the Fifth Week of Lent
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #630 - ἀπολύω
- to set free
- to let go, dismiss, (to detain no longer)
- a petitioner to whom liberty to depart is given by a decisive answer
- to bid depart, send away
- to let go free, release
- a captive i.e. to loose his bonds and bid him depart, to give him liberty to depart
- to acquit one accused of a crime and set him at liberty
- indulgently to grant a prisoner leave to depart
- to release a debtor, i.e. not to press one's claim against him, to remit his debt
- used of divorce, to dismiss from the house, to repudiate. The wife of a Greek or Roman may divorce her husband.
- to send one's self away, to depart
ἀπολύω [v. λύω ], fut. -λύσω, etc.: fut. Pass. ἀπολελύσομαι X. Cyr. 6.2.37: —
1. loose from, ἱμάντα θοῶς ἀπέλυσε κορώνης Od. 21.46; ὄφρ' ἀπὸ τοίχους λῦσε κλύδων τρόπιος the sides of the ship from the keel, ib. 12.420; undo, ἀπὸ κρήδεμνον ἔλυσεν ib. 3.392; ἐπιδέσματα Hp. Fract. 25.
2. set free, release, relieve from, ἀ. τινὰ τῆς φρουρῆς Hdt. 2.30; τῆς ἐπιμελείας X. Cyr. 8.3.47; τῶν ἐκεῖ κακῶν Pl. R. 365a; τὴν ψυχὴν ἀπὸ τῆς τοῦ σώματος κοινωνίας Id. Phd. 65a, cf. 67a; ἀ. τῆς μετρήσεως save them from the trouble of measuring, Arist. Pol. 1257a40: — Pass., to be set free, τῶν δεινῶν, φόβου, Th. 1.70, 7.56, etc. freq. in legal sense, ἀ. τῆς αἰτίης acquit of the charge, Hdt. 9.88, X. An. 6.6.15; opp. καταψηφίζω, Democr. 262; τῆς εὐθύνης Ar. V. 571: c. inf., ἀ. τινὰ μὴ φῶρα εἶναι acquit of being a thief, Hdt. 2.174; so ἀπολύεται μὴ ἀδικεῖν Th. 1.95, cf. 128: abs., acquit, Ar. V. 988, 1000, Lys. 20.20, etc.
II in Il. always, = cross ἀπολυτρόω,
1.release on receipt of ransom, οὐδ' ἀπέλυσε θύγατρα καὶ οὐκ ἀπεδέξατ' ἄποινα 1.95; Ἕκτορ' ἔχει.. οὐδ' ἀπέλυσεν 24.115, al.: — Med., set free by payment of ransom, ransom, redeem, χαλκοῦ τε χρυσοῦ τ' ἀπολυσόμεθ' at a price of.., Il. 22.50 (but Act. in Prose, ἀπολύειν πολλῶν χρημάτων X. HG 4.8.21).
2. let go, let alone, leave one, of an illness, Hp. Coac. 564.
1. discharge, disband an army, ἀ. οἴκαδε X. HG 6.5.21; generally, dismiss, discharge, ἐμὲ.. ἀπέλυσ' ἄδειπνον Ar. Ach. 1155, cf. Bion 1.96.
2. divorce a wife, Matthew 1:19, etc.; τὸν ἄνδρα D.S. 12.18.
3. do away with, remove, αἰσχύνην D. 20.47: — Pass., Antipho 2.1.5.
4. discharge or pay a debt, Pl. Cra. 417b; pay, ἀ. τὸν χαλκόν PTeb. 490 (i B. C.); pay off a mortgage, POxy. 509.15.
