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Bible Commentaries
Luke 20

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1

THE AUTHORITY OF JESUS QUESTIONED V. 1-8

1) "And it came to pass," (kai egeneto) "And it happened," occurred or came to be.

2) "That one of those days," (en mia. ton hemeron) "in one of those ’days," after He had cleansed the temple for the second time, Luke 20:19; Luke 20:45-46.

3) "As he taught the people in the temple," (didaskontos autou ton laon en to hiero) "While he was teaching the people in the temple," Matthew 21:23; Mark 11:27.

4) "And preached the gospel," (kai euangelizomenou) "And proclaiming the gospel," Luke 24:47; the good news of redemption, Luke 19:10. Luke uses this term which means "evangelized" twenty four times, and Paul used it twenty times, Romans 1:16.

5) "The chief priests and the scribes came upon him with the elders," (epestesan hoi archiereis kai hoi grammateis sun tois presbuterois) "There came upon him, by former collusion and plot, the administrative priests, or the Sanhedrin, and the scribes, in consort with the elders," Matthew 21:23. They came for entrapment purposes, or ulterior motives, Mark 11:27; Their motives are indicated Luke 19:47. They came suddenly in an hostile manner.

Verse 2

1) "And spake unto him, saying," (kai elpan legontes pros auton) "And they spoke directly to him repeatedly saying or demanding," -

2) "Tell us, by what authority doest thou these things?" (elpon hemin en pola eksousia touta poieis) "Tell us by what administrative authority are you doing what you do?" Acts 4:10, by what kind or source of authority? It was not authorized by any rabbi, or priest, or magistrate, for Christ held none of these offices, Mark 11:28.

3) "Or who is he that gave thee this authority?" (e tis estin ho dous soi ten eksousian tauten) "Or just who is the one who has given you this authority?" to teach, preach, and do the things (miracles) that you are obviously doing, Matthew 21:23. For they were jealous over their own authority, Acts 4:7. He had repeatedly told them, openly, that He came by authority of His Father, John 3:17; John 5:23; John 5:27; John 6:38; John 6:40-44.

Verse 3

1) "And he answered and said unto them," (apokritheis de elpen pros autous) "Then replying he said directly to them," with a similar challenge, Matthew 21:24; Mark 11:29. They were miffed not only over His teaching, preaching, and miracle working, but also at His triumphal entry into Jerusalem, and His cleansing the temple.

2) “I will also ask you one thing;" (eroteso humas kago logon) "I will also ask you just a word," about your behavior, Matthew 21:24; Mark 11:29.

3) "And answer me:" (kai eipate moi) "and you all answer me:" Then I will tell you the source of my authority, Matthew 21:24; Mark 11:29.

Verse 4

1) "The baptism of John," (to baptisoma loannou) "The baptism (immersion ministry) of John," of John the Baptist, who was "sent from God," John 1:6; John 1:19-28, "to baptize," John 1:31-33; Matthew 21:25; Mark 11:30; John 1:26.

2) "Was it from heaven or of men?" (eks ouranou en e eks anthropon) "Was it out of or from heaven, or just out of or from men?" Was it just an invention of man? that authorized or permitted John the Baptist to baptize like he did, only such as would repent and claim to believe in Him would come after him? Matthew 3:1-8; Acts 19:4. If they admitted John was from heaven they would be answering their own question, for John had witnessed who Jesus was, John 1:34; John 3:28-29.

Verse 5

1) "And they reasoned with themselves, saying," (hoi d0 sunelogisanto pros,heautous legontes) "Then they debated with (among) themselves, repeatedly saying," perhaps they had gone aside for a conference, with conscience-stricken guilt over their entrapment question, concluding among themselves; Matthew 21:25; Mark 11:31.

2) "If we shall say, From heaven;" (hoti ean eipomen eks ouranou) "That if we say out of or from heaven," Matthew 21:25; Mark 11:31.

3) "He will say, Why then believed ye him not?" (ere! dia ti ouk episteusate auto) "He will say, why did you all not believe him, then?" Matthew 21:25; Mark 11:31. They therefore gave credit to the fact that John had given witness to Jesus as the Messiah. If they could not answer this question, then they were incompetent to decide upon the authority by which Jesus worked, for both were sent (commissioned or mandated) from God, from heaven, John 3:6; John 3:17; Luke 19:10.

Verse 6

1) "But and if we say, Of men;" (ean de eipomen eks anthropon) "Then if we say, From men," that he was just a pretender to be from God, Matthew 21:26; Mark 11:23.

2) "All the people will stone us:" (ho laos hapas katalithasei hemas) "The people will all stone us," literally stone us to death, Matthew 21:26; for they feared the people, Mark 11:32.

3) "For they be persuaded that John was a prophet." (pepeismenos gar estin loannen propheten einai) "For they were persuaded and are convinced that John was (existed) as a prophet," a man speaking from God, Matthew 3:5-6; Matthew 7:29; Mark 6:20; Matthew 14:5; Matthew 21:26; Mark 11:32.

Verse 7

1) "And they answered," (kai apekrithesan) "And they replied," in fear and dishonesty, as they were unregenerate, with fear by nature, Matthew 5:20; Hebrews 2:14; Matthew 21:27.

