the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #4151 - πνεῦμα
- the third person of the triune God, the Holy Spirit, coequal, coeternal with the Father and the Son
- sometimes referred to in a way which emphasises his personality and character (the Holy Spirit)
- sometimes referred to in a way which emphasises his work and power (the Spirit of Truth)
- never referred to as a depersonalised force
- the spirit, i.e. the vital principal by which the body is animated
- the rational spirit, the power by which the human being feels, thinks, decides
- the soul
- a spirit, i.e. a simple essence, devoid of all or at least all grosser matter, and possessed of the power of knowing, desiring, deciding, and acting
- a life giving spirit
- a human soul that has left the body
- a spirit higher than man but lower than God, i.e. an angel
- used of demons, or evil spirits, who were conceived as inhabiting the bodies of men
- the spiritual nature of Christ, higher than the highest angels and equal to God, the divine nature of Christ
- the disposition or influence which fills and governs the soul of any one
- the efficient source of any power, affection, emotion, desire, etc.
- a movement of air (a gentle blast)
- of the wind, hence the wind itself
- breath of nostrils or mouth
πνεῦμα, ατος, τό, ( πνέω )
blast, wind, first in Anaximen. 2, ὅλον τὸν κόσμον π. καὶ ἀὴρ περιέχει: freq. in Trag., etc., ἀνέμων πνεύματα πάντων A. Pr. 1086 (anap.), cf. 1047 (anap.); θαλάσσας . . πνεύματι λάβρῳ Id. Pers. 110 (lyr.); πνευμάτων ἐπομβρίᾳ Id. Fr. 300.3; τέως δὲ κούφοις πνεύμασιν βόσκου S. Aj. 558; πνεύμασιν θαλασσίοις ἐξωσθέντες E. Cyc. 278 (but πνοή is commoner in Poets; Hom. uses πνοιή ) ; πνεύματα ἀνέμων Hdt. 7.16 . ά; τὸ π. κατῄει Th. 2.84; κατὰ πρύμναν ἵσταται τὸ π. ib. 97; τὸ π. λεῖον καὶ καθεστηκὸς λαβεῖν Ar. Ra. 1003; τὸ π. ἔλαττον γίγνεται Id. Eq. 441; εἰ φορὸν π. εἴη X. HG 6.2.27; κατὰ πνεῦμα στῆναι τοῦ ἄρρενος to leeward of him, Arist. HA 560b14; but κατὰ π. προσιόντες down wind, ib. 535a19; πνεύματος ἀνείλησις, ἐκπύρωσις, Epicur. Ephesians 2 pp.44,45 U.; as an element, air, Corp.Herm. 1.9, 16; τὸ π. τὸ περὶ τὴν ψυχήν Plot. 2.2.2, cf. Porph. Sent. 29 .
2. metaph., θαλερωτέρῳ π. with more genial breeze or influence, A. Th. 708 (lyr.); λύσσης π. μάργῳ Id. Pr. 884 (anap.); αἰδοίῳ π. χώρας with air or spirit of respect on the part of the country, Id. Supp. 29 (anap.); π. ταὐτὸν οὔποτ' . . ἐν ἀνδράσιν φίλοις βέβηκεν the wind is constantly changing even among friends, S. OC 612; π. συμφορᾶς E. IT 1317; ὅταν θεοῦ σοι π. μεταβαλὸν τύχῃ Id. HF 216 .
II breathed air, breath, σάλπιγξ βροτείου πνεύματος πληρουμένη A. Eu. 568; αὐλῶν, λωτοῦ π., E. Ba. 128 (lyr.), Ph. 787 (lyr., pl.); π. ἀπέρρηξεν βίου the breath of life, A. Pers. 507; π. ἀπώλεσεν Id. Th. 984 (lyr.); π. ἄθροισον collect breath, E. Ph. 851; π. ἀφεῖναι, ἀνεῖναι, μεθεῖναι, to give up the ghost, Id. Hec. 571, Or. 277, Tr. 785 (anap.); π. δειμαίνων λιπεῖν Id. Supp. 554; π. . . δυσῶδες ἠφίει Th. 2.49; πνεύματος διαρροαί the wind-pipe, E. Hec. 567; τὰς τοῦ π. διεξόδους ἀποφράττον Pl. Ti. 91c (v. πνεύμων ) ; πνεύματος ῥώμη Plu. 2.804b: prov., ἄνθρωπός ἐστι π. καὶ σκιὰ μόνον S. Fr. 13 .
