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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #05162 - נָחַם
1) to be sorry, console oneself, repent, regret, comfort, be comforted
1a1) to be sorry, be moved to pity, have compassion
1a2) to be sorry, rue, suffer grief, repent
1a3) to comfort oneself, be comforted
1a4) to comfort oneself, ease oneself
1b) (Piel) to comfort, console
1c) (Pual) to be comforted, be consoled
1d1) to be sorry, have compassion
1d2) to rue, repent of
1d3) to comfort oneself, be comforted
1d4) to ease oneself
V) mhn (נההמ NHhM) - I. Comfort:To give comfort in time of difficulty or sorrow. II. Regret:To have sorrow for an action. KJV (108): (vf: Niphal, Hitpael, Pual, Piel) comfort, repent, comforter, ease - Strongs: H5162 (נָחַם)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
נָחַם unused in Kal, prop. onomatopoet. to draw the breath forcibly, to pant, to groan; like the Arab. خَحِمَ; cogn. roots נָהַם (comp. לָהַם and לָחַם), and הָמָה, which see.
(1) to lament, to grieve (as to the use of passive and middle forms in verbs of emotion, compare נֶאֱנַח, ὀδύρομαι, contristari, etc.)
(a) because of the misery of others; whence, to pity. Constr. absol. Jeremiah 15:6, נִלְאֵיתִי הִנָּחֵם “I am weary of pitying;” followed by עַל Psal. 90:13 אֶל Judges 21:6 לְ verse 15 Judges 21:15מִן Judges 2:18.
(b) because of one’s own actions; whence, to repent (compare Germ. reuen, which formerly and still in Switzerland is to grieve, Engl. to rue), Exodus 13:17; Genesis 6:6, const. followed by עַל Exodus 32:12, 14 Exodus 32:14; Jeremiah 8:6, 18:8, 10 Jeremiah 18:10אֶל 2 Samuel 24:16; Jeremiah 26:3.
(2) reflex. of Piel to comfort oneself, [to be comforted], Genesis 38:12 followed by עַל on account of any thing, 2 Samuel 13:39 and אַחֲרֵי i.e. for any one’s loss, Genesis 24:67. From the idea of being consoled it becomes
(3) to be revenged, to take vengeance, as, to use the words of Aristotle (Rhet. ii. 2), τῇ ὀργῇ ἕπεται ἡδονή τις ἀπὸ τῆς ἐλπίδος τοῦ τιμωρήσασθαι. Followed by מִן Isaiah 1:24 (compare Ezekiel 5:13, 31:16 32:31 ); see Hithpael, No. 3.
Piel נִחַם to comfort (prop. to signify, to declare grief or pity), followed by an acc. of pers., Genesis 50:21; Job 2:11 also מִן of the thing on account of which one is comforted, Genesis 5:29 and עַל Isaiah 22:4; 1 Chronicles 19:2. It sometimes includes the notion of help put forth, especially when used of God, Isaiah 12:1, 49:13 51:3, 12 Isaiah 51:12, 52:9 Psalms 23:4, 71:21 86:17.
Pual נֻחַם to be comforted, Isaiah 54:11. Part. נֻחָמָה for מְנֻחָמָה Isaiah 54:11.
Hithpael הִתְנַחֵם, once הִנַּחֵם Ezekiel 5:13 i.q. Niph. but less frequently used.
(1) to grieve
(a) on account of any one, to pity, followed by עַל Deuteronomy 32:36; Psalms 135:14.
(b) to repent, Numbers 23:19.
(2) to comfort oneself, to be comforted, Genesis 37:35; Psalms 119:52.
(3) to take vengeance, Genesis 27:42, הִנֵּה עֵשָׂו אָחִיךָ מִתְנַחֵם לְךָ לְהָרְגֶּךָ “behold Esau thy brother will take vengeance by killing thee.”
Derivative nouns, נִחוּמִים, תַּנְחוּם, pr.n. נַחוּם, מְנַחֵם, תַּנְחֻמֶת, and those which follow.
the Third Week after Epiphany