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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #2819 - κλῆρος
- an object used in casting or drawing lots, which was either a pebble, or a potsherd, or a bit of wood
- the lots of several persons concerned, inscribed with their names, were thrown together into a vase, which was then shaken, and he whose lot fell out first upon the ground was the one chosen
- what is obtained by lot, allotted portion
- a portion of the ministry common to the apostles
- used of the part which one will have in eternal salvation
- of salvation itself
- the eternal salvation which God has assigned to the saints
- of persons
- those whose care and oversight has been assigned to one [allotted charge], used of Christian churches, the administration of which falls to the lot of presbyters
(A), Dor. κλᾶρος Pi. (v. infr.), Leg.Gort. 5.27, etc., ου, ὁ: —
1. lot, κλῆρον ἐσημήναντο ἕκαστος, ἐν δ' ἔβαλον κυνέῃ Il. 7.175; κλήρους ἐν κυνέῃ χαλκήρεϊ πάλλον 3.316, cf. Od. 10.206; ἐκ κλῆρος ὄρουσεν Il. 3.325; ἐκ δ' ἔθορε κλῆρος κυνέης 7.182; ἐν δὲ κλήρους ἐβάλοντο 23.352; ἐπὶ κλήρους ἐβάλοντο Od. 14.209, cf. SIG 1023.94 (Cos); κλήρῳ πεπαλάσθαι Od. 9.331; κλήρῳ λάχον ἐνθάδ' ἕπεσθαι Il. 24.400, cf. 23.862, A. Pers. 187, Hdt. 3.83, etc.; πάντας ἀνέφεδρος ἐπαγκρατίασε τοὺς κ., i.e. he never drew a bye, SIG 1073.29 (ii A.D.); κλήρου κατὰ μοῖραν E. Rh. 545 (lyr.); διὰ τὴν τοῦ κ. τύχην Pl. R. 619d, etc.; κλάροισι θεοπροπέων divining by lots, Pi. P. 4.190: hence, of oracles, E. Hipp. 1057, Ph. 838; Ἑρμῆς γὰρ ὢν κλήρῳ ποιήσεις οἶδ' ὅτι Ar. Pax 365; κ. Ἑρμοῦ E. Fr. 39.
2. casting of lots, drawing of lots, κ. τίθεσθαι Id. IA 1198, cf. Tr. 186 (lyr.); δοκεῖ δίκαιον εἶναι πᾶσι τῶν ἀρχῶν μετεῖναι ἐν τῷ κ. X. Ath. 1.2, cf. Arist. Pol. 1300a19, IG 5(1).1390.116 (Andania, i B.C.); = Lat. sortitio provinciarum, Plu. Aem. 10.
3. λαβὼν πίστιν.. κλήρου dub. sens. in OGI 494.19 (i or ii A.D.).
1. that which is assigned by lot, allotment of land, Hdt. 2.109, Th. 3.50, Pl. Lg. 740b, Arist. Pol. 1265b15, al.; λαβεῖν τᾶς χώρας ἐξαίρετον τὸν πρῶτον κλᾶρον SIG 141.6 (Corc.Nigr., iv B.C.); κ. ἱππικός OGI 229.102 (Smyrna, iii B.C.); περὶ τοῦ λάχους τριάκοντα καὶ ἑπτὰ κλάρων Schwyzer 289.88 (Priene, ii B.C.), cf. 313.4, al.
2. generally, piece of land, farm, estate, οἶκος καὶ κ. Il. 15.498; οἶκόν τε κ. τε Od. 14.64, cf. Hes. Op. 37, 341, Pi. O. 13.62; κατέφαγε τὸν κ. Hippon. 35.4; οἱ κ. τῶν Συρίων their lands, Hdt. 1.76, cf. 9.94, Call. Del. 281, etc.; Κύπρου Πάφου τ' ἔχουσα.. κλῆρον, of Aphrodite, A. Fr. 463; κατὰ κ. Ἰαόνιον Id. Pers. 899 (lyr.); κλῆροι χθονός E. Heracl. 876; τῶν λαβόντων ἐν Ὀρχομενῷ κλᾶρον ἢ οἰκίαν IG 5(2).344.12 (iii B.C.), cf. SIG 169.61 (Iasus, iv B.C.); Πισαίοις ἐνὶ κλήροισι Nic. Fr. 74.5. b. pl., title-deeds, PGrenf. 1.14.11 (ii B.C.).