2) "That they could not tell whence it was." (me eidenai pothen) "That they really were not able to know from where John’s baptismal authority came." Matthew 21:27; Mark 11:33. Actually they did not wish to tell. Their incompetence to judge in the matter of John’s baptism certainly rendered them incompetent to pass judgment on the same source of authority by which Jesus did His labors, Job 24:13; Romans 1:18; Romans 1:21; 2 Corinthians 4:3; 2 Thessalonians 2:9-10.

Verse 8

1) "And Jesus said unto them," (kai ho lesous eipen autois) "And Jesus replied to them," replied to their deceitful and dishonest evasion of the issue, Mark 11:33.

2) "Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things." (oude ego lego humin poia eksousia tauta poio) "Neither do I tell you all by what administrative authority I do these things," Job 5:12-13. For it would be as "pearls cast before swine," as you three are in colleague and collusion to entrap me, Luke 20:46; Matthew 21:27; Matthew 21:32; Mark 11:33.

Verse 9

PARABLE OF THE VINEYARD V. 9-18

1) "Then began he to speak to the people this parable;" (erksato de pros ton laon legein ten parabolen tauten) "Then he began to relate this parable to the people," there in the temple, in the presence of the priests, scribes, and elders He had just put to silence. This begins a new series of parables by Jesus, Matthew 21:33; Mark 12:1.

2) "A certain man planted a vineyard," (anthropos ephuteusen ampelona) -A man planted a vineyard;" The man represents God; The vineyard is Israel, the Jewish nation, and the husbandmen are the official rulers of the Jewish religion. This principle is set forth Isaiah 5:1; Isaiah 5:7; Matthew 21:33; Mark 12:1.

3) "And let it forth to husbandman," (kai eksedoto auton georgois) "And he let it out to husbandmen," to care for it, for a fare share to accrue both to the owner and husbandmen who took charge, Matthew 21:33; Mark 12:1.

4) "And went into a far country for a long time." (kai apedemesen chronous hikanous) "And he, that certain man, went away for a considerable period of time," the whole time of Israel’s history, leaving his vineyard in care of the husbandmen, the administrative leaders or rulers of the law. The implication is that ample mercy had been shown to His chosen people, Israel, for a long time, to prove their fidelity and industry, Romans 10:21; Isaiah 65:2; Matthew 21:33; Mark 12:1.

Verse 10

1) "And at the season he sent a servant to the husbandman," (kai kairo apesteilen pros tous georgous doulon) "And in the harvest period he dispatched a slave-servant directly to the husbandmen," at the fruit season, Matthew 21:34; Mark 12:2. By the servant is meant a prophet-servant, 2 Kings 17:13-14.

2) "That they should give him of the fruit of the vineyard:" (hine apo tou karpou tou ampelonos dosousin auto) "in order that they would dole out or give over to him a share from the fruit of the vineyard," a matter that was considered to be the proper thing to do, John 15:1; John 15:8; Matthew 21:34; Mark 12:1; The fruit of the vineyard meant payment in kind of what was produced.

3) "But the husbandman beat him," (hoi de georgoi eksapesteilan auton deirantes kenon) "Then the husbandmen, when they had beaten him sent him away empty," with no share of fruit for the vineyard owner, Matthew 21:35; Mark 12:3.

4) "And sent him away empty." (eksapesteilan kenon) "They ordered him to go out and away back to his master empty-handed," Matthew 21:35; Mark 12:3. They treated his servant-prophet with contempt and persecution.

This repeated treatment of His servants refers to their rejection of the true prophets, 1 Kings 18:4; 1 Kings 22:24-27; 2 Chronicles 24:21; Jeremiah 26:20-23; Jeremiah 27:15; Nehemiah 9:26; Hebrews 11:36-37.

Verse 11

1) "And again he sent another servant:" (kai prosetheto heteron pempsai doulon) "And he sent another servant different from and in addition," to the previous one that was beaten, Matthew 21:34; Mark 12:4.

2) "And they beat him also," (hoi de kakeinon deirantes) "Then when they had also beaten that one," with stones, wounding him in the head, treating him with deliberate violence and contempt, Mark 12:4.

3) "And entreated him shamefully, and sent him away empty." (kai atimasantes eksapesteilan deirantes) "And they insulted or humiliated and sent him out and away from the vineyard empty." with no fruit for the vineyard owner, and shamefully handled, Mark 12:4.

Verse 12

1) "And again he sent a third:" (kai protheseto triton pempsai) "And he added a third to send," and sent him; and Matthew 21:36 reads, "he sent other servants more than the first," on the third fruit receiving mission, Mark 12:5; Nehemiah 9:28.

2) "And they wounded him also," (hoi de kai touton traumatisantes) "Then they also wounded this one," as they had the two who had formerly been sent, increasing their insolence, ingratitude, and violence against the third servant of the vineyard owner, Luke 20:9; Matthew 21:36.

3) "And cast him out." (eksebalon) "They cast him out of the vineyard and away from them," having killed him, Mark 12:5.

Verse 13

1) "Then said the lord of the vineyard," (eipenm de ho kurios tou ampelonos) "Then the master (owner) of the vineyard said," the owner who planted the vineyard, in response to the violent treatment the husbandmen-stewards had treated his servants who had gone to them to receive dividend of the annual fruit from the vineyard, 1 Corinthians 4:2.

2) "What shall I do?" (ti poieso) "Just what may I do?" as he meditated. There is mercy yet considered, Isaiah 5:1-7.

