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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #07971 - שָׁלַח
1) to send, send away, let go, stretch out
1a1) to send
1a2) to stretch out, extend, direct
1a3) to send away
1a4) to let loose
1b) (Niphal) to be sent
1c1) to send off or away or out or forth, dismiss, give over, cast out
1c2) to let go, set free
1c3) to shoot forth (of branches)
1c4) to let down
1c5) to shoot
1d) (Pual) to be sent off, be put away, be divorced, be impelled
1e) (Hiphil) to send
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
שָׁלַח fut. יִשְׁלַח, inf. absol. שָׁלֹחַ, const. שְׁלֹחַ, once שְׁלַח Isaiah 58:9.
(1) to send (LXX. ἀποστέλλω, ἐξαποστέλλω). Const.
(a) absol. Genesis 38:17.
(b) followed by an acc. of pers. Genesis 43:8, 45:5 Isaiah 6:8 (with a dat. pleon. שְׁלַח לְךָ send, Numbers 13:2); once in the later Hebrew followed by לְ of pers. 2 Ch. 17:7.
(c) followed by אֶל of the person to whom one sends, Genesis 37:13; Exodus 3:10, 7:16 rarely like the Ch. עַל Nehemiah 6:3; Jeremiah 29:31 also followed by לְּ with an inf. to send (any one) to do any thing, Numbers 14:36; Isaiah 61:1.
(d) followed by an acc. of thing and אֶלּ of pers. to send any thing to any one, as letters, Jeremiah 29:25; Esther 9:20, 30 followed by לְ of pers. Genesis 45:23.
(e) The accus. of the person sent is often omitted, Genesis 31:4, “he sent and called Rachel,” i.e. he sent (some one) who brought Rachel. Genesis 41:8, 14 Genesis 41:14 or the person sent is put with the prefix בְּיַד 1 Kings 2:25, וַיִּשְׁלַח הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּיָד בְּנָיָהוּ “and the king sent by Benaiah,” i.e. he deputed Benaiah. Exodus 4:13, שְׁלַח־נָא בְּיַד־תִּשְׁלָח “send by whom thou wilt send.”
(f) A singular use is in 2 Samuel 15:12, וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְשָׁלוֹם אֶת־אֲחִיתֹפֶל מֵעִירוֹ מִגִּילֹה “and Absalom sent (and brought) Ahitophel from Gilo his city.”
(aa) any one is said to send words to another, i.e. to inform by a messenger (fagen laffen, entbieten). Proverbs 26:6, שֹׁלֵחַ דְּבָרִים בְּיַד כְּסִיל “he who sends words by a fool,” who uses a foolish messenger to carry a mandate. Genesis 38:25, שָֽׁלְחָה אֶל־חָמִיהָ לֵאמֹר “she sent these words to her father-in-law” (fie ließ ihm fagen). 1 Kings 20:5; 2 Kings 5:8 without לֵאמֹר 1 Samuel 20:21. Followed by an acc. of the message, 1 Ki. 5:23, עַד־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁלַח אֵלַי “unto the place which thou wilt shew me.” 1 Kings 20:9, 21:11 Jeremiah 42:5, 21 Jeremiah 42:21, 43:1 followed by two acc. to command any thing to any one, 2 Samuel 11:22, “(and he) told David אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר שְׁלָחוֹ יוֹאָב all things which Joab had charged him.” 1 Kings 14:6 Isai. 55:11.
(bb) God is said to send either calamities and plagues, Joshua 24:12 or aid, Psalms 20:3 or oracles, Isaiah 9:7; Psalms 107:20 but see Piel.
(2) to dismiss, to let go, i.q. Piel, No. 2. Psal. 50:19, פִּיךָ שָׁלַחְתָּ בְּרָעָה “thou lettest thy mouth go (as if unbridled) to evil.” Pregn. שָׁלַח יָד מִן to let one’s hand go (and withdraw it) from any thing, 1 Kings 13:4; Song of Solomon 5:4.
(3) to send out, to stretch out, as a finger (as done in derision), Isaiah 58:9 a rod, Psalms 110:2; 1 Samuel 14:27 a sickle (to put it into the corn), Joel 4:13 compare Revelation 14:15, 18 especially the hand (Hom. χεῖρας ἰάλλω, Od. ix. 388; x. 376), Genesis 3:22, 8:9 19:10 48:14 Job 1:11.
(a) followed by עַלּ to any thing, 1 Kings 13:4 (in a hostile sense). 1 Chronicles 13:10.