2. breathing, respiration, freq. in Hp., π. πυκνόν, ἀραιόν, ἐκτεῖνον, κατεπεῖγον, Epid. 2.3.7; π. πυκνότερον Acut. 16; π. προσκόπτον checked, difficult breathing, Aph. 4.68; π. ἄσημον indistinct, feeble breathing, Epid. 6.7.8; π. βηχῶδες Coac. 622; π. μετέωρον shallow breathing, Epid. 2.3.1; τὸ π. ἔχειν ἄνω to be out of breath, Men. 23, cf. Sosicr. 1; τὸ π. ἀνήνεγκαν recovered their breath, Hp. Prorrh. 2.12 (so without τὸ π. Aph. 2.43 ); but ἀναφέρουσιν . . κλαίοντά τε καὶ ἐς τὰς ῥῖνας ἀνέλκοντα τὸ π. they sob . ., Id. Hebd. 51 . pl., of the air imagined as filling the veins, πνευμάτων ἀπολήψιες ἀνὰ φλέβας Id. Acut.(Sp.) 7,al.
3. flatulence, in pl., Eub. 107.9, Arist. Pr. 948b25, Dsc. 2.112, D.L. 6.94 .
4. breath of life, π. ζωῆς LXX Genesis 6:17, LXX Genesis 7:15, cf. Plu. Per. 13,etc.; π. ἔχειν retain life, Plb. 31.10.4; living being, ἐγὼ Νίνος πάλαι ποτ' ἐγενόμην π. Phoen. 1.16; οὐ π. πάντα βρότεια σοὶ (sc. Πλούτωνι ) νέμεται; IG 14.769 ( Naples ).
5. that which is breathed forth or exhaled, odour, ὦ θεῖον ὀδμῆς π. E. Hipp. 1391; π. βαρὺ ἀφιεῖσα, of a tree, Plu. 2.647b.
6. Gramm., breathing with which a vowel is pronounced, ib. 1009e (pl.), A.D. Adv. 147.18; π. δασύ, ψιλόν, Id. Pron. 78.6, Adv. 148.9 .
III divine inspiration, ἄγρια . . πνεύματα θευφορίης AP 6.220.4 ( Diosc. ); εἰ μή τι θεῖον . . ἐνῆν π. τῇ ψυχῇ Pl. Ax. 370c; τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ δαιμόνιον ἐν μούσαις π. Plu. 2.605a; καθαρὸν δίκαιον . . π. θεοῦ σωτῆρος BMus.Inscr. 1062 (Cyrene, ii A. D. ). the spirit of God, π. θεοῦ LXX Genesis 1:2, etc.: freq. in NT, τὸ π. τὸ ἅγιον Mark 3:29,al.
2. spirit of man, εἴτ' ἐστὶ τοῦτο π. θεῖον εἴτε νοῦς Men. 482.3: in NT, opp. ψυχή, 1 Thessalonians 5:23, cf. Ep.Romans 8:2; τῷ π., opp. τῷ σώματι, Cor. 5.3; also, opp. γράμμα, Romans 2:29 . spiritual or immaterial being, angel, Ep.Hebrews 1:14, Revelation 1:4; τὰ ἄχραντα π., τὰ κακὰ π., Iamb. Myst. 3.31; π. πονηρόν, ψευδές, LXX Jd. 9.23, 3 Ki. 22.21, cf. Acts 19:12; Revelation 19:15, Revelation 16:14, Porph. ap. Eus. PE 4.23, etc.; ἀλάλου καὶ κακοῦ π. οὖσα πλήρης (sc. ἡ Πυθία ) Plu. 2.438b. Rhet., sentence declaimed in one breath, Hermog. Inv. 3.10, 4.4,al.