3) “I will send my beloved son" (pempso ton huion mou ton agapeton) "I will just send my beloved heir-son," Isaiah 7:14; Jesus Christ, whom He had now sent, even Jesus Christ, John 1:14; John 3:16; Romans 4:4-5; 1 Timothy 3:16; Hebrews 1:2; Matthew 21:37 a; Hebrews 3:5-6; Mark 12:6.

4) "It may be they will receive him when they see him." (isos touton entrapesontai) "Perhaps they will regard this one," or hold my son with respect or esteem when they see him, face to face, Matthew 21:37; Yet, the Son came and took-the "form of a servant," Philippians 2:7; Mark 12:6; John 3:16.

Verse 14

1) "But when the husbandman saw him," (idontes de auton hoi georgoi) "Then when the husbandmen saw him," saw the son of the vineyard owner, and recognized who he was, Matthew 21:38; Mark 12:7.

2) "They reasoned. among themselves, saying," (dielogizonto pros allelous legonts) "They connived among themselves saying," repeatedly, in collusion, Matthew 21:38.

3) "This is the heir" (houtos estin kleronomos) "This is (exists as) the legal heir," Psalms 2:6; Isaiah 9:6; Colossians 1:15-16; Philippians 2:9-11; Hebrews 1:2, the heir to the estate, the vineyard, Matthew 21:38; Mark 12:7; This seems to be an implication that the Jews really knew that Jesus was the Messiah or Redeemer, John 3:2.

4) "Come let us kill him," (apokteinomen auton) "Let us just kill him," put him out of the way, Matthew 21:38; Mark 12:7; This was their resolve, Matthew 27:21; Matthew 27:25.

5) "That the inheritance may be ours." (hina hemon genetai he kleronomia) "In order that the inheritance (of the estate) may become ours," may fall to us. We may seize or lay legal claim to it," Matthew 21:38; Mark 12:7. The statement of Caiaphas also seems to indicate that the rulers of the Jews had a conviction of fear that Jesus was the Messiah, John 11:49-52.

Verse 15

1) "So they cast him out of the vineyard, and killed him." (kai ekbalontes auton ekso tou ampelonos apekteinan) "And they killed him and threw him outside of the vineyard," Acts 2:23; Acts 4:25; Acts 4:27; Mark 12:8, alluding prophetically to what the Jews were then plotting to do to Him, Luke 19:47-48, to crucify Him without the city wall, John 19:17; Hebrews 13:11-12.

2) "What therefore shall the lord of the vineyard do unto them?" (ti oun poiesei autois ho kurios tou ampelonos) "Just what will the owner of the vineyard therefore do to them?" What would be a just thing toward them? Matthew 21:39-40; Mark 12:9.

Verse 16

1) "He shall come and destroy those husbandmen," (eleusetai kai apolesei tous georgous toutous) "He will come of his own choice and destroy these husbandmen," Matthew 21:41; Mark 12:9; a thing fulfilled in the destruction of Jerusalem, AD 70, Matthew 24:2; Luke 21:20-24.

2) "And shall give the vineyard to others." (kai dosei ton ampelona allois) "And he will give the vineyard to others," Romans 11:1, to other husbandmen, Matthew 21:41; Mark 12:9. The giving of His vineyard work to others alludes directly to the work the Lord gave to His new covenant church, Acts 15:14; John 15:16; John 15:27; John 20:21; Matthew 28:18-20; Acts 1:8.

3) "And when they heard it," (akousates de) "Then when they heard it," realized what Jesus had prophetically said.

4) "They said, God forbid." (eipan me genoito) "They said, may it not be," may it never come to be. It was an ejaculation, Matthew 21:45; But the words of the Lord are "true from the beginning," and it did come to be, Psalms 119:160. He did give His vineyard work to His church for this age, to the Gentiles and the whole world, Matthew 5:15-16; Matthew 28:18-20; Mark 13:34-35; 1 Timothy 3:15; Luke 12:32; John 20:21; Acts 1:8; Acts 15:14.

Verse 17

1) "And he beheld them, and said," (ho de emblepsas autois eipen) "Then he, while looking at them, said," as He fixed His eyes upon them, to watch their reaction as He quoted a prophecy from the Scriptures which they claimed to believe, but did not comprehend being of the flesh, unregenerate, 1 Corinthians 2:9; John 5:39-40.

2) "What is this then that is written," (ti oun estin to gegramenon touto) "What then is this that has been written," or what do you all think is the meaning of it? Would you mind giving me your judgment? Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:10.

3) "The stone which the builders rejected," (lithon hon apedokimasan hoi oikodomountes) "The stone which the builders rejected," or cast aside, without any manipulation, Daniel 2:34-35; Psalms 118:22-23. The multitudes had quoted from this Psalm on the previous day, Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:10. It was the same Psalm from which the Hosanna of the multitude was taken.

4) "The same Is become the head of the corner," or head of the corner, Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:10. It refers both to the foundation-stone and a stone at the angle of the building to hold the joining walls securely, 1 Peter 2:7-8.

Verse 18

1) "Whosoever shall fall upon that stone shall be broken;" (pas ho peson ep’ ekeinon ton lithon sunthlasthesetai) "Everyone who falls upon that stone will be broken in pieces," or crushed together, Matthew 21:44; to be used as a lively stone in my house, my new covenant house, 1 Timothy 3:15; Hebrews 3:3-6; Ephesians 2:19-22.

2) "But on whomsoever It shall fall," (eph’ hon d’ an pese) "Yet upon whomever it falls," Isaiah 8:15; Matthew 21:44; it falls in judgment, of those who resent and reject it (or Him) that Stone or Rock which is Christ, Acts 4:11-12; 1 Corinthians 10:4.

