Bible Encyclopedias
Various Readings of the New Testament

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature

Search for…
Resource Toolbox

By various readings (commonly abbreviated v.r. for the singular, and for the plural vv. rr.) are meant the differences observed in different manuscript copies of the Holy Scriptures. Those found in the Hebrew manuscripts of the Old Test. will be considered below.

The writings of the New Test. were copied by hand, from the age of the apostles to the date of the first printing of the New Test., a period of about thirteen centuries. During that time copies were greatly multiplied. With the utmost care, there would of necessity be occasional mistakes in copying. The errors of one manuscript might be repeated in the copy made from it, and others added, and thus the number be continually increasing.

The liability to mistake was greatly increased by the mode of writing in the oldest manuscripts. What is called "current hand," in which a long word may be written without taking the pen from the paper, was not used. Each letter, of the size and general shape of our capitals, was made separately by itself, many with more than one separate stroke of the pen. There was no division of words. All were written continuously in an unbroken line, as may be seen in the specimens given in vol. 1, p. 155, and vol. 2, p. 389 of this Cyclopaedia. As the eye could not readily distinguish words and clauses so run together, the scribe would naturally copy each letter by itself from its place in the line, often confounding letters similar in form. In these characters, termed uncial, all extant manuscripts dating prior to about the 10th century were written, and hence they are called uncial manuscripts. (See MANUSCRIPTS OF THE GREEK TESTAMENT); also (See UNCIALS).

Far more numerous are the cursive manuscripts, so called, written in current hand from about the 10th century and onward (see vol. v; p. 727, and specimens 2, 3, and 4 on p. 728). Their value depends on the evidence that they are trustworthy copies of ancient manuscripts now lost, and contain readings of the true text of which these are now the only manuscript witnesses. On such evidence some of them are held in high estimation by all the leading authorities in textual criticism. That these are of great value in deciding where ancient manuscripts disagree, and also where their united testimony may for just reasons be discredited, is held by a highly influential class of critics, of whom Frederick H. Scrivener is the leading representative (see his Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Test. [2nd ed. 1874]).

For the history of the text, and its variations in manuscripts prior to the oldest now extant, (See NEW TESTAMENT); for the theoretic classification of various readings in extant MSS., (See RECENSIONS). It is proper to add here that the earliest of those variations, however minute, are preserved in the primary documents that still remain, showing that the sacred text has suffered no important change that cannot now be detected (Westcott).

I. Origin and Nature. Various readings have arisen from many different causes. These have been ascertained by careful comparison of manuscripts. They are mostly such as might be inferred from the nature of the case; and observation has shown that all variations in manuscripts may be referred to one or other of these causes, the knowledge of which often aids' in determining what is the true reading. (The materials for the following summary are derived in part from Westcott's articles "New Testament," § 30-40, and "Language of the New Testament," p. 2141, § 1-4, in Smith, Dict. of the Bible [Amer. ed.]; Scrivener, Introd. to Text. Crit. of New Test.; Tregelles, Introd. toi Text. Crit. of New Test. in vol. 4 of Horne's- Introduction.)

1. Accidental variations, or errata, from various causes.

(1.) Merely clerical errors, or slips of the pen;: words omitted or repeated, misspelled or partially written. This is a numerous class, rarely of any importance, to which copyists of long documents are always liable. The peculiar reading "how strait" (Matthew 7:14) may have arisen, as Scrivener suggests, from the omission of the large initial O, reserved for subsequent revision.

(2.) Errors of sound, arising from different ways of representing the same sound. Such are the changes in the oldest MSS. between ι and ει, αι and ε; and in the later between ηι and ει, οι and υ, ο and ω, η and ε . The interchange of αι and ε (pronounced alike) is continual; εσται and εστε, εχεται and εχετε , and the like, being used indiscriminately. The vowels ο and ω are thus interchanged Romans 5:1, εχομεν, "we have," and εχωμεν , "let us have." The latter has the weight of MS. authority, and, with some constraint, yields a pertinent sense. (see Tischendorf, Nov. Test. [8th ed.]), though the former seems required by the connection. More doubtful is Romans 6:15, where ἁμαρτησομεν," shall we sin?" is feebly supported; and αμαρτησωμεν, "may we sin?" has abundant support. At and a are interchanged in Matthew 11:16, where ἑταιροις is but slightly, and ἑτεροις (omitting αυτων ) strongly, supported by ancient authorities. So constant is this interchange that the difference in spelling has no weight in determining the true form of the word. The pronouns ὑμεις, ἡμεις , and their cases are perpetually interchanged: 1 John 1:4, ἡμων for ὑμων. Even the readings ἡμετερον , Luke 16:12, and ἡμας, Acts 17:28, are found in the Codex Vaticanus.