πνεῦμα, πνεύματος, τό (πνέω), Greek writings from Aeschylus and Herodotus down; Hebrew רוּחַ, Latinspiritus; i. e.:
1. a movement of air (gentle) blast;
a. of the wind: ἀνέμων πνεύματα, Herodotus 7, 16, 1; Pausanias, 5, 25; hence, the wind itself, John 3:8; plural Hebrews 1:7 (1 Kings 18:45; 1 Kings 19:11; Job 1:19; Psalm 103:4
b. breath of the nostrils or mouth, often in Greek writings from Aeschylus down: πνεῦμα τοῦ στόματος, 2 Thessalonians 2:8 (Psalm 32:6
2. the spirit, i. e. the vital principle by which the body is animated ((Aristotle, Polybius, Plutarch, others; see below)): Luke 8:55; Luke 23:46; John 19:30; Acts 7:59; Revelation 13:15 (here R. V. breath); ἀφιέναι τό πνεῦμα, to breathe out the spirit, to expire, Matthew 27:50 cf. Sir. 38:23; Wis. 16:14 (Greek writings said ἀφιέναι τήν ψυχήν, as Genesis 35:18, see ἀφίημι, 1 b. and Kypke, Observations, i, p. 140; but we also find ἀφιέναι πνεῦμα θανσίμω σφαγή, Euripides, Hec. 571); σῶμα χωρίς πνεύματος νεκρόν ἐστιν, James 2:26; τό πνεῦμα ἐστι τό ζοωποιουν, ἡ σάρξ οὐκ ὠφελεῖ οὐδέν, the spirit is that which animates and gives life, the body is of no profit (for the spirit imparts life to it, not the body in turn to the spirit; cf. Chr. Frid. Fritzsche, Nova opuscc., p. 239), John 6:63. the rational spirit, the power by which a human being feels, thinks, wills, decides; the soul: τό πνεῦμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τό ἐν αὐτῷ, 1 Corinthians 2:11; opposed to σάρξ (which see (especially 2 a.)), Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38; 1 Corinthians 5:5; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Colossians 2:5; opposed to τό σῶμα, Romans 8:10; 1 Corinthians 6:17, 20 Rec.;
3. "a spirit, i. e. a simple essence, devoid of all or at least all grosser matter, and possessed of the power of knowing, desiring, deciding, and acting";
a. generically: Luke 24:37; Acts 23:8 (on which see μήτε, at the end); Acts 23:9; πνεῦμα σάρκα καί ὀστέα οὐκ ἔχει, Luke 24:39; πνεῦμα ζοωποιουν (a life-giving spirit), spoken of Christ as raised from the dead, 1 Corinthians 15:45; πνεῦμα ὁ Θεός (God is spirit essentially), John 4:24; πατήρ τῶν πνευμάτων, of God, Hebrews 12:9, where the term comprises both the spirits of men and of angels.
c. a spirit higher than man but lower than God, i. e. an angel: plural Hebrews 1:14; used of demons, or evil spirits, who were conceived of as inhabiting the bodies of men: (Mark 9:20); Luke 9:39; Acts 16:18; plural, Matthew 8:16; Matthew 12:45; Luke 10:20; Luke 11:26; πνεῦμα Πύθωνος or πύθωνα, Acts 16:16; πνεύματα δαιμονίων, Revelation 16:14; πνεῦμα δαιμονίου ἀκαθάρτου, Luke 4:33 (see δαιμόνιον, 2); πνεῦμα ἀσθενείας, causing infirmity, Luke 13:11; πνεῦμα ἀκάθαρτον, Matthew 10:1; Matthew 12:43; Mark 1:23, 26, 27; Mark 3:11, 30; Mark 5:2, 8, 13; Mark 6:7; Mark 7:25; Mark 9:25; Luke 4:36; Luke 6:18; Luke 8:29; Luke 9:42; Luke 11:24, 26; Acts 5:16; Acts 8:7; Revelation 16:13; Revelation 18:2; ἄλαλον, κωφόν (for the Jews held that the same evils with which the men were afflicted affected the demons also that bad taken possession of them (cf. Wetstein, N. T. i. 279ff; Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, Appendix xvi.; see δαιμονίζομαι etc. and references)), Mark 9:17, 25; πονηρόν, Luke 7:21; Luke 8:2; Acts 19:12, 13, 15, 16, (cf. Judges 9:23; 1 Samuel 16:14; 1 Samuel 19:9, etc.).