3) "It will grind him to powder." (Iikmesei auton) "It will crush him to powder," or winnow him, Jeremiah 31:10; Matthew 21:44; in excusable judgment retribution, Romans 2:1; Romans 2:4-5; Acts 17:30-31; Daniel 2:34-35.

When the chief priests and Pharisees had heard the entire parable they were convinced He had spoken it concerning them and they sought the more to kill Him, Matthew 21:45-46; Mark 12:12.

Verse 19

JESUS QUESTIONED REGARDING TRIBUTE V. 19-26

1) "And the chief priests and the scribes," (kai hoi grammateis kai hoi archiereia) "And the administrative priests and the scribes," court clerks and keepers of the archives, with malice and fury toward Him, because of the parable He had just spoken.

2) "The same hour sought to lay hands on him;" (ezetesai epibalein ep’ auton tas cheiras en aute te hora) "Sought (opportunity) to lay their hands upon Him, from that hour," bargaining, conniving, and seeking an "hit-man," someone who could "put Him away," without causing a tumultuous riot or uproar, John 7:30.

3) "And they feared the people:" (kai ephobethesan ton laon) "And (yet) they feared the people," and hated Him "without a cause," as aforetold Psalms 35:19; Psalms 69:4; John 15:25.

4) "For they perceived," (egnosan gar) "For they realized," or understood that Jesus knew their hearts and motives in what they had done and were then determined to do to Him, John 2:24-25.

5) "That he had spoken this parable against them." (hoti pros autous eipen ten parabolen tauten) "That he spoke the parable directly at them," concerning their greed and graft and violence and murder-bent hearts.

Verse 20

1) "And they watched him," (kai parateresantes) "And as they watched (him) carefully," cautiously, like a lion or leopard stalking his prey, like a hawk watching a chicken, like a wolf watching a sheep, for the moment of the kill, even as Satan stays on the prowl, 1 Peter 5:8.

2) "And sent forth spies which should feign themselves just men," (apesteilan egkathetous hupkrinomenous heatuous dikaious einai) "They dispatched spies who pretended themselves to be righteous;" The spies, plain-clothes men, were hired "hit men," put on His trail, Psalms 55:22; Proverbs 27:6. They had the nature of the old deceiver himself. They worked like termites to "worm their way" into the presence of Jesus, pretending to be good men, of good intentions, 2 Corinthians 11:13-15; 2 Peter 2:1-3; 2 Peter 2:18-19; Judges 1:4; Judges 1:10-16. These were Herodian spies trained in arts of deceit, Matthew 22:15-16; Mark 12:13.

3) "That they might take hold of his words," (hina eiplabontai autou logou) "In order that they might just seize a word of his," just any word possible, that they might twist, turn, or pervert it, as a basis of bringing some kind of criminal charge against him.

4) "That so they might deliver him," (hoste paradounai auton) "So that they might be able to deliver him for arrest," with indictable charges and witnesses to the charges they were to bring against Him. These are the collusive plans of the chief priests and the scribes to terminate the life of Jesus, Luke 20:19.

5) "Unto the power and authority of the governor." (te arche kai te eksousia tou hegemonos) "To the rule and the administrative authority of the governor," the civil Roman rulers, who had the authority to administer the death penalty, under Pilate. Therefore their question that follows is one of political nature.

Verse 21

1) "And they asked him, saying," (kai eperotesan auton legontes) "And they questioned him, repeatedly saying;" These are the "spies" the hired witnesses, the suborned entrapment employees, who were sent by the chief priests and scribes to confront Jesus with feigned piety, as carefully planned, Luke 20:19-20.

2) "Master, we know that thou sayest and teachest rightly," (didaskale, oidamen hoti orthos legeis kai didaskeis) "Teacher, we know that you teach and speak rightly," in an orthodox manner. Note the deceitful flattery of feigned admiration they used to approach Him. If they believed it, why did they not follow His right teaching? Psalms 78:36; Proverbs 20:20; Proverbs 26:28; Proverbs 29:5.

3) "Neither acceptest thou the person of any," (kai ou lambaneis prosopon) "And you do not regard a person’s face," you do not compromise your convictions, but say what you think is right. Then why did they not perceive that He knew their ulterior motives in an intended entrapment encounter? Did He not know their person, even the thin flattery they then spoke, John 2:24-25.

4) "But teachest the way of God truly:" (air ep’ aletheias ten hodon tou theou didaskeis) "But on the basis of truth you teach the way of God," Matthew 22:26; Mark 12:14. You tell the word of truth like it is, and He did. If they were all this knowledgeable, then why did they not receive Him? Truly "the wisdom of this world is foolishness (moronic) with (in comparison with) God," 1 Corinthians 3:19. For truly he "taketh (seizes) the wise in their own craftiness," as He is about to do in this encounter that follows.

Verse 22

1) "Is It lawful," (eksestin) "Is it legal," in harmony with the law, referring to the law of the Lord, expressed then, in the Law of Moses, Matthew 22:17; Deuteronomy 18:15.

2) "For us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?" (hemas kaisari phoron dounai he ou’) "For us to give (dole out) tribute to Caesar or not?" Mark 12:14. The poll tax was an issue among the Jews and had formerly caused an insurrection and violence led by Theudas and Judas of Galilee, with whom they sought to get Jesus to identify Himself, Acts 5:36-37; Luke 13:1-2.

