Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #03782 - כָּשַׁל
1) to stumble, stagger, totter
1a1) to stumble
1a2) to totter
1b1) to stumble
1b2) to be tottering, be feeble
1c1) to cause to stumble, bring injury or ruin to, overthrow
1c2) to make feeble, make weak
1d) (Hophal) to be made to stumble
1e) (Piel) bereave
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
כָּשַׁל (once fut. יִכְשׁוֹל Proverbs 4:16 כתיב, elsewhere fut. Niph. is used), to waver, to totter, to stagger. This verb differs from the synonyms כָּרַע and כָּנַע, in that this properly signifies to totter in the ancles (mit den Knöcheln umknicken), which the Romans sometimes, but very rarely, called by a peculiar word (see Festus h. v. and Doederlein, Lat. Synon. iii. 62), talipedare; (kindred to this is the word قزل to totter, pr. in the ancles, to waddle, from the quadriliteral קַרְסֹל an ancle, which see). The other synonyms properly signify tottering and shaking of the knees (just as מוֹט, נוּט, נוּעַ, signify the quivering or trembling of the whole body); they alike imply want of strength.-However, in the common use of language, this primary idea is often neglected; hence כָּשַׁלּ means
(1) to totter, to reel, to sink together, used of one about to fall. Psalms 27:2, הֵמָּה כָּֽשְׁלוּ וְנָפָֽלוּ “they tottered and fell.” Isaiah 31:3, 59:14 Hosea 14:2; Jeremiah 50:32 also used of inanimate things, Isaiah 3:8; Psalms 109:24, בִּרְכַּי כָּֽשְׁלוּ מִצּוֹם “my knees totter through fasting;” compare Isaiah 35:3; Nehemiah 4:4. Part. כּוֹשֵׁל tired out, wearied, Psalms 105:37; Isaiah 5:27.
(2) to stumble. Followed by בְּ of the thing against which one stumbles, Leviticus 26:37; Nahum 3:3.
Niphal נִכְשַׁל fut. יִכָּשֵׁל i.q. Kal to totter, to sink down, 1 Samuel 2:4; Proverbs 4:12; Jeremiah 31:9; Daniel 11:19, 33 Daniel 11:33. Metaph. to be made wretched, Ezekiel 33:12.
Piel, Ezekiel 36:14 כתיב and
(1) to cause to fail, Lamentations 1:14.
(2) to cause some one to stumble and fail, Proverbs 4:16; 2 Chronicles 25:8, 28:23. In a moral sense, to cause to stumble, to seduce, Malachi 2:8.
Hophal, to be made to stumble, Jeremiah 18:23.
Derived nouns, כַּשִּׁיל, מִכְשׁוֹל, מַכְשֵׁלָה and