d. "the spiritual nature of Christ, higher than the highest angels, close to God and most intimately united to him" (in doctrinal phraseology the divine nature of Christ): 1 Timothy 3:16; with the addition of ἁγιωσύνης (on which see ἁγιωσύνη, 1 (yet cf. 4 a. below)), Romans 1:4 (but see Meyer at the passage, Ellicott on 1 Timothy, the passage cited); it is called πνεῦμα αἰώνιον, in tacit contrast with the perishable ψυχαί of sacrificial animals, in Hebrews 9:14, where cf. Delitzsch (and especially Kurtz).
4. The Scriptures also ascribe a πνεῦμα to God, i. e. God's power and agency — distinguishable in thought (or modalistice, as they say in technical speech) from God's essence in itself considered — "manifest in the course of affairs, and by its influence upon souls productive in the theocratic body (the church) of all the higher spiritual gifts and blessings"; (cf. the resemblances and differences in Philo's use of τό θεῖον πνεῦμα, e. g. de gigant. § 12 (cf. § 5f); quis rer. div. § 53; de mund. opif. § 46, etc.).
a. This πνεῦμα is called in the O. T. אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ, יְהוָה רוּחַ; in the N. T. πνεῦμα ἅγιον, τό ἅγιον πνεῦμα, τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον (first so in Wis. 1:5 Wis. 9:17; for קֹדֶשׁ רוּחַ, in Psalm 50:13
b. bb.; γεννάω, 1 at the end and 2 d.; ἐκχέω b.; χρίω, a.); γίνεσθαι ἐν πνεύματι, to come to be in the Spirit, under the power of the Spirit, i. e. in a state of inspiration or ecstasy, Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:2. Dative πνεύματι, by the power and aid of the Spirit, the Spirit prompting, Romans 8:13; Galatians 5:5; τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ, Luke 10:21 L Tr WH; πνεύματι ἁγίῳ, 1 Peter 1:12 (where R G T have ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ); πνεύματι Θεοῦ, Philippians 3:3 L T Tr WH; also ἐν πνεύματι, Ephesians 2:22; Ephesians 3:5 (where ἐν πνεύματι must be joined to ἀπεκαλύφθη); ἐν πνεύματι, in the power of the Spirit, possessed and moved by the Spirit, Matthew 22:43; Revelation 17:3; Revelation 21:10; also ἐν τῷ πνεύματι, Luke 2:27; Luke 4:1; ἐν τῷ πνεύματι ἁγίῳ, Luke 10:21 Tdf.; ἐν τῇ δυνάμει τοῦ πνευματου, Luke 4:14; ἐν τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ εἰπεῖν, Mark 12:36; ἐν πνεύματι (ἁγίῳ) προσεύχεσθαι, Ephesians 6:18; Jude 1:20; ἐν πνεύματι Θεοῦ λαλεῖν, 1 Corinthians 12:3; ἀγάπη ἐν πνεύματι, love which the Spirit begets, Colossians 1:8; περιτομή ἐν πνεύματι, effected by the Holy Spirit, opposed to γράμματι, the prescription of the written law, Romans 2:29; τύπος γίνου τῶν πιστῶν ἐν πνεῦμα, in the way in which you are governed by the Spirit, 1 Timothy 4:12 Rec.; (ἐν ἑνί πνεύματι, Ephesians 2:18); ἡ ἑνότης τοῦ πνεύματος, effected by the Spirit, Ephesians 4:3; καινότης τοῦ πνευματου, Romans 7:6. τό πνεῦμα is opposed to ἡ σάρξ i. e. human nature left to itself and without the controlling influence of God's Spirit, subject to error and sin, Galatians 5:17, 19, 22; (