(b) followed by בְּ to put the hand to any thing, Job 28:9 also to put the hand or force on any thing (fich an jem. vergreifen), Genesis 37:22; 1 Samuel 26:9; Esther 8:7 and to put the hand to any thing, i.e. to purloin it (fich an etwas vergreifen), Exodus 22:7; Esther 9:10; Psalms 125:3; Daniel 11:42.
(c) שָׁלַח יָד אֶל to lay hands upon any one, Genesis 22:12; Exodus 24:11.-Sometimes יָד is omitted. Psalms 18:17, יִשְׁלַח מִמָּרוֹם to stretch (the hand) from on high, followed by אֶל 2 Samuel 6:6 followed by בְּ Obadiah 1:13.-Part. pass. שָׁלוּחַ stretched out, i.e. slender (of a hind), Genesis 49:21 compare Piel No. 4.
Niphal, to be sent, inf. absol. נִשְׁלוֹחַ Esther 3:13.
(1) i.q. Kal No. 1, to send, to depute, Isaiah 43:14 followed by an acc. of pers. Genesis 19:13, 28:6 Isaiah 10:6 and of the thing sent, 1 Samuel 6:3 followed by עַל of the person to whom one sends, 2 Chronicles 32:31. But Kal is used far more frequently in this signification; in Piel, on the other hand, it is to send (as God) on any one plague and calamity (see Kal No. 1, bb); followed by בְּ Deuteronomy 7:20, 32:24 2 Kings 17:25; Psalms 78:45 followed by אֶל Ezekiel 14:19 עַל Ezekiel 5:17. שִׁלַּח מָדוֹן is, to send, i.e. to excite strife, Proverbs 6:14, 19 16:28.
(2) i.q. Kal No. 2, to dismiss, to let go, one who departs (opp. to, to return), Genesis 32:27; Exodus 8:28; Leviticus 14:7 a captive, Zechariah 9:11; 1 Kings 20:42 compare 1 Samuel 20:22 to manumit a slave (see חָפְשִׁי ), to set out a daughter, give in marriage; more fully שִׁלַּח חוּצָה Judges 12:9 also to accompany one departing, to send him on his way (προπέμπειν), Genesis 18:16, 31:27 followed by בְּ and בְּיַד to deliver up to any one’s power, Job 8:4; Psalms 81:13. Also to let any one down into a dungeon, Jerem. 38:6, 11 Jeremiah 38:11 to let (the hair) hang down, Ezekiel 44:20.
(3) in a stronger sense, to cast, to throw
(a) things, as arrows, 1 Samuel 20:20 fire (into a city), Amos 1:4, seqq.; Hosea 8:14 (which is also expressed by שִׁלַּח דּ׳ בָּאֵשׁ to cast any thing on the fire; French, mettre à feu, Judges 1:8, 20:48 2 Kings 8:12; Psalms 74:7).
(b) to cast forth, to cast down. Ecclesiastes 11:1: Job 30:11, “they cast down the bridle before me,” they act unbridledly. Job 39:3, “they cast down their sorrows,” i.e. they bear their young with pain.
(c) to expel, to cast out some one, Genesis 3:23; 1 Kings 9:7; Isaiah 50:1 specially to divorce a wife, Deuteronomy 21:14, 22:19, 29 Deuteronomy 22:29; Jeremiah 3:8 compare שִׁלּוּחִים Job 30:12, רַגְלַי שִׁלֵּחוּ “they push away my feet.”
(4) i.q. Kal No. 3, to stretch out, to extend the hand, Proverbs 31:19, 20 Proverbs 31:20: branches as a tree, Jeremiah 17:8; Ezekiel 17:6, Ezekiel 17:7, 31:5 Psalms 80:12 God a people, Psalms 44:3.
(1) to be sent, deputed, Judges 5:15; Proverbs 17:11.
(2) to be dismissed, Genesis 44:3; Isaiah 50:1 to be forsaken, Isaiah 27:10: Proverbs 29:15, נַעַר מְשֻׁלָּח “a child left to himself,” or dismissed, i.e. given up to its own will.
(3) to be cast out, expelled. Isaiah 16:2, קֵן מְשֻׁלָּח “a bird cast out from the nest;” to be cast anywhere, to be fallen anywhere (followed by בְּ), Job 18:8.
Hiphil, i.q. Piel No. 1, to send a plague, a calamity; followed by בְּ Leviticus 26:22; Amos 8:11.
Derivatives, שֶׁלַח-שֻׁלְחָן, שִׁלּוּחִים, מִשְׁלָח, מִשְׁלוֹחַ, מִשְׁלַחַת.
the Second Week of Advent