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Luke 20:1-8 . The Question of Authority ( Mark 11:27-33 *, Matthew 21:23-27 *).— The only additional point to notice in Lk. is that Jesus was not only teaching but “ preaching the Gospel,” proclaiming the good news of the Kingdom.
Luke 20:9-19 . The Parable of the Vineyard ( Mark 12:1-12 *. Matthew 21:33-46 *).— Lk. omits the details of the preparation of the vineyard, and he confines the fate of death to the “ beloved son.” He alone gives the exclamation of the hearers “ God forbid” ( Luke 20:16), a protest against the idea that Israel should be overthrown and dispossessed. This is very different from Mt., who makes the hearers pass judgment on them-
Luke 20:20-26 . The Question of Tribute ( Mark 12:13-17 *, Matthew 22:15-22 *).— The authorities send spies who pretend to be honest inquirers, pious observers of the Law, with a really conscientious scruple.
Luke 20:21 . thou sayest and teachest rightly, i.e. straightforwardly.
Luke 20:27-40 . The Question of the Resurrection Life ( Mark 12:18-27 *, Matthew 22:23-33 *).— The first peculiarity in Lk.’ s account is Luke 20:34-35 a, the contrast between people in this world and those deemed worthy to attain the other world and the resurrection (which, as in Luke 14:14, seems limited to the righteous). In Luke 20:36 there is a further addition; in the other world men and women do not die, hence they need not (and so do not) marry. They are “ sons of the resurrection,” i.e. have the characteristics of the risen and endless life. With Luke 20:37 f., especially “ all live unto Him,” cf. 4Ma_7:18 f.—“ as many as make righteousness their first thought are able to master the weakness of the flesh, believing that unto God they die not, as our patriarchs, A. and I. and J. died not, but that they live unto God.” Similarly 4Ma_16:25 , of the seven brother martyrs, who knew that “ men dying for God live unto God, as Uve A. and I. and J., and all the Patriarchs.” The meaning seems to be that the pious dead, even before the Judgment, when the world regards them as dead, live with God in true bliss. Luke 20:39 is in Lk. only. With Luke 20:40 cf. Mark 12:34, Matthew 22:46, also Luke 14:6. Lk. has already ( Luke 10:25-28) dealt with the question of the greatest commandment which Mk. and Mt. insert here.
Luke 20:41-44 . Is Messiah David’ s Son? ( Mark 12:35-37 *, Matthew 22:41-46 *).— Lk.’ s version is the shortest of the three. It is not thoroughly clear that Jesus implies that Messiah is not descended from David (note His acceptance of the title “ Son of David,” Luke 18:38). He may have meant simply that the common opinion of the Scribes needed explanation. Spitta connects Luke 20:41 with Luke 20:36, and finds in the difficulty about David and the Messiah a parallel to the difficulty about the wife in the Resurrection. The solution is that in descent Messiah is David’ s son, but in the coming age (“ that world” ), where physical relationships are abrogated, the Messiah will be David’ s Lord.
Luke 20:45-47 . Condemnation of Scribes.— Almost identical with Mark 12:38-40 *; much expanded in Matthew 23*.
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Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on Luke 20". "Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/
the Fifth Week after Easter