1. dismiss a charge, εἰσαγγελία ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου ἀπολελυμένη Hyp. Eux. 38. ἀ. ἀνδράποδα Θρᾳξίν sell, Antipho 5.20; ἀ. οἰκίαν τινί sell a mortgaged house outright, Isa 6.33. deliver, τί τινι PFlor. 123.2 (iii A. D.): — Pass., ib. 228.6 (iii A. D.). begin to count, [ μοίρας] ἀπό.. Vett. Val. 135: abs., Id. 19.19, Paul.Al. Q. 2. intr., depart (cf. B.IV, C. 2), Plb. 3.69.14, al. Med. with aor. 2 ἀπελύμην (in pass. sense), Opp. C. 3.128: — redeem, v. supr. A. 11.
II ἀπολύεσθαι διαβολάς do away with, refute calumnies against one, Th. 8.87, Pl. Ap. 37b, al.: abs., Arist. Rh. 1416b9.
2. τὴν αἰτίαν, τὰς βλασφημίας, τὰ κατηγορημένα, Th. 5.75, D. 15.2, 18.4: c. gen., τῶν εἰς Ἀριστόβουλον -σασθαι J. AJ 15.3.5. refute, τοὺς ἐναντίους λόγους Dam. Pr. 126 ter: abs., ὁ δὲ ἀπολυόμενος ἔφη in defence, Hdt. 8.59.
III like Act.,
1. acquit, τοῦ μὴ κακῶς ἔχειν ἀλλ' ὀρθῶς Pl. Lg. 637c.
2. release from, τοὺς Ἕλληνας ἀ. δουλείας Id. Mx. 245a. like Pass. (c. 11), depart, S. Ant. 1314; also, put off, πνεῦμα ἀ. AP 9.276 (Crin.); but πνεῦμα μελῶν ἀπέλυε IG 14.607e (Carales). Pass., to be released, ἐλπίζων τοὺς υἱέας τῆς στρατηΐης ἀπολελύσθαι from military service, Hdt. 4.84, cf. X. Cyr. 6.2.37; τῆς ἀρχῆς ἀπολυθῆναι βουλόμενοι to be freed from their rule, Th. 2.8; τῶν δεινῶν μηδέποτε οἴεσθαι ἀπολυθήσεσθαι Id. 1.70; τῆς ὑποψίας Antipho 2.4.3; τῆς μιαρίας ib. 3.11: abs., to be acquitted, Th. 6.29; to be absolved from, τῶν ἀδικημάτων Pl. Phd. 113d.
II of combatants,
1. to be separated, part, οὐ ῥᾳδίως ἀπελύοντο Th. 1.49; generally, to be separated or detached, ἀλλήλων or ἀπ' ἀλλήλων, Arist. Metaph. 1031b3, Ph. 185a28; ἀ. τὰ ᾠὰ τῆς ὑστέρας Id. GA 754b18, al.; ἀπολελυμένος, abs., detached, αἰδοῖον, γλῶττα, ὄρχεις, Id. HA 500b2, 533a27, 535b2; τὴν γλῶτταν ἀ. having its tongue detached, Id. Fr. 319, al.; also, distinct, differentiated, Id. HA 497b22.
2. depart, ἔθανες, ἀπελύθης, S. Ant. 1268 (lyr.), cf. Plb. 6.58.4, al., LXX Numbers 20:29, al.; cf. supr. B.IV.
III of a child, to be brought forth, Hp. Superf. 11, cf. 24, Arist. GA 745b11; of the mother, to be delivered, Hp. Epid. 2.2.17. to be annulled, Arist. EN 1156a22. ἀπολελυμένος, η, ον, absolute, esp. in Gramm., D.T. 636.15, A.D. Synt. 97.20, al.: also, general, of meaning, Olymp.Alch. p.72B. of metres, irregular, without strophic responsion, Heph. Poëm. 5.