Verse 23

1) "But he perceived their craftiness," (katanoesas de auton ten panoutgian) "Then he perceived their cleverness," their wickedness, their hypocritical motives of approach, and what they thought was a "loaded" question for Him to answer, Matthew 22:18; Mark 12:15.

2) "And said unto them, Why tempt ye me?" (elpen pros autos) "He said directly to them," by calling for an object for a teaching lesson, to teach them "a thing or two." He had paid tribute, and they likely new it, Matthew 17:24-27; Matthew 22:18; Mark 12:15.

Verse 24

1) "Shew me a penny." (deksate moi denatian) "Show me a denarius (penny)," a Roman penny, a denarius, the kind that is used in paying tribute to Caesar, Matthew 18:28; Matthew 22:19; Mark 12:15.

2) "Whose image and superscription hath it?" (tinos echi eikona kai epigraphen) "Whose image and superscription does it have on it?" Matthew 22:20; Mark 12:16.

3) "They answered and said, Caesar’s." (hoi de eipen kaisaros) "Then they replied, Caesar’s," Tiberias Caesar, Matthew 22:21; Mark 12:16. He was said to be talented, cruel, licentious, brutal to his wife and mother, and poisoned his nephews, finally meeting death himself by assassination in AD 37, at the age of 79.

Verse 25

1) "And he said unto them," (ho de eipen pros autous) "Then he said directly to them," to these Pharisee disciples and hired Herodian entrapment employees, Matthew 22:15-16; Mark 12:13. Recall these had been enlisted and sent to Jesus by the administrative priests and the scribes, law clerks, keepers of the archives of Jewish law, Luke 20:19-20.

2) "Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar’s," (toinun apodote ta Kaisatos Kaisari) "You all now and hereafter render to Caesar the things of Caesar," those things that are or exist as his, by right of civil service and protection he is rendering to you, Matthew 22:21; Mark 12:17; as also set forth by Paul, Romans 13:7.

3) "And unto God the things which be God’s." (kai ta tou theou to theo) "And the things of God (render) dole out to God," in worship and Divine order of service, Matthew 22:21; Mark 12:17; 1 Peter 2:13; 1 Peter 2:17.

This statement of Jesus sanctions the Divine order of civil government, Ecclesiastes 10:20; Acts 23:5; Romans 13:1; 1 Peter 2:17; 2 Peter 2:10.

Verse 26

1) "And they could not take hold of his words," (kai ouk eschusan epilabesthai autou hremato) "And they were not able to seize a statement," at all. And they simply were dumbfounded, marvelled, backed off, and walked away, Matthew 22:22.

2) "Before the people:" (enantion tou laou) "in the presence or before the people," themselves humiliated.

3) "And they marvelled at his answer," (kai thaumasantes epi te apokrisei autou) "And they marvelled (were astounded) at his answer," could not open their mouth to oppose what He had said, and were too bitter to commend it. His speech was seasoned with salt, preserving power, Colossians 4:6.

4) "And hold their peace." (esigesan) "And they were silent," simply would not open their mouths, in amazement, Mark 12:17.

Verse 27

JESUS ANSWERS SADDUCEES ABOUT THE RESURRECTION

V. 27-38

1) "Then came to him certain of the Sadducees," (proselthontes de tines ton Saddoukalon) "Then some of the Sadducees came to him," Matthew 16:6; Matthew 16:12; Acts 4:1-2; Acts 4:5; Acts 4:17. The wealthier aristocratic, and liberal religious order of the Jews, who composed the higher order of the priests, leading enemies of Jesus Christ, Matthew 22:23; Mark 12:18.

2) "Which deny that there is any resurrection;" (hoi antilegontes anastasin me linai) "The ones who openly contended that there was no resurrection," Matthew 3:7; Matthew 22:23; Mark 12:18. They also denied the existence of angels and spirits, Acts 23:6; Acts 23:8.

3) "And they asked him," (eperotesan auton) "They questioned him," with skepticism, Matthew 22:23; Mark 12:18.

Verse 28

1) "Saying, Master, Moses wrote unto us," (legontes didaskale Mouses egrapsen hemin) "Saying, Teacher, Moses wrote to us," as recounted Genesis 38:8; Deuteronomy 25:5-6; Mark 12:19.

2) "If any man’s brother die, having a wife," (ean tinos adelphos apothane echon gunaika) "if anyone has a brother and die, having a wife," Matthew 22:24; Mark 12:19.

3) "And he die without children," (kai houtos ateknos he) "And this man is (exists) childless," when he dies, Matthew 22:24; Mark 12:19.

4) "That his brother should take his wife," (hina I abe ho adelphos autou ten gunaika) "That his living brother should take the widow to wife," in marriage, Matthew 22:24; Mark 12:19.

5) "And raise up seed unto his brother." (kai eksanastese sperma to adeipuo autou) "And he should raise up seed to his brother," to the honor of his brother’s name, Matthew 22:24; Mark 12:19.

Verse 29

1) "There were therefore seven brethren" (hepta oun adelphoi esan) "Therefore there were seven brothers," evidently an hypothetical, supposed, or fictitious case, invented by the Sadducees to try to entrap Jesus, Matthew 22:25; Mark 12:20. Matthew quotes them as claiming there were "with us," as if it were a real case.

2) "And the first took a wife," (kai ho protos labon gunaika) "And the first (of the seven) when he had taken, a wife," Matthew 22:25; Mark 12:20.

