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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #6663 - צָדַק
1) to be just, be righteous
1a1) to have a just cause, be in the right
1a2) to be justified
1a3) to be just (of God)
1a4) to be just, be righteous (in conduct and character)
1b) (Niphal) to be put or made right, be justified
1c) (Piel) justify, make to appear righteous, make someone righteous
1d1) to do or bring justice (in administering law)
1d2) to declare righteous, justify
1d3) to justify, vindicate the cause of, save
1d4) to make righteous, turn to righteousness
1e) (Hithpael) to justify oneself
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
צָדַק fut. יִצְדַּק pr. to be right, straight, i.q. יָשַׁר as of a straight way (see צֶדֶק Psalms 23:3). (Arab. صدق prop. to be stiff, rigid, e.g. used of a lance; see Schultens, De Defect. Hodiernis Ling. Hebrææ, § 214-224; hence, to be true, sincere. Syr. ܐܕܩܰ to be right, suitable.) Hence
(1) to be just, righteous (gerecht fehn), used of God, Psalms 51:6 of laws, Psalms 19:10.
(2) to have a just cause (Recht haben)
(a) in a forensic sense. Genesis 38:26, צָֽדְקָה מִמֶּנִּי “her (Thamar’s) cause is more just than mine.” Job 9:15, 20 Job 9:20, 10:15 13:18 34:5. Opp. to רָשַׁע to have an unjust cause.
(b) to speak the truth, or what is right, amongst disputants, Job 33:12. Hence
(c) to obtain one’s cause [to be justified, in a forensic sense], Isaiah 45:25.
(3) to be upright, righteous (see צַדִּיק No. 3 ), Job 15:14, 22:3 35:7 followed by לִפְנֵי יְיָ Psalms 143:2 עִם אֵל Job 9:2, 25:4 מֵאֱלוֹהַּ Job 4:17 i.e. in the judgment of God. Also to declare righteous, Ezekiel 16:52.
Niphal, prop. to be declared just; hence to be vindicated from wrongs. Daniel 8:14, נִצְדַּק קֹדֶשׁ Vulg. not amiss, mundabitur sanctuarium.
(1) to render just, or righteous, or innocent (Eccl. Lat. justificavit [to declare righteous]). Ezekiel 16:15, “thou hast justified thy sisters by thy crimes;” i.e. thou hast caused that they should seem almost innocent. Similarly, Jeremiah 3:11, צִדְּקָה נַפְשָׁהּ … יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן וְגו׳ “Israel has justified herself more than Judah,” appears just in comparison with her.
(2) to declare any one just or innocent, Job 33:32 followed by נַפְשׁוֹ oneself, Job 32:2.
(1) to make just, or upright, or pious, by one’s example and doctrine; followed by an acc., Daniel 12:3 followed by לְ [to justify, i.e. declare righteous, see No. 2], Isaiah 53:11.
(2) i.q. Piel No. 2, to declare any one just.
(a) in a forensic sense, to absolve, to acquit, Exodus 23:7; Deuteronomy 25:1; 2 Samuel 15:4; Isaiah 5:23 to make any one’s cause to prevail, Isaiah 50:8.
(b) to declare any one to have given a right opinion (iem. Recht geben), to approve of any one’s opinion; see Kal No. 2, b, Job 27:5.
Hithpael, to purge oneself (from suspicion), Genesis 44:16.
Derived nouns, צִדְקִיָּהוּ־צֶדֶק, צַדִּיק, צָדוֹק.
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