3. legacy, inheritance, heritable estate, Isaiah 11:9, Pl. Lg. 923d, Arist. Ath. 9.2, SIG 1186 (iv B.C.), IG 22.1368.127, 154. b. collect., body of inheritors, Leg.Gort. l.c.
4. Astrol., certain degrees in the zodiac connected with planets and important in a nativity, Cat.Cod.Astr. 1.169, 170, Ptol. Tetr. 111, Vett.Val. 59.21, al., Paul.Al. K. 2 (cf. Sch.); κ. τύχης Ptol. Tetr. 129.
5. generally, province, sphere, ἕνα θεὸν πολλῶν ἅμα προεστάναι κλήρων Dam. Pr. 369.
III of the Levites, Κύριος αὐτὸς κλῆρος αὐτοῦ LXX De. 18.2: hence, of the Christian clergy, ἐν κλήρῳ καταλεγόμενος Cod.Just. 184.108.40.206, Just. Nov. 6.1.7, Astramps. Orac. 98.7.
(B), ου, ὁ, a beetle destructive in bee-hives, Clerus apiarius, Arist. HA 605b11, 626b17.
κλῆρος, κλήρου, ὁ, from Homer down; the Sept. mostly for גּורָל and נַחֲלָה; a lot; i. e.:
1. an object used in casting or drawing lots, which was either a pebble, or a potsherd, or a bit of wood (hence, κλῆρος is to be derived from κλάω (cf. Ellicott on Colossians 1:12)): Acts 1:26 (see below); βάλλοντες κλῆρον, Matthew 27:35; Mark 15:24; Luke 23:34; John 19:24 (Psalm 21:19
2. what is obtained by lot, allotted portion: λαγχάνειν and λαμβάνειν τόν κλῆρον τῆς διακονίας, a prrtion in the ministry common to the apostles, Acts 1:17, 25 R G; ἐστι μοι κλῆρος ἐν τίνι, dative of the thing, Acts 8:21; like κληρονομία (which see) it is used of the part which one will have in eternal salvation, λαμβάνειν ... τόν κλῆρον ἐν τοῖς ἡγιασμένοις, among the sanctified, Acts 26:18 (Wis. 5:5); of eternal salvation itself, κλῆρος τῶν ἁγίων, i. e. the eternal salvation which God has assigned to the saints, Colossians 1:12 (where cf. Lightfoot). of persons, οἱ κλῆροι, those whose care and oversight has been assigned to one (allotted charge), used of Christian churches, the administration of which falls to the lot of the presbyters: 1 Peter 5:3, cf. Acts 17:4; (for patristic usage see Sophocles Lexicon, under the word; cf. Lightfoot on Philippians, p. 246f).
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κλῆρος , -ου , ὁ ,
(a) that which is cast or drawn: Matthew 27:35, Mark 15:24, Luke 23:34, John 19:24 (LXX), Acts 1:26;
(b) that which is obtained by casting: Acts 1:17; Acts 8:21; of a part in the Kingdom of God (cf. Wis 55), Acts 26:18, Colossians 1:12; pl. of the "cure" of a presbyter, 1 Peter 5:3 (v. ICC, in l).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
κλῆρος in its primary sense of ";a lot"; (cf. Matthew 27:35, Acts 1:26) is found in P Fay 125.3 (ii/A.D.) καλῶς [ποιή ]σεις, ἄδελφε, μὴ ἀμελήσας το [ῦ ] κλήρου τοῦ στρατηγικοῦ, ";you will do well, brother, not to neglect the ballot for the strategus"; (Edd.