3) "And died without children." (apethanen ateknos) "He died childless," Matthew 22:25; Mark 12:20.

Verse 30

1) "And the second took her to wife," (kai ho deuteros) "And the second," Matthew 22:26; Mark 12:21, in harmony with the law of Moses, Genesis 38:8; Deuteronomy 25:6.

2) "And he died childless." (kai houtos apethanen atekos) "And this one too died, not having a child, as certified Mark 12:21.

Verse 31

1) "And the third took her," (kai ho tritos elaben auten) "And the third took her," to wife, to bear children, but she bare no child, Matthew 22:26; Mark 12:21.

2) "And in like manner the seven also:" (hosatos de kai hoi hepta) "Then the seven also took her similarly," in marriage, one by one, Matthew 22:26; Mark 12:22.

3) "And they left no children, and died." (ou katelipon tekna kai aprthanon) "And they all died and left no children," by her at all, from the first to the last of the seven brothers, Matthew 22:25; Mark 12:22.

Verse 32

1) "Last of all," (husteron kai) "And at last," last of all, or as a conclusion to the fictitious case, Matthew 22:27; Mark 12:22.

2) "The woman died also." (he gune apothanen) "The childless woman died," Matthew 22:27; Mark 12:22.

Verse 33

1) "Therefore in the resurrection whose wife of them is she?" (he guna oun en te anastasei tinos auton ginetai gunes) "Therefore in the resurrection time, to which one of them does she become a wife?" Matthew 22:28; Mark 12:23. You see they denied the existence of a resurrection and considered that they had Jesus inescapably entrapped.

2) "For seven had her to wife." (hoi gar hepa eschon auten gunaika) "For each of the seven once had her to himself as a wife." Matthew 22:28; Mark 12:23. They had draw their conclusion on a fictitious self-manufactured case, that contained a false premise, which Jesus pointed up immediately, to their embarrassment, to show that the wisdom of this world is foolishness in comparison with the wisdom of God, 1 Corinthians 3:19. This story illustrates the hardness of hearts that reject the need of regeneration and refuse to accept the Word of God as final in all eternal matters.

Verse 34

1) "And Jesus answering said unto them," (kai eipen autois ho lesous) "And Jesus replying said to them," directly to teach them a. lesson that would expose their hypocrisy, since they denied the existence of a resurrection anyway, Matthew 22:29; Acts 23:8.

2) "The children of this world marry," (hoi huioi tou aionious toutou gamousin) "The heir-sons of this age marry," in the present world order or arrangement, for purpose of companionship and reproduction, Genesis 1:28. "Forbidding to marry," or living together without marriage is a mark of anarchy against God, 1 Timothy 4:3; John 4:16-18.

3) "And are given In marriage:" (kai gamiskontai) "And they are given in marriage," by their parents, Genesis 24:51; Genesis 29:19; Genesis 29:23-24; Genesis 29:28.

Verse 35

1) "But they which shall be accounted worthy," (hoi de kataksiothentes) "However the ones who are calculated or counted to be worthy," you all err, being ignorant of the Scriptures, concerning the redeemed hereafter, Matthew 22:29; Mark 12:24.

2) "To obtain that world," (tou aionos ekeionu tuchein) "To obtain of that age to come," those who are saved and shall be in the world to come, Mark 12:24; Matthew 22:29. The one of the just, at the first resurrection, the "resurrection of the just," Luke 14:14; Job 19:25.

3) "And the resurrection from the dead," (kai tes anastaseos tes ek nekron) "Even the resurrection out of or from among the dead corpses," out of the tombs, to which all shall come, John 5:28-29; Matthew 22:30; Mark 12:25; Philippians 3:11; Acts 24:15. The inference is that some of the dead (the wicked) will not be raised at that time as these are raised "from among the dead."

4) "Neither marry nor are given in marriage:" (oute gamousin oute gamizontai) "They neither marry nor are they given in marriage," in a marriage state or condition, in that age; Matthew 22:30; Mark 12:25. This refers to the first resurrection, that of the just, 1 Corinthians 15:22; Luke 14:14; Job 19:25; 1 Corinthians 15:22.

Verse 36

1) "Neither can they die any more:" (oude gar apothanein eti dunantai) "For they are not able to die any more," Hebrews 9:27, after that resurrection of the body of the just, after they receive a glorified body, like that of Jesus, Ephesians 1:13-14; Romans 8:11; Romans 8:23; Philippians 3:20-21; 1 John 3:2.

2) "For they are equal unto the angels;" (isangeloi gar eisin) "For they are (or exist) at that time, equal to angels," as immortal or none-dying beings, and having no sex-needs; Thereafter they exist as a-sexual beings, Matthew 22:30; Mark 12:25. So their argument was turned not only to affirm that there would be a resurrection but also there would be angels which they denied, Acts 23:8.

3) "And are the children of God," (kai huioi eisin theou) "And they are heir-sons of God," Romans 8:17, in resurrection bodies, like Him , 1 John 3:2. Thus men shall be equal to angels in duration of existence, wisdom, knowledge, power, glory, honor, and moral excellencies.

