, 424–441). Christianity was not some ephemeral Oriental cult, which had had its day; the cosmic overthrow meant a new era for its adherents. The Apocalypse thus closes, as it began (Revelation 1:5-6) with a note of ringing emphasis upon the eternal significance of Christ in the divine plan and purpose.

Revelation 22:13 Gathers up the double thought of 16 and of 12. As the Christian (Revelation 2:2; Revelation 2:5; Revelation 2:19, etc.) are done within the sphere of faith, their recompense is a religious as well as a thoroughly moral conception (cf. Hastings’ D. B. iii. 82, and Montefiore’s Hibbert Lectures, p. 538). To the day’s work, the day’s wage. For the origin of this feeling on Syrian or Semitic soil, where the fellahin’s work “was scrutinised before the wages were paid” by one who was “at once the paymaster of his dependents and their judge,” cf. Hatch’s Hibb.Lectures, pp. 224 f. and Dalman, i. § viii. 3. The reward, like the new Jerusalem, was safely stored in heaven. No fear of inadequate moral appreciation in the next world, at any rated

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 22:16". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-22.html. 1897-1910.