the First Week of Advent
Click here to learn more!
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #2553 - חַמָּן
1) incense altar, sun-pillar, idol, image
1a) used in idolatrous worship
1174) mh (ההמ HhM) AC: Heat CO: Cheese AB: ?: The pictograph h is a picture of a wall meaning "to separate". The m is a picture of water. Combined these mean "separate water". Cheese was made by placing milk in a bag made out of an animal skin. The bag was hung out in the sun and pushed back and forth. The skin of the bag contained an enzyme that when heated and shaken caused the milk to sour and separate into its two parts, fat (curds or cheese) and water (whey) . The whey could be drunk and the curds eaten or stored for future consumption.
Nf1) emh (ההמה HhMH) - I. Sun:The source of heat. II. Fury:An intense heat from anger. KJV (132): sun, heat, fury, wrath, poison, displeasure, rage, anger, bottle - Strongs: H2528 (חֱמָא), H2534 (חֵמָה), H2535 (חַמָּה)
V) mhi (יההמ YHhM) - Heat: Natural body heat as well as the time of heat when animals mate. Conception from an animals heat or through the heat of passion. KJV (10): (vf: Paal, Piel) conceive, warm, hot, heat - Strongs: H3179 (יָחַם)
- A2169 Dmh (, Desire)
- A2172 Xmh (Shake, Violence)
- A2173 Ymh (Sour)
- A2491 Rmx (Bristle, Hair)
- A2305 Mhl (Fight, Bread)
- A2600 Mhp (Burn, Charcoal)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
חַמָּן plur. only חַמָּנִיס a certain kind of images, Leviticus 26:30; Isaiah 17:8, 27:9 Ezekiel 6:4; 2 Chronicles 14:4, 34:7 in these passages it is several times connected with the statues of Astarte (אֲשֵׁרִים); from 2 Chronicles 34:4, it appears that חַמָּנִיס stood upon the altar of Baal. Jarchi [and Erp. Ar.] explained it to mean statues of the sun; and now some Phœnician inscriptions illustrate exceedingly well both this interpretation and the thing itself; in these inscriptions בעלחמן (read בַּעַל חַמָּן) is the name of a deity to whom votive stones were inscribed. Amongst these were
(1) Humbert’s four stones preserved at Leyden, published and deciphered by Hamaker (in Diatribe Philol. Crit. aliquot Monumentorum Punicorum nuper in Africa, repertorum interpretationem exhibente, Lugd. Bat., 1822, 4to). My interpretation of these inscriptions in Ephemerid. Hal. (1826, No. 111) mostly agrees with that of Etienne Quatremère (Nouveau Journal Asiatique, 1828, p. 15 seq. against the publisher of them, who had read בעל חמלא, and has since made an unsatisfactory defence of his opinion (see Miscellanea Phœnicia, Lugd. 1828, p. 106 seq.);
(2) of a Maltese stone (see Hamakeri Misc., tab. 3, No. 1), in which, with very little doubt even on the part of the editor, there stands לבעל חמן (לְבַעַל חַמָּן), although he thus connects the separate words לַבַּעַל חַמָּן אֶבֶן to Baal a pillar of stone. Also
(3) Inscr. Palmyr. iii. Lin. 2, where there is written in Aramean words (ע) בדו … וקרבו לשמש חמנא דנה ועלתה ד (נה) “this (statue) of the sun and this altar they made and consecrated to the sun,” etc. See Kopp, Bilder und Schriften der Vorzeit, ii. p. 133.
As to the grammatical interpretations, I do not hesitate to explain בַּעַל חַמָּן the sun Baal, or the sun Lord (from חַמָּה sun, with an adjectivial termination, compare רַחְמָן, נְחֻשְׁתָּן), and חַמָּן I consider to be an epithet of Baal, as bearing rule over the sun (comp. as to his other epithets p. 131. A ); and because allusion is perhaps made in the sound to אָמוֹן Ἀμμῶν of the Egyptians. The plural חַמָּנִים is in Scripture concisely used for בְּעָלִים חַמָּנִים, and occurs in the same connection as elsewhere בְּעָלִים is found. A similar grammatical view is taken also by Hamaker in his learned dissertation on this word (Miscell. Phœn. p. 50, seq.); in this, however, he differs from me, in that he considers פֶּסֶל to be supplied, explaining the expression a Sun-image, such as are related to have been of a conical or pyramidal form, and to have stood in the most sacred parts of temples. Compare also Bochart, Geogr. S. ii. 17.