4) "Being the children of the resurrection." (tes anastaseos huioi ontes) "Being (existing as) heirs of the resurrection," for which all children of God now await, Romans 8:23; Ephesians 1:14; Philippians 3:11; Philippians 3:20-21. But the resurrection of the wicked will also come, some one thousand years after the completion of the first resurrection; It is the resurrection to damnation, of the wicked, to "shame and contempt," Daniel 12:2; John 5:29; Revelation 20:5 declares "the rest of the dead", those who were not in the first resurrection, "lived not again until the thousand years were finished;" Then a definitive account of their resurrection and final judgment, called the Great White Throne Judgment is given, Revelation 20:11-15.

Verse 37

1) "Now that the dead are raised," (hoti de egeirontai hoi nekroi) "That the dead are then raised up," or touching on the matter of the resurrection, about which you all make inquiry, Matthew 22:31; Mark 12:26.

2) "Even Moses shewed at the bush," (kai Mouses emenusen epi tes batou) "Even Moses pointed out (specifically showed) at t-he burning bush;" Have you not read it? Exodus 3:6; Mark 12:26. Jesus did not appeal to the prophets on the matter of the resurrection because the Sadducees recognized only the Pentateuch as authentic or authoritative.

3) "When he calleth the Lord," (hos legei kurion) "As he calls and called (the) Lord," as He did, Mark 12:26; of whom the prophets also spoke, and affirmed the resurrection of both the righteous and the wicked, Job 19:25; Isaiah 26:19; Daniel 12:2; Daniel 12:13.

4) "The God of:" (ton theon) "The God of, "the living God of Matthew 22:32; Mark 12:26, alluding to the resurrection.

a) "Abraham,"(Abraam) "Of Abraham," called father of the faithful, Genesis 12:1-3; Romans 4:1-16.

b) "And the God of Isaac," (kai theon Isaak) "And the God (living) God of Isaac," Matthew 22:32, heir son of Abraham, Genesis 17:15-19; Genesis 21:1-5.

c) "And the God of Jacob." (kai theon lakob) "And the (living) God of Jacob," Matthew 22:32, father of twelve sons, who became heads of the twelve tribes of Israel, Genesis 49:1-33.

Verse 38

1) "For he is not a God of the dead," (theos de ouk estin nekron) "Then He is (exists) not as God of dead corpses, " Matthew 22:32 b; Mark 12:27; Psalms 16:5-11; Psalms 73:23-28; Psalms 145:1-2; John 11:25; Romans 4:17; Colossians 3:3-4; Hebrews 11:16.

2) "But of the living:" (alla zonton) "But as the God of the living ones," who live and consciously exist after death, capable of conversation, as Abraham was, Luke 16:25; and as Elijah and Moses did, Matthew 22:32; Mark 12:27; None will be annihilated in death, Hebrews 9:27.

3) "For all live unto him." (pantes gar auto zosin) "For all live to him," all His children who have eternal life, John 5:24; John 10:27, to stand before and give account to Him, and to give honor and glory to Him, not to become extinct, be annihilated, or go out of existence one day. You all therefore err, drawing false conclusions based on your false premises, that you fictitiously invented, Mark 12:27; Romans 6:10-11; Romans 14:7-9; 2 Corinthians 6:16; 2 Corinthians 13:4; Colossians 3:3-4.

Verse 39

JESUS QUESTIONS THE SCRIBES V. 39-47

1) "Then certain scribes answering said," (apoktithentes de tines ton grammateon eipan) "Then some of the scribes (keepers of the archives) replying, affirmed;" The scribes were of the Pharisees; as such they believed in the resurrection, Acts 23:8. They rejoiced at our Lord’s soundly putting the Sadducees to dumb-silence on the resurrection question.

2) "Master, thou hast well said." (didaskale kalos eipas) "Teacher, you said it well," you reasoned very astutely in silencing those Sadducees, who deny the resurrection, Luke 20:27; Acts 23:6; Acts 23:8.

Verse 40

1) "And after that," (ouketi gar) "For (after that) no more at all," after Jesus put the Sadducees to silence, Matthew 22:34.

2) "They durst not ask him any question at all." (etolmon eperotan auton euden) "No one dared ask him an (entrapment) question at all;" especially any of, those Sadducee liberals, who were egotists Matthew 5:20; Romans 10:2-3; Once again it was evident that the "wisdom of this world is foolishness," or moronic, in comparison with the wisdom of God, 1 Corinthians 3:19; 1 Corinthians 1:18-25.

Verse 41

1) "And he said unto them," (eipen de pros autous) "Then he said directly, personally to them," to the scribes of the Pharisees who had commended Him for His reply to the Sadducees on the question of the resurrection, Matthew 22:34; Matthew 22:41.

2) "How say they that Christ is David’s son?" (pos legousin ton Christon einai David hulon) "Just how do they of the Pharisees explain the Christ to be David’s heir-son?" Matthew 22:42; Matthew 22:45; Mark 12:34, or David’s son only, Romans 1:3-4; John 7:42.

Jesus then proceeded to assert His Divine Messiahship by reasoning that if Christ was David’s Lord, He must also be theirs, if only they would receive Him, John 1:11-12; Matthew 23:37. Jesus was David’s son by human nature, and Lord by Divine nature of begettal of the Holy Spirit, Matthew 1:18-25; Galatians 4:4-5; John 1:14.

Verse 42

1) "And David himself saith in the book of Psalms," (autos gar David legei en biblo Psalmon) "For David himself says (asserts) in the book of Psalms," does he not, Psalms 110:1; Acts 2:34.

2) "The Lord said unto my Lord," (eipen kurios to kurio mou) "The Lord said to my Lord," or Jehovah said to my Lord, to my "adonai" Mark 12:35-36.