ἀπολύω; (imperfect ἀπελυον); future ἀπολύσω; 1 aorist ἀπελυσα; passive, perfect ἀπολελυμαι; 1 aorist ἀπελυθην; (future ἀπολυθήσομαι); imperfect middle ἀπελυομην (Acts 28:25); used in the N. T. only in the historical books and in Hebrews 13:23; to loose from, sever by loosening, undo (see ἀπό, V.);
1. to set free: τινα τίνος (so in Greek writings even from Homer down), to liberate one from a thing (as from a bond), Luke 13:12 (ἀπολέλυσαι (thou hast been loosed i. e.) be thou free from (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 40, 4) τῆς ἀσθενείας (L T ἀπό τῆς ἀσθενείας)).
2. to let go, dismiss (to detain no longer); τινα, a. a suppliant to whom liberty to depart is given by a decisive answer: Matthew 15:23; Luke 2:29 (`me whom thou hadst determined to keep on earth until I had seen the salvation prepared for Israel, cf. Luke 2:26, thou art now dismissing with my wish accomplished, and this dismission is at the same time dismission also from life' — in reference to which ἀπολύειν is used in Numbers 20:29; Tobit 3:6; (cf. Genesis 15:2; 2 Macc. 7:9; Plutarch, consol. ad Apoll. § 13 cf. 11 at the end)); (Acts 23:22).
b. to bid depart, send away: Matthew 14:15, 22; Matthew 15:32, 39; Mark 6:36, 45; Mark 8:3, 9; Luke 8:38; Luke 9:12; Luke 14:4; Acts 13:3; Acts 19:41 (τήν ἐκκλησίαν); passive Acts 15:30, 33.
3. to let go free, to release;
a. a captive, i. e. to loose his bonds and bid him depart, to give him liberty to depart: Luke 22:68 (R G L Tr in brackets);
b. to acquit one accused of a crime and set him at liberty: John 19:12; Acts 3:13.
c. indulgently to grant a prisoner leave to depart: Acts 4:21, 23; Acts 5:40; Acts 17:9.
d. to release a debtor, i. e. not to press one's claim against him, to remit his debt: Matthew 18:27; metaphorically, to pardon another his offences against me: Luke 6:37 (τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἀπολύεσθαι, 2 Macc. 12:45).
4. used of divorce, as ἀπολύω τήν γυναῖκα to dismiss from the house, to repudiate: Matthew 1:19; Matthew 5:31; Matthew 19:3, 7-9; Mark 10:2, 4, 11; Luke 16:18; (1 Esdr. 9:36); and improperly a wife deserting her husband is said τόν ἄνδρα ἀπολύειν in Mark 10:12 (cf. Diodorus 12, 18) (unless, as is more probable, Mark, contrary to historic accuracy (yet cf. Josephus, Antiquities 15, 7, 10), makes Jesus speak in accordance with Greek and Roman usage, according to which wives also repudiated their husbands (references in Meyer, at the passage)); (cf. שִׁלַּח, Jeremiah 3:8; Deuteronomy 21:14; Deuteronomy 22:19, 29).
5. Middle ἀπολύομαι, properly, to send oneself away; to depart (Winer's Grammar, 253 (238)): Acts 28:20 (returned home; Exodus 33:11).
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ἀπο -λύω ,
[in LXX for H7725, etc., freq. in 1-4 Mac;]
1. to set free, release: Luke 13:12, John 19:10, al.; a debtor, Matthew 18:27; metaph., of forgiveness, Luke 6:37.