(3.) Errors of Sight. Of such errata a prolific source is furnished by the ancient mode of writing in an unbroken line, without division of words. In the confused sequence of letters thus strung together, the eye would not readily distinguish single words, or letters similar in form. Hence arose false division of words; similar letters interchanged, repeated, or omitted; repetition or omission of the same combination of letters; omission of the second repetition of the same letter or word, etc. In some of the following examples the MSS. are cited, by the usual notation (vol. 5, p. 724, 3 of this Cyclopaedia), showing to some extent how they stand related to each other. The rough breathing is added in some cases to make the form more readily understood: Mark 15:6, ὁν παρητουντο (A, B, א ) ὁνπερ ητουντο (B3, א, C, N, X); Romans 13:9, ὡσ σεαυτον (A, B, א, D, E), ὡσ ἑαυτον (F, G, L, P); Matthew 21:18, επαναγαγων,(B, א, L), επαναγων (B2, א, C, E, F, G, H etc.); Mark 8:17, συνιετε (B, א C, D, L, N), ουνιετε ετι (A, X); Luke 7:21, εχαρισατο το βλεπειν (א a, F, L, U); without (GREEK) repeated, A, B, א, D, E, G, H, etc.). From such accidental repetition arose the false reading in Revelation 6:1; Revelation 6:3; Revelation 6:5; Revelation 6:7. The true reading is simply, "Come!" (ερχου ), summoning forth each rider to the service assigned him. The uncial text would stand thus: ΚΑΙΙΔΕΚΑΙΙΔΟΥ . B of the Apoc. reads it in Revelation 6:1; Revelation 6:5; Revelation 6:7, ερχου και ιδε και ιδου (ἱππος ). There can be no doubt that και ιδε arose from accidental repetition; for in Revelation 6:3, where και ιδου does not follow, ερχου is not followed by και ιδε. In the same way arose the και ιδε of א, which even its partial discoverer makes no account of here.

(4.) Homeoteleuton is so common a cause of error in the uncial text as to procure for it a specific name. When two successive clauses or sentences begin or end similarly, the eye of the copyist may be misled by the similarity, and omit or repeat one of them: Luke 6:1, δευ τεροπρωτω (A, C, D, E, H, K, M, R, S, U, V, X); omitted in B, א, L, probably from having the same termination as the preceding word. In 1 John 2:23, two successive sentences both end with πατερα εχει . The copyist, after transcribing the first, and seeing at the end of the second what he had just written, proceeded with the next following words. Hence the loss of that genuine utterance of the apostle, in all the copies known when our current Greek text was formed; and hence its insertion in bracketed italics, as of doubtful authenticity, in the English New Test. The recovery of the old MSS. (A, B, א, C, etc.) has fully vindicated its title to its place there.

2. Incidental variations, peculiar to the age and country or mental habits of the copyist. These are due to several causes, chiefly the intermingling of dialects in the κοινὴ διάλεκτος, the influence of the Alexandrian version of the Sept., and the pedantry of the Atticists.

(1.) Differences in orthography and forms of words; dialectic usages of the copyist, or possibly of the original writer: Acts 10:30, ενατην (A, B, א, C, D), εννατην (later form in the cursives); Acts 7:28, εχθες (B, א, C, D), χθες (A, E, H, P); Mark 1:10, ευθυς (B א, L, A), ευθεως (A, P, Γ, Π ); Acts 11:51, αχρι (A, B, א ), αχρις B3, E, H,', P); Romans 15:15, τολμηροτερον (א, C, D, E, F, G, L, P), τολμηροτερως (A, B); James 2:1, προσ ωπολημψιαις (A, B א, C), προσωποληψιαις (K, L, P); Mark 1:27, συνζητειν (A, B, א, C,, G, XL, Δ ), συζητειν (E, F,H,: K, M, S, U, V); 2 Corinthians 3:2, ενγεγραμμενη (A, B, א, DF, G), εγγεγραμμενη (K, L, P); John 10:22, ενκαινια (B, א, D, L), εγκαινια (A, B3,'X); Acts 24:4, ενκοπτω (A, א, B, E, H), εγκοπτω (B3, H, P); Hebrews 9:18, ενκεκαινισται (A, א, D, E), εγκεκαινισται (C, K, L, P). These examples betray the tendency to euphonic change in the usage of the later MSS. The doubling of p, usually neglected in the older MSS., is a grammatical correction in the later ones; as in Matthew 9:36, εριμμενοι (B, א, C, D, L), ερριμμενοι (E F, G, K, L, U, X).