3) "Sit thou on my right hand," (kathou ek deksion mou) "You sit out from my right," at my right side, Matthew 22:43-44. That is where He is now seated, Mark 14:62; Mark 16:19; Luke 22:69; Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 1:13; Hebrews 8:1; Hebrews 12:2; Romans 8:34; Ephesians 1:20; Colossians 3:1.

Verse 43

1) "Till I make thine enemies," (heos an though tous echthrous sou) "Until I put, place, or fix your enemies," Matthew 22:44, Under total and final subjection and judgment.

2) "Thy footstool." (hupopodion ton podon sou) "As a footstool of your feet," for your feet to rest upon, to conquer, Mark 12:36. The ultimate fulfillment of this prophecy is further described, 1 Corinthians 15:24-28.

Verse 44

1) "David therefore calleth him Lord," (David oun auton kurion kale!) "Therefore David (it is evident) calls him Lord," Matthew 22:45; Mark 12:37. He was his Lord, though to be his own son also, in the flesh, by promise, 2 Samuel 7:12-17; Luke 1:30-33.

2) "How is he then his son?" (kai pos wutou huios estin) "And just how is he then his heir-son?" What is your explanation, Matthew 22:45; Mark 12:37. Then Mark 12:37 concludes, "and the common people heard him (Jesus) gladly," or gave heed to Him, resulting in gladness of their hearts, Acts 2:24; Acts 13:22-23; Romans 1:3; Romans 9:5. Jesus was the Son of David according to the flesh or flesh-lineage, yet the pre-existing, eternal Son of God.

Verse 45

1) "Then In the audience of all the people," (akouontos de pantos tou laou) "Then as all the people heard (gave heed) listened attentively or intently," 1 Timothy 5:20, heard, gave heed to Him, and Matthew adds that from that day forth no man being able to answer Him (among the scribes and Pharisees) dared ask Him any more questions, Matthew 22:45; Mark 12:37.

2) "He said unto his disciples," (eipen tois mathetais) "He said to the disciples," very plainly, kindly, lovingly, with words of caution, Matthew 23:1-3; Mark 12:38; He spoke to them as His chosen and called church body, His flock, John 15:16-17; Matthew 16:18; John 20:21; Matthew 8:18-20.

Verse 46

1) "Beware of the scribes," (prosechete apo ton grammateon) "You all beware of (stay aloof from) the scribes," the carnal pursuits of the scribes, the deceit and hypocrisy of the scribes, Matthew 23:2-3; Mark 12:38; He so frequently used those words of caution, "beware," or be very careful.

2) "Which desire to walk In long robes," (ton thelonton peripatein en stolais) "Whose priority will (is) to continually walk around (parade about) in stoles, long attractive, attention-grabbing robes;" There was no wrong in the robes, but in their motives of making a show in them, Mark 12:38; Matthew 23:5. These were official dress described in the law, but garb they had exaggerated for outward show, Numbers 15:38-40.

3) "And love greetings in the markets," (kai philonton aspasmous en tais agorias) "And who love (just drool for) greetings of honor in the public market places," just any gesture of admiration, Matthew 23:7; Mark 12:38; Luke 11:43.

4) "And the highest seats in the synagogues," (kai prostokathedrias en tais sunagogais) "And the first rank (priority honor) seats in the synagogues, the most conspicuous ones, Matthew 23:6; Mark 12:39.

5) "And the chief rooms at feasts;" (kai protoklislas en tois deipnois) "And the first rank (very best) couches in the suppers," on festive occasions, as lovers of show and power, Matthew 12:6; Mark 12:39; 1 John 2:15-17.

Verse 47

1) "Which devour widow’s houses," (hoi katesthiousin tas oikias ton cheron) "Who devour (greedily consume) get title deeds to the residences of the widows, as a greedy enterprise, Mark 12:40; Matthew 23:4; Luke 12:15; 2 Timothy 3:6; Titus 1:11; Isaiah 10:2; Matthew 23:14. Josephus reveals that the Pharisees had large female followings and an absolute sway in the Gynaekonitis, or in women’s apartments.

2) "And for a shew make long prayers:" (kai prophasei makra proseuchontoi) "And under a cloak of pretence they unravel a long prayer," for ulterior, deceitful purposes, Mark 12:40. It appears that they went to homes of widows and offered long, emotional, pious prayers to lead them to turn property title deeds, and possessions, into their covetous, thieving hands, 1 Timothy 6:9-11; 1 Thessalonians 2:5. They had 26 forms of prayers of oblation.

3) "The same shall receive greater damnation."

(houtoi lumpsontai perissoteron krima) "These/ pretentious religious deceivers and property: absconders will receive severer judgment," Matthew 11:22; Matthew 11:24; Matthew 10:10-16; Matthew 12:47-48, than the less hypocritical sinner, Mark 12:40; even greater than those of Tyre and Sidon and Sodom and Gomorrha, Luke 10:12-14; Matthew 12:33.

Six marks of a scribe were: (Their love for)

1. Attractive, flashy clothes.

2. Salutations in the market places.

3. Chief seats in the Synagogues.

4. Upper, or raised (platform seats) at the feasts.

5. To devour widow’s houses --- with greed.

6. Long prayers of pretence of piety.

Because of these unchrist-like traits in the scribes, our Lord warned His disciples, "Beware," Luke 20:46. Such traits are still to be abhorred by His followers today.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Luke 20". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/luke-20.html. 1985.
 
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