2. to let go, dismiss (Field, Notes, 9 f.): Matthew 15:23, Luke 2:29; Luke 9:12, Acts 19:41, al.; of divorce, τ . γυναῖκα : Matthew 1:19; Matthew 5:31-32; Matthew 19:3; Matthew 19:8; Matthew 19:10 Mark 10:2; Mark 10:4; Mark 10:11, Luke 16:18; with ref. to Gk. and Rom. (net Jewish) custom, τ . ἄνδρα : Mark 10:12. Mid., to depart: Acts 28:25 (MM, s.v.).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
This common verb, in the sense ";dismiss,"; ";send away on a mission"; (as Acts 13:3, and probably Hebrews 13:23) may be illustrated by P Par 49.19 (B.C. 164–58) (= Witkowski.2 p. 70) ἀπέλυσα εἴπας αὐτῶι ὀρθρίτερον ἐλθεῖν. In P Lond 42.26 (see above under ἀπολαμβάνω) it is used of departure from seclusion in the Serapeum—ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀπολελύσθαι σε ἐκ τῆς κατοχῆς : cf. P Petr II. 11(i).3 (iii/B.C.) (= Selections, p. 7) ὅπως τῆς ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος σχολῆς ἀπολυθῶ, ";in order that I may be relieved from my present occupation,"; BGU I. 27.14 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 101) ὥστε ἕως σήμερον μηδέν᾽ ἀπολελύσθαι τῶν μετὰ σίτου, ";so that up till to-day no one of us in the corn service has been let go."; Release from prison is implied in P Giss I. 65a.4, 66.11 (ii/A.D.) : see Kornemann’s note. P Oxy X. 1271.5 (A.D. 246) is in a request to the Prefect for a permit to leave the country by ship from Pharos : ἀξιῶ γράψαι σε τῷ ἐπιτρόπῳ τῆς Φάρου ἀπολῦσαί με κατὰ τὸ ἔθος. The sense of ";grant an amnesty to"; underlies P Par 63xiii. 2ff. (B.C. 165) ἀπολελυκότες πάντας τοὺς ἐνεσχημένους ἔν τισιν ἀγνοήμασιν ἤ ἁμαρτήμασιν, and P Tor I. 1vii. 13 (B.C. 116) (= Chrest. II. p. 37) : see Mitteis in loc. Akin to this is the use in BGU IV. 1106.34 (B.C. 13) πλὴν συνφανοῦς ἀ ̣π ̣ωλήας, ἧς καὶ φανερᾶς γενηθείσ [ης ἀ ]πολελύσθω. In P Tebt II. 490.3 (B.C. 92 or 59) ἀ ̣πολύσομ ̣α ̣ι ̣ τὸν χαλκόν the verb is used in the sense of ";pay,"; cf. P Rein 54.7 (iii/iv A.D.) διε ̣πεμψάμην σο ̣ι ̣ (κτήνη) . . . ὅπως γεμίσῃς αὐτὰ οἴνου ἐκ τῶν ἀπολυθέντων μοι ὑπὸ Ἰσχυρίωνος, ";afin que tu les charges de vin, acheté sur la somme que m’a remboursée Ischyrion"; (Ed.) : so elsewhere of delivering goods. The index to OGIS gives a long list of citations in various senses, which need not be further illustrated. But the idea of a veteran ";released"; from long service, suggestive for Luke 2:29, may be noted in the t.t. ἀπολύσιμος ἀπὸ στ [ρ ]ατείας, CPR 1.3 (A.D. 83–4) : cf. P Tebt II. 292.6 (A.D. 189–90) ἱερέως ἀπολυσίμου, P Lond 345.4 (A.D. 193) (= II. p. 114) ἀπολυσί (μων) τῆς λαογ ̣ρ ̣(αφίας). We may also compare Wünsch AF 4.30 (iii/A.D.) ὁρκίζω σε τὸν θεὸν τὸν τὴν κοίμησίν σοι δεδωρημένον καὶ ἀπολύσαντά σε ἀπὸ δ [εσμῶ ]ν τοῦ βίου Νεθμομαω, and a tombstone of ii/A.D. (Alexandria), Preisigke 2477 Ἡλιόδωρε οὐετρανὲ ἐντείμως ἀπολελυμένε, εὐψύχει : the perfect here might perhaps encourage us to take the phrase metaphorically—or literally, with a secondary application. It occurs with the aorist in Preisigke 423.8, seemingly a ii/A.D. papyrus : οὐετρα [νῷ ] τῶν ἐντείμως ἀπολυθέντων. Whether or no we may recognize the figurative sense in the veteran’s epitaph above, we may certainly illustrate the Nunc dimittis by this familiar term of military life.
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Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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