(2.) Tense-forms of Verbs. (a.) Of the same verb: Luke 1:31, συλλημψη (A,B, א, C, D); James 3:1, λημ ψομεθα (A, B. א, C), ληψομεθα (K, L, P); John 9:10, ηνεωχθησαν (B, א, C, D, E, F, G, H, L, M, X), ανεω χθησαν : (A, K, U, II); Acts 12:10, ηνοιγη (A, B, א, D), ηνοιχθη (E, H, L, P); Matthew 5:21, ερρηθη (B, D, E, K), ερρεθη (א, L, M, S, U, Δ, Π ); Revelation 14:13, αναπαησον ται (A, א, C, B), αναπαυσωνται (P); Acts 10:45, συνηλ θαν (B א ), συνηλθον (A, D, E, H, L, P).;: Acts 10:39, ανει λον (A, B, א, C, D, E), ανειλον (H, L, P); 1 John 2:19, εξηλθαν (A, B, C), εξηλθον (K, L, P).; Luke 3:22, ηυ δοκησα (A, E, G, H, L, S, U, X, Γ, Δ ), ευδοκησα (B א, F, K, M, U, Λ, Π ). (b.) Interchange of tenses or modes where either might seem. apposite: John 6:37, εκραξεν (B, L, T, X), εκραζεν (א, I)); Luke 20:19, εζητησαν (A, B, א, L, R), εζητουν (C, D); John 7:29, απεστειλεν (B, L, T), απεσταλκεν (א , D); John 7:19, δεδωκεν (א, L, T T Γ, Λ, Π ), εδωκεν (B),D, H, n H); Matthew 9:19, ηκο λουθει (א, C, D), ηκολουθησεν (B, F, G, K, L, S, U, X Δ, Π ); John 4:17, ειπες (B, א ), ειπας (A, C, D, L); John 8:39, ειπαν (B, א C, D), ειπον (L, T, X, Γ, Δ, Λ ); 2:28, σχωμεν (A, B, א C, C, P), εχωμεν (א, K, L); John 8:39, εστε (B, א, D, L, T), ητε (C, X Γ, Δ, Λ, Π ); (c.) Interchange of the same tense from different verbs of like signification: Acts 9:26, επειραζεν (A,B, א, C), επει ρατο (E, H, L, P); Mark 1:26 (part.), φωνησαν (B, א, L), κραξαν (A, C, D. Γ, Δ, Π ).

(3.) Of case-forms there are some variations; as Matthew 26:52, μαχαιρη (A, B, א, C), μαχαιρα (B, D, Γ, Δ, Π, N); Luke 24:1; Luke 24:1, βαθεως (A,. B, א, C, D, G, H, L), βαθεος (E, P, S, U,V).

(4.) Exchange of terms so nearly equivalent as to be used indifferently in certain connections: Matthew 12:48; Matthew 15:12; Matthew 17:20; Matthew 19:21, λεγειν (earlier), ειπειν (later); Matthew 22:37, φαναι (earlier), ειπειν (later); Mark 14:31, λαλειν (earlier), λεγειν (later); John 14:10, λεγειν (earlier), λαλειν (later). So interchanged are εγερθεις and διεγερθεις , Matthew 1:24; εγερθη and αναστη, Matthew 17:9; αναστηναι and εγερθηναι , Luke 9:22;,: ηλθεν (v attached) and απηλθε, Matthew 14:25; ηλθον and απηλθον , Luke 23:33; απελθειν and εξεθειν, Acts 16:39; λεγουσι and. ειπον, Matthew 13:28. These words, so nearly equivalent in the connection, might readily be confounded in copying.

(5.) The same is true of forms nearly equivalent in sense; as ουδε and ουτε, ως and καθως , Acts 10:47; ωσει and ως, John 19:14; Luke 1:56; ως and ωσπερ , 2 Corinthians 1:7; μεχρι and εως, Luke 16:16; εως ὁυ and εως ὁτου, 12:50, the former only in the later uncials, the latter in the older and some of the later. It is true, also, of other equivalents in sense; as John 14:31, ευε τειλατο (A, א, D), and εντολην εδωκεν (B, L): having the same meaning, they might easily be confounded in copying.

