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Bible Encyclopedias

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature

Servant of Jehovah

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(עֶבֶד יְהוִֹה , δοῦλος τοῦ Κυρίου, "servant of the Lord," also in the phrase "my servant," etc.), a term used tropically in several senses.

1. A worshipper of God (Nehemiah 1:10); so the Israelites in general (Ezra 5:11), and Daniel in particular (Daniel 6:21). In this sense it is applied as an epithet to the pious: e.g. to Abraham (Psalms 105:6; Psalms 105:42), Joshua (Joshua 24:29; Judges 2:8), Job (Job 1:8, etc.), David (Psalms 18:1, etc.), Eliakim (Isaiah 22:20), Zerubbabel (Haggai 2:24), and to saints in general (Psalm 34:23, etc.; Isaiah 54:17, etc.). (See SAINT).

2. A minister or ambassador of God, called and sent to perform any service (Isaiah 49:6), e.g. Nebuchadnezzar, whom God used as his instrument in chastising his people (Jeremiah 27:6; Jeremiah 43:10); but usually some favorite servant, as the angels (Job 4:18), or prophets (Amos 3:7; Jeremiah 7:25, etc.; Daniel 9:6; Ezra 9:11), especially Moses (Deuteronomy 34:5; Joshua 1:1; Joshua 1:13; Joshua 1:15; Psalms 105:26), and Isaiah (Isaiah 20:3). Sometimes the two ideas of a pious worshipper of God and a special messenger sent by him seem to have coalesced, as in the passages relating to Abraham and Moses, and particularly in those where Israel or Jacob, i.e. the people of Israel, is addressed by this honorable and endearing appellation (as Isaiah 41:8, etc.; Jeremiah 30:10, etc.; Ezekiel 28:25; Ezekiel 37:25; comp. Hosea 11:1).

3. Peculiarly the Messiah is thus typified, especially in the latter chapters of Isaiah (more particularly 42:1; 52:13; comp. Matthew 12:13), as preeminently Jehovah's chosen servant for accomplishing the work of redemption. See Gesenius, Comment. in Jesa. ad loc.; Stier, Words of the Lord Jesus, 2, 566 [Am. ed.]; Steudel, De עֶבֶד י 8 8י (Tü b. 1829); Umbreit, Der Knecht Gottes (Hamb. 1840); Schmutz, Le Serviteur de Jehovah (Strasb. 1858); Oehler, Knecht Jehovah's (Stuttg. 1865); Urwick, The Servant of Jehovah (Edinb. 1877). (See DOUBLE SENSE).

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Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Servant of Jehovah'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

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