Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #5800 - עָזַב
1) to leave, loose, forsake
1a) (Qal) to leave
1a1) to depart from, leave behind, leave, let alone
1a2) to leave, abandon, forsake, neglect, apostatise
1a3) to let loose, set free, let go, free
1b1) to be left to
1b2) to be forsaken
1c) (Pual) to be deserted
2) to restore, repair
2a) (Qal) to repair
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
עָזַב fut. יַעֲזֹב.
(1) to loosen bands, and to let go a beast from its bonds. (As to this use of the Arabic verb عزب see Sypkens in Diss. Lugd. ii. p. 930, seqq.) Thus in the difficult passage, Exodus 23:5, “if thou see the ass of thy enemy lying down under its burden, וְחָדַלְתָּ מֵעֲזֹב לוֹ עָזֹב תַּעֲזֹב עִמּוֹ beware that thou leave him not, but that thou loose his (the ass’s) bonds with him.” There is a play of the words in the double use of the verb עָזַב which stands first in the common signification of forsaking, then in the primary one of loosing. It is applied to a servant set free; whence is the proverbial expression עָצוּר וְעָזוּב shut up and set free, i.e. the slave and the free man, or all men of every sort, Deuteronomy 32:36; 1 Kings 14:10, 21:21 2 Kings 9:8, 14:26. (Lud. de Dieu interprets this phrase, the married and the unmarried; comp. عَزَبُ an unmarried man, and أَعْصَرُ a married man; others, neutr. shut up and cast away, i.e. the precious and the vile, all together. But the former interpretation is preferable, and this latter cannot be received, because the expression always refers to men and not to things.) Metaph. Job 10:1, אֶעֶזְבָה שִׂיחִי “I will let loose my complaint,” I will let loose as it were the reins, I will not restrain it. Hence
(2) to leave a person, Genesis 2:24 a place, Jerem. 25:38 Ezekiel 8:12 also, to desert, as the wretched, the poor, Job 20:19; Psalms 27:10; Ezekiel 23:29 God, a people, Isaiah 42:16, 49:14 54:7 Psalms 9:11, 22:2 71:11 and Vice verŝ, a people, God, Judges 2:12; Deuteronomy 31:16; Jeremiah 5:19; Ezekiel 24:21 the law of God, Isaiah 58:2; Ezra 9:10 godliness, Job 6:14, etc. Strength, or mind, also are said to desert any one, Psalms 38:11, 40:13. Specially
(a) to leave any one any where, Genesis 50:8 followed by בְּיַד in any one’s hand (of one departing), ib. 39:12, 13; sometimes said for to commit to any one, leave in his charge (überlaffen, anvertrauen), Genesis 39:6 sometimes for to leave to any one’s will, 2 Chronicles 12:5. And in the signification of committing, it is construed also followed by אֶל Job 39:11, and עַל Psalms 10:14 (intrans.), עָלֶיךָ יַעֲזֹב חֵלֶ֑כָה “the poor committeth himself to thee.”
(b) of a person dying; to leave anything to heirs; followed by לְ Psalms 49:11.
(c) to leave anything to any one, so as not to take it away; followed by לְ Mal. 3:19. Part. pass. עֲזוּבָה left, deserted, applied to houses, which being forsaken by their inhabitants now lie deserted, i.q. ruins, Isaiah 6:12, 17:9, כַּעֲזוּבַת הַחֹרֶשׁ וְהָאָמִיר אֲשֶׁר עָֽזְבוּ מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי ישׂ׳ “like ruins in the woods and summits (of Palestine), which (the Canaanites) left desert (fleeing) before the Israelites;” compare Isaiah 17:2; Jeremiah 4:29.
(3) to leave off, to cease from any thing; followed by an acc. Ezekiel 23:8 followed by a gerund, Hosea 4:10 to remit, cease from, wrath, Psalms 37:8 עָזַב חַסְדּוֹ מֵעִם פּ׳ to remit, i.e. to take away his favour from any one, Genesis 24:27; Ruth 2:20.
Niphal, to be left, forsaken, Nehemiah 13:11 often used of a country which has been forsaken by its inhabitants and lies desert, Leviticus 26:43; Isaiah 7:16; Job 18:4 followed by לְ to be left to any one, i.e. committed to him, Isaiah 18:6.
Pual עֻזַּב i.q. Niph. Isaiah 32:14.
Derived nouns, עֲזוּבָה and
the Second Week of Lent