(6.) Familiar contractions (crasis) abounding in oral speech, and often passing into written language; common in the earlier MSS., and often resolved in the later: John 8:55, κἀν (B, א, D), και εαν (A, C, L); 1 Corinthians 2:3, καγω (A, B, א, C, P), και εγω (D, E, F, G, L); John 14:16, καγω (B, א, D, Q), και εγω (A, L, X); John 14:21, καγω (B, א, D, G, L), και εγω (A, E, H,.K).

(7.) Interchange of the minor connectives: Acts 4:14, τον τε (A, B, א, Di), τον δε (P); Acts 10:48, προσεταξεν δε (B, א, E), προσεταξεν τε (A, H, L, P); Mark 1:28, και εξηλθεν (B, א, C, D), εξηλθε δε (A, Γ, Π ). (8.) Pronominal forms inserted without affecting the sense: Matthew 20:23, μου (after ευωνυμων ); Matthew 19:28,. υμεις (after καθισεσθε ); Revelation 14:13, μοι (after λεγου σης ). Specially frequent is the insertion of αυτος in an oblique case: Acts 11:13, αυτω (after ειποντα ), and Acts 12:9 (after ηκολουθει ); Matthew 25:4, αυτων (after αγ γειοις ), and 5, 6 (after απαντησιν ) Matthew 26:17, αυτω (after λεγοντες ), and Matthew 27:22 (after λεγουσιν ). An instructive case of presumed addition, but more probably of unauthorized omission, occurs in the last clause but one of Luke 12:53. The omission of the pronoun in the four preceding clauses, where the nearer relation of the parties makes it unnecessary, may have occasioned its omission here, where it is required by the more remote relation. Its accidental or misjudged omission being more probable than its unauthorized insertion, the testimony of A, B, א, D in its favor should outweigh that of א, Δ which yet determined Tischendorf to omit it. Tregelles properly retains it here, and as properly omits it in the next clause (with B, D, L against A, T, X), the relation being already expressed. It is noteworthy that the whole passage, as thus read, is strikingly marked by Luke's characteristic conciseness and precision of expression.

(9.) Change in the order of words; a numerous class, as may be seen on almost any page of Scrivener's Novum Testamentum (in the Cambridge classics). Many of these variations differ from each other no more than the English phrases "AEneas by name" and "by name AEneas" (Acts 9:33); "went up straightway" and "straightway went up" (Matthew 3:16). Most of them, however, are not easily accounted for. Such cases as γενομενος εν εαυτω and εν εαυτω γενομενος (Acts 12:11), and similar colloquial phrases, may have been due to local habit and usage. In the greater number, perhaps, the copyist himself, after reading a clause, may not have recalled, in writing it, the exact order of the words; or he may have been unconsciously misled by one occurring to him more correct or pointed in expression, or more pleasing to the .ear. In many there is ground for such preference; as in Acts 9:13, οσα κακα εποιησε τοις αγιοις σου and οσα κακα τοις αγιοις σου εποιησε .

(10.) The article, in the use of which the MSS. are very fluctuating, is sometimes neglected or inserted without apparent ground. Significant is the reading of some MSS. (among them D) in Luke 12:54, "When ye see the cloud ("the rain-betokening cloud," 1 Kings 18:44) rising from the west." But the omission of the article here is strongly attested by A, B, א, L, X, Δ .

(11.) In the use and disuse of the elision the MSS. fluctuate: 1 John 2:16, αλλα εκ (A, א, K, L), αλλα εκ (B, C); 1 Corinthians 7:4, αλλα (A, B, א, C), αλλ (D, Ej G, K, L, P). It is probable that the shorter eli.ded form was that of oral speech, and passed into, the earlier written language. More doubtful is the neglected aspiration of mutes before the rough breathing: Luke 12:53, επι υἱω (B, א T, 10, Γ, Δ, Λ ); εφ υἱω (A, D, K, L, II).