— see their note ad l.) : see also P Lond 1220 (A.D. 202–7) (= III. p. 114 f.), a document endorsed κλῆρος πράκτ (ορος), which contains the names of two persons suitable for the post of πράκτωρ ἀργυρικῶν, to be submitted to the Prefect in order that one of them may be selected by lot—.11 ff. πεμφθησομένους εἰς κλῆρο ̣ν τῷ λαμπρωτάτῳ ἡγεμόνι, and P Oxy III. 533.21 (ii/iii A.D.) ἐπισκέψασθε. . ἐπιστολ (ὴν) . . γραφεῖσαν περὶ τοῦ ὀνόματα πεμφθῆναι ἀντ᾽ ἐμοῦ εἰς κλῆρον τῆς πρακτορείας, ";look out a letter written about the substitution of other names for mine in drawing tots for the post of collector"; (Edd.). From this the transition is easy to an ";office"; or ";post"; assigned by lot (cf. Acts 1:17), as when an incoming official, who has been elected to the office of local registrar, certifies that he has received a copy of a census-return in the words—Αὐρήλιος Ὡριγένης ἐν κλήρῳ ἔσχον ἴσον. Cf. Wilcken Ostr. i. p. 603 f. The word is very common with reference to the ";allotments"; or ";parcels of land"; assigned to the κάτοικοι (see s.v.), which were usually called after the names of their first occupiers, as in P Oxy I. 45.10 (A.D. 95) ἐκ τοῦ Μενοιτίου κλήρου κατοικικῆς γῆς σειτοφόρου σπορίμου ἐξ ὀρθογω (νίου), ";a square piece of allotment corn land ready for sowing, forming part of the lot of Menoetius,"; ib. 46.19 (A.D. 100) ἐκ τοῦ Ἀνδρονείκου κλήρου. In P Tebt II. 376.27 (A.D. 162) the word is used with reference to βασιλικὴ γῆ. One or two miscellaneous exx. may be added—P Lille I. 14.5 (B.C. 243–2) ἀνάλαβε (";confiscate";) δ᾽ [οὖν α ]ὐτοῦ τὸν κλῆρον εἰς τὸ βασιλικόν, P Magd 1.7 (B.C. 221) a complaint against a man who, having a right only to half an allotment, ὅλον τὸν κλῆρον κατέσπειρεν, and P Petr III. 26.6 (Ptol.), where provision is made that if an ox, or any other animal, ἐμβῆι. . εἰς ἀλλότριον κλῆρον, ";trespass on another man’s allotment,"; the owner shall be responsible for any damage done. In P Par 63.105 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 26) reference is made to the μάχιμοι or native troops who are unable to work even their own farms—οὐδὲ τοὺς ἰδίου (l. ἰδίους) κλήρους αὐτουργε ̣ι ̣ͅν ̣ δυναμένους —and consequently in the winter time borrow money on their rents—κατὰ τὸ (ν) χειμῶνα δανει [ζομ ]ένους ἐπὶ τοῖς ἐκφορίοι [ς, in P Ryl II. 243.10 (ii/A.D.) two women write to their steward—ὅσα ποτὲ οὖν ἐὰν ̣ ἀναναλώσῃς (l. ἀναλώσῃς) ἰς τὴν τοῦ κλήρου κατεργασίαν, ἡμεῖν ἐνλόγησον ἐπὶ λόγου, ";put down to our account everything you expend on the cultivation of the holding"; (Edd.), and in P Meyer 3.20 (A.D. 148) an official order is witnessed in the words—Ἄρρε [ιο ]ς. . ἐν κλήρῳ ὑπηρέτ (ης) μεταδ ̣ε ̣δ ̣οκ (α) The difficult κλήρων of 1 Peter 5:3 is probably best understood of the ";portions"; or ";congregations"; ( ";parisshes,"; Tind., Cranmer) of God’s people assigned or allotted to the presbyters (cf. Deuteronomy 9:29), while an ex. of the later ecclesiastical use of the term may be found in a Macedonian inset., not earlier than ii/A.D.—
τὴν εὐλογημένην τῆς Ἀμφιπολιτῶν
ἁγίας ἐκκλησίας ἐπισκοπὴν
καὶ τὸν ταύτης θεοφιλῆ κλῆρον,
where Ferguson (Legal Terms, p. 60) thinks that κλῆρον is best understood of ";the clergy,"; considered collectively, Κλῆρος is apparently = ";will"; (see the editor’s note) in the late P Lond V. 1733.85 (A.D. 594). In BGU IV. 1209.5 (B.C. 23) a man who has died is described as ὁ εὔκληρος, ";the fortunate one.";
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