b. τά ἑπτά πνεύματα τοῦ Θεοῦ, Rev. (
c. by metonymy, πενυμα is used of α. "one in whom a spirit (πνεῦμα) is manifest or embodied; hence, equivalent to actuated by a spirit, whether divine or demoniacal; one who either is truly moved by God's Spirit or falsely boasts that he is": 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 John 4:2, 3; hence, διακρίσεις πνευμάτων, 1 Corinthians 12:10; μή παντί πνεύματι πιστεύετε, 1 John 4:1; δοκιμάζετε τά πνεύματα, εἰ ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐστιν, ibid.; πνεύματα πλανᾷ joined with διδασκαλιαι δαιμονίων, 1 Timothy 4:1. But in the truest and highest sense it is said κύριος τό πνεῦμα ἐστιν, he in whom the entire fullness of the Spirit dwells, and from whom that fullness is diffused through the body of Christian believers, 2 Corinthians 3:17. β. the plural πνεύματα denotes the various modes and gifts by which the Holy Spirit shows itself operative in those in whom it dwells (such as τό πνεῦμα τῆς προφητείας, τῆς σοφίας, etc.), 1 Corinthians 14:12.
5. universally, "the disposition or influence which fills and governs the soul of anyone; the efficient source of any power, affection, emotion, desire," etc.: τῷ αὐτῷ πνεύματι περιεπατήσαμεν, 2 Corinthians 12:18; ἐν πνεύματι ἡλίου, in the same spirit with which Elijah was filled of old, Luke 1:17; τά ῤήματα ... πνεῦμα ἐστιν, exhale a spirit (and fill believers with it), John 6:63; οἵου πνεύματος ἐστε ὑμεῖς (what manner of spirit ye are of) viz. a divine spirit, that I have imparted unto you, Luke 9:55 (Rec.; (cf. B. § 132, 11 I.; Winer's Grammar, § 30, 5)); τῷ πνεύματι, ᾧ ἐλάλει, Acts 6:10, where see Meyer; πραυ καί ἡσύχιον πνεῦμα, 1 Peter 3:4; πνεῦμα πρᾳότητος, such as belongs to the meek, 1 Corinthians 4:21; Galatians 6:1; τό πνεῦμα τῆς προφητείας, such as characterizes prophecy and by which the prophets are governed, Revelation 19:10; τῆς ἀληθείας, σοφίας καί ἀποκαλύψεως, see above, p. 521b middle (Isaiah 11:2; Deuteronomy 34:9; Wis. 7:7); τῆς πίστεως, 2 Corinthians 4:13; τῆς υἱοθεσίας, such as belongs to sons, Romans 8:15; τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χριστῷ, of the life which one gets in fellowship with Christ, ibid. 2; δυνάμεως καί ἀγάπης καί σωφρονισμοῦ, 2 Timothy 1:7; ἕν πνεῦμα εἶναι with Christ, equivalent to to be filled with the same spirit as Christ and by the bond of that spirit to be intimately united to Christ, 1 Corinthians 6:17; ἐν ἑνί πνεύματι, by the reception of one Spirit's efficency, 1 Corinthians 12:13; εἰς ἕν πνεῦμα, so as to be united into one body filled with one Spirit, ibid. R G; ἕν πνεῦμα ποτίζεσθαι (made to drink of i. e.) imbued with one Spirit, ibid. L T Tr WH (see ποτίζω); ἕν σῶμα καί ἐν πνεῦμα, one (social) body filled and animated by one spirit, Ephesians 4:4; — in all these passages although the language is general, yet it is clear from the context that the writer means a spirit begotten of the Holy Spirit or even identical with that Spirit ((cf. Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 46, 6 [ET]; Hermas, sim. 9, 13, 18 [ET]; Ignatius ad Magn. 7 [ET])). In opposition to the divine Spirit stand, τό πνεῦμα τό ἐνεργουν ἐν τοῖς υἱοῖς τῆς ἀπειθείας (a spirit) that comes from the devil), Ephesians 2:2; also τό πνεῦμα τοῦ κόσμου, the spirit that actuates the unholy multitude, 1 Corinthians 2:12; δουλείας, such as characterizes and governs slaves, Romans 8:15; κατανύξεως, Romans 11:8; δειλίας, 2 Timothy 1:7; τῆς πλάνης, 1 John 4:6 (πλανήσεως, Isaiah 19:14; πορνείας, Hosea 4:12; Hosea 5:4); τό τοῦ ἀντιχρίστου namely, πνεῦμα, 1 John 4:3; ἕτερον πνεῦμα λαμβάνειν, i. e. different from the Holy Spirit, 2 Corinthians 11:4; τό πνεῦμα τοῦ νως, the governing spirit of the mind, Ephesians 4:23. Cf. Ackermann, Beiträge zur theol. Würdigung u. Abwägung der Begriffe πνεῦμα, νοῦς, u. Geist, in the Theol. Studien und Kritiken for 1839, p. 873ff; Büchsenschütz, La doctrine de l'Esprit de Dieu selon l'aneien et nouveau testament. Strasb. 1840; Chr. From Fritzsche, De Spiritu Sancto commentatio exegetica et dogmatica, 4 Pts. Hal. 1840f, included in his Nova opuscula academica (Turici, 1846), p. 233ff; Kahnis, Die Lehre v. hiel. Geist. Part i. (Halle, 1847); an anonymous publication (by Prince Ludwig Solms Lich, entitled) Die biblische Bedeutung des Wortes Geist. (Giessen, 1862); H. H. Wendt, Die Begriffe Fleisch u. Geist im Biblical Sprachgebrauch. (Gotha, 1878); (Cremer, in Herzog edition 2, under the phrase, Geist des Menschen; G. L. Hahn, Theol. d. N. Test. i. § 149ff; J. Laidlaw, The Bible Doctrine of Man. (Cunningham Lects., 7th Series, 1880); Dickson, St. Paul's use of the terms Flesh and Spirit. (Glasgow, 1883); and references in B. D. (especially Amos edition) and Dict. of Christ. Biog., as above, 4 a. at the end.)
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τνεῦμα , -τος , τό
[in LXX chiefly and very freq. for H7307;]
1. of air in motion;
(a) wind: John 3:8; pl., Hebrews 1:7 (LXX);
(b) breath: Papyri ζωῆς , Revelation 11:11; Papyri τοῦ στοματος , fig., 2 Thessalonians 2:8 (cf. Psalms 33:6).
2. Of the vital principle, the spirit (Arist., Polyb., al.) : Luke 8:55, John 19:30, Acts 7:59, al.; opp. to σάρξ , Matthew 26:41, Mark 14:3 S, 1 Corinthians 5:5, al.; to σώμα , Romans 8:10, 1 Corinthians 6:17; 1 Corinthians 7:34, 1 Peter 4:6; to ψυχή , Philippians 1:27, Hebrews 4:12; τὸ Papyri καὶ ἡ ψ . καὶ τ . σῶμα , 1 Thessalonians 5:23 (M, Th., in l); dat., τῷ Papyri, in spirit, Mark 2:8; Mark 8:12, John 11:33; John 13:21, Acts 18:25, Romans 12:11, 1 Corinthians 7:34, 1 Peter 3:18, al.; of the human spirit of Christ, Romans 1:4, 1 Timothy 3:16.
3. spirit, i.e. frame of mind, disposition, influence : Luke 1:17, Romans 8:15, 1 Corinthians 4:21, Galatians 6:1, Ephesians 2:2, 2 Timothy 1:7, 1 John 4:6, al.