(12.) Error from the similar construction of two successive clauses: James 2:18, the first εκ (K, L) for χωρις (A, B, א, C, P), the copyist confounding the εκ των εργων of the two clauses. His blunder is perpetuated in our current Greek text through the misjudgment of Mill, whose long and. involved exposition of the meaning is its own refutation. The: H'KAINH ΔΙΑΘΗΚΗ of Colinaeus (1534) has the true reading. The English version here follows the true reading. In 1 Peter 3:20," once - waited." it follows a false reading (απαξ εξεδεχετο ) without MS. authority, and received on conjecture by Erasmus. The true reading is απεξε δεχετο (A, B, א, C, D, P).

(13.) Synonyms, and also words that in certain connections may serve as such,. are readily interchanged: Matthew 20:34, oμματων (B, D,'L, G), οφθαλμων (א, C, N). In Matthew 25:16 the reading "made" [five talents] is equivalent in meaning to "gained" [five talents]. For the former (εποιησε ) are A, א, X, Γ, Δ, θ; for the latter (εκερδησε ) are A2, א e, B, C, D, L. So likewise, Matthew 9:29, ομματων (D), οφθαλμων (all others); Matthew 6:1, δικαιοσυ νην (B, א, D), ελεημοσυνην (E, K, L, M, S, U, Z). But it may well be doubted whether by the former the Savior meant almsgiving, as implied in the alternative reading. He first states the general principle that good deeds are not to be done to be seen of men, and then illustrates it by the case of ostentatious almsgiving. The phrase was already a familiar one: Psalms 106:3, "he that doeth righteousness;" Isaiah 58:2, "a nation that did righteousness;" 1 John 2:29, "every one that doeth righteousness;" 3, 7, 10. So likewise Matthew 27:4, αθωον (A, B, א, C, X), δικαιον (B marg. L).

(14.) Of proper names the variations in spelling are very frequent: 1 Corinthians 16:19, Πρισκα (B, א, M, P.), Πρισκιλλα (A, C, D, E,F, G); John 7:19, Μωυσες (B, א, D,, L, S, T, X, Δ, Π ), Μωσης (Γ, Λ )., Most significant is the variation in Acts 11:20, Ελληνας (A, א, D), Ελληνιστας (B, D2, E,' H L, P) (comp. Acts 6:1). Of places: Matthew 4:13, Καφαρναουμ (B, א, D,G), Καπερναουμ (C, E, K;IL, M, P, S, U, V); Matthew 15:39, Μα γαδαν (B, א,D), Μαγδαλα (E, F, G, H, K, L, S, U, V); Luke 10:30, Ιερειχω (B, L, X), Ιεριχω (A, B, א, C, D, X).

3. Intentional Variations. Of these the greater number affect only the form of the text.

(1.) Grammatical Changes.

(a.) In the oblique case after a preposition, to express what was understood to be the required relation: Acts 2:30, καθισαι επι τον θρονον (A, B, א, 1 C, D), καθισαι επι του θρονου (E, P): Revelation 4:2, επι τον θρονον καθημενος (A, B, א ), επι του θρονου καθημενος (P); Revelation 4:9, καθημενω επι τω θρονω (A, א ), καθημενω επι του θρονου (B, P); Revelation 19:5, απο του θρονου εξηλθε (A, B. C), εκ του θρονου εξηλθε (א, P); Mark 7:30, βεβλημενην επι της κλι νης (A, N, X, Γ, Π ), βεβλημενην επι την κλινην (B, א, D, L, Δ ).

(b.) Rectifying a supposed solecism: Matthew 5, 28, επιθυμησαι αυτην (B, D, E,'K, L, S, U,.V), επν θυμησαι αυτης (א 3,3 M); S', 32, ημεραι τρεις (B, C, D, F, G, H, K, L, M, P, S, U, V), ημερας τρεις (א , E ); Revelation 4:1, λεγων (A, B, א ), λεγουσα (א c, P); Revelation 4:8, λε γοντες (A,'B, א, P), λεγοντα (in the cursives); Revelation 11:4, εστωτες (A, B, א, C), εστωσαι (א, P).

(2.). Changes Affecting the Substance of the Text. A careful examination and comparison of such changes will probably lead to the conclusion that the greater part of them at least have passed from the margin into the body of the text through the want of proper discrimination in the copyist. In the old MSS. frequent omissions in the text are found supplied in the margin, to be incorporated in the text of the next copy made from it. This being a standing rule, whatever was written in the margin might be thus incorporated by an incompetent or not sufficient attentive copyist. If a sentence seemed incomplete or irregular in construction, or otherwise obscure, inelegant, or apparently inaccurate, a remedy was suggested in the margin. A conspicuous example occurs in John 7:39. The whole verse in the true text reads thus; "And this he said concerning the Spirit which they that believe on him should receive; for the Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified." The brevity and partial obscurity of the form "was not yet" doubtless occasioned the marginal gloss "given," found in one uncial, B (δε δομενον ), and the cursive 254 (δοθεν ). This marginal gloss becoming incorporated with the text, we have "the Spirit Was not yet given." The English version properly italicizes given as not authentic Scripture. It is not in the Καινη Διαθηκη of Colinaeus (1534).

A similar case occurs in John 7:8, where ουπω (B, L,.T, X, Γ, Δ, Λ, not in א, D, K, M, Π ) probably passed from the margin into the text. This reading, on which the testimony of MSS. is pretty evenly balanced, is proved by historical evidence to be a corruption of the text (see Tischendorf [8th ed.]; Scrivener, Introd. to Text. Crit. [2d ed.], p. 529). It should be observed, moreover, that there was no occasion for this qualification, for Jesus did not go up to the feast at all. John 7:10 should read; according to the MSS., "But when his brethren were gone up to the feast, then went he up also, not openly, a etc. He went to Jerusalem privately, taking no part there in the public festival (for he could not be found, John 7:11), and when it was half over, first made his appearance in the Temple as a teacher (John 7:14). In Mark 1:2, εν Ησαια τω προφητω (B, א, D, L, Δ, εν τοις προφηταις (A, E, F, G, H, K, M, P, S, U, V), the writer specially names Isaiah, because his language identifies the promised messenger in the person of John, "the voice of one crying in the wilderness." The whole prophecy was fulfilled in him, and the failure to see this, its central point, may have occasioned the marginal comment that passed into the text. In Galatians 3:1 the explanatory gloss "that ye should not obey the truth" is found in C, DC, E, K, L, P, but not in the older uncials A, B, א, D, F, G. In Romans 8:1, "who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit," is a gloss taken from Romans 8:4 as characterizing those who are "in Christ Jesus." In Acts 15:34, "but it pleased Silas to abide there still" (not in A, B, א, E, H, L, P), is a marginal gloss accounting for his presence there, referred to in Acts 15:40. The doubtful passage in John 5:3-4 is supposed by many to have been a marginal comment (see a full statement of the case, with the reasons for and against its genuineness, in Schaff's edition of Lange's Commentary). To a misunderstanding of the apostle's language in 2 Corinthians 8:4, we owe the perversion of his meaning in the current Greek text and in the English version. The words inserted from the margin, δεξασθαι ημας, are not in the uncial text (B. א, C, D, E, F, G, K, L, P, etc.), and are found only in the cursives. In Mark 7:2 the construction (interrupted by Mark 7:3-4, and resumed at Mark 7:5) seemed incomplete, and hence the marginal supplement, "they found fault." Only late uncials (F, K, M, N, S, U, Π ) have εμεμψαντο, not found in A, B, א, E, GH, L, V. In Matthew 25:6 the original form, "Behold, the bridegroom! go ye out to meet him," has the air of an excited, midnight cry. The supplemental ερχεται first appears in the later uncials C, X, r, II, and is not found in B, א, C, D, L, Z.

Marked diversities in Hebraistic and Greek phraseology are noted: Matthew 21:23, ελθοντι αυτω, προσηλθον αυτω διδασκοντι , and ελθοντος αυτου, etc. Here the Hebraism is found in later uncials (E, F, G, H, K, M: S, U, V), and the other in B, א, C, D, L. More marked is the Hebraistic Vav convers. represented by και (Matthew 15:5; Mark 7:12) in the same later uncials, and not in the earlier. The omission of και makes the construction easy where its presence has caused much perplexity (see Meyer; also Lange [Amer. ed.]; p. 275).

Assimilation, so called, of the gospels occurs, especially of the synoptic gospels. This arose from the habit of noting in the margin of one gospel the words' of another for comparison, illustration, or a more full and satisfactory statement. In Matthew 25:13, at the close of the parable of the ten virgins, the Savior adds, "Watch therefore, for ye know not the day nor the hour." A copyist added, most probably from the margin, the words of Luke 12:40, "wherein the Son of man cometh." The words added are not in A, B, א, C, D, L, X, Δ, and are found only in C3, r, I3. In Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Various Readings of the New Testament'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature.​encyclopedias/​eng/​tce/​v/various-readings-of-the-new-testament.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.