4. An incorporeal being, a spirit: Luke 24:37; Luke 24:39, Acts 23:8; Papyri ὁ θεός , God is spirit, John 4:24; πατὴρ τῶν Papyri, Hebrews 12:9; of disembodied human beings, Hebrews 12:23, 1 Peter 3:19 (ICC, in l; DB, iii, 795); of angels, Hebrews 1:14; of demons or evil spirits, Matthew 8:16, Mark 9:20, Luke 9:39, al.; Papyri πύθωνα , Acts 16:16; πνεύματα δαιμονίων , Revelation 16:14; Papyri δαιμονίου ἀκαθάρτου , Luke 4:33; Papyri ἀσθενείας (B1„ § 35, 5), Luke 13:11; Papyri ἀκάθαρτον , Matthew 10:1, Mark 1:23, Luke 4:36, Acts 5:16; Papyri ἄλαλον (καὶ κωφόν ), Mark 9:17; Mark 9:25; πονηρόν , Luke 7:21, Acts 19:12, al.
5. Of the Holy Spirit, Papyri ἅγιον , τὸ ἅ . Papyri, τὸ Papyri τὸ ἅ ., τὸ Papyri, Papyri (the article as a rule being used when the Spirit is regarded as a Person or a Divine Power, and omitted when the reference is to an operation, influence or gift of the Spirit; v. WM, 151.5; Bl., § 46, 7) : anarth., Matthew 1:18; Matthew 3:11; Matthew 3:16; Matthew 4:1 Mark 1:8 (Swete, in l), ib. Mark 1:10, Luke 1:15, John 7:39, Acts 19:2, Romans 5:5, 1 Corinthians 2:4, al.; c. art., Matthew 4:1; Matthew 12:31-32 Mark 1:10; Mark 3:29, Luke 2:26, John 7:39; John 14:26, Acts 4:31; Acts 5:3, Romans 8:16, al.; (τὸ ) Papyri (τοῦ ) θεοῦ , Matthew 3:16, Romans 8:9, Ephesians 3:16; Ephesians 3:1-21 :1Jn_4:2, al.; τὸ Papyri τ . πατρός , Matthew 10:20; Papyri θεοῦ , ζῶντος , 2 Corinthians 3:3; (τὸ ) Papyri τοῦ κυρίου , Luke 4:18, Acts 5:9; Acts 8:39; τὸ Papyri Ἰησοῦ , Acts 16:7; Χριστοῦ , Romans 8:9; Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ , Philippians 1:19; τὸ Papyri τ . ἀληθείας , John 15:26; John 16:13; John 16:1-33 :1Jn_4:6; λέγει (μαρτυρεῖ ) τὸ Papyri (τὸ ἅγιον ), Acts 21:11; Acts 28:25, 1 Timothy 4:1, Hebrews 3:7; Hebrews 10:15, Revelation 14:13; seq. τ . ἐκκλησίαις , Revelation 2:7; Revelation 2:14; Revelation 2:17; Revelation 2:29; Revelation 3:6; Revelation 3:13; Revelation 3:22; ἐν τ . Papyri, Luke 2:27; κατὰ πνεῦμα , Romans 8:4-5; ἐξ ὕδατος καὶ Papyri, John 3:5; διὰ πνεύματος αἰωνίου , Hebrews 9:14; ἐν ἁγιασμῷ πνεύματος , 2 Thessalonians 2:13, 1 Peter 1:2; ἓν Papyri, 1 Corinthians 12:13, Ephesians 2:18; Ephesians 4:4; ὁ δὲ κύριος τὸ Papyri ἐστιν , 2 Corinthians 3:17; of that which is effected or governed by the Spirit, opp. to γράμμα , Romans 2:29; Romans 7:6, 2 Corinthians 3:6.
SYN.: νοῦς G3563, which in NT is contrasted with Papyri as "the action of the understanding in man with that of the spiritual or ecstatic impulse" (DB, iv, 612); ψυχή G5590-the usual term in cl. psychology-in NT, "expresses man as apart from God, a separate individual. Papyri expresses man as drawing his life from God" (DB, 1-vol., 872).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
On the connexion of Prisca or Priscilla and her husband Aquila with the Roman Church, see SH p. 418 ff., supplemented by Edmundson The Church in Rome, p. 242 f., and for Harnack’s suggestion that Priscilla may have been the author of the Ep. to the Hebrews, see ZNTW i. (1900), p. 16 ff.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.