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Bible Commentaries

Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Luke 24

Verse 1

Luke 24:1 . Τίνες , some ) viz. other women, who had not come from Galilee.

Verse 2

Luke 24:2 . Τὸν λίθον , the stone ) Luke mentioned nothing previously as to the stone; but takes for granted in the narrative itself that the stone had been rolled to the mouth of the sepulchre. (Comp. Joh 11:38 )

Verse 4

Luke 24:4 . Ἄνδρες , men ) viz. angels. See Luke 24:23 . Comp. Matthew 28:5 . [268]

[268] Where mention is made only of one angel, viz. the angel who spoke E. and T.

Verse 5

Luke 24:5 . Τὸν ζῶντα ) Him, who not merely has returned to life, but is altogether the living One . [The truth of the resurrection is most surely established. V. g.] μετὰ τῶν νεκρῶν , with [‘among’] the dead ) in the state and position (condition) of the dead.

Verse 7

Luke 24:7 . Τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου , the Son of man ) This is repeated from the discourses which were delivered by the Lord before His passion. But the Lord Himself did not give Himself the appellation, Son of man , after His resurrection, but either spake in the first person, or else employed the express appellation, Christ . ἁμαρτωλῶν , of sinful men ) viz. the Gentiles.

Verse 10

Luke 24:10 . ἦν αἱ ) So [a Plural nominative follows after a Singular verb and nominative, the verb Plural being supplied from the Singular verb] Deuteronomy 27:9 , καὶ ἐλάλησε Μωϋσῆς καὶ οἱ ἱερεῖς λέγοντες . So 1 Corinthians 9:6 . [269] The names are given in this place in particular, as being those of the witnesses to the fact, and not sooner.

[269] μὴ οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν ὡς οἱ λοιποὶ ἀπόστολοι , viz. ἔχουσιν ; However B e read ἦσαν δὲ , and so Lachm. and Tisch. AD omit the words. Inferior Uncial MSS. and the best Versions ab Vulg. Memph. Theb. read ἦν δὲ . E. and T.

Verse 12

Luke 24:12 . Ἀπῆλθε πρὸς ἑαυτὸν , departed to his own home [270] ) As to the matter of fact, comp. Luke 24:34 ; as to the phrase, comp. the note on John 20:10 [ ἀπῆλθον πρὸς αὐτοὺς οἱ μαθηταὶ , “the disciples departed to their own homes ”].

[270] As the French chez lui. But D ab Euseb. Can. omit Luke 24:12 , which may have come from John 20:4-6 : Tisch. omits it. However AB c Vulg;. Memph. Theb. retain the verse. B omits κείμενα , and A and Vulg. MS. Amiat. omit. μονα . Lachm. brackets the verse. Vulg. and Engl. Vers. connect πρὸς ἑαυτὸν not with ἀπῆλθε , but with θαυμάζων , wondering in (with) himself . E. and T.

Verse 16

Luke 24:16 . Ἐκρατοῦντο , were holden ) The antithesis is in Luke 24:31 , διηνοίχθησαν , their eyes were opened .

Verse 17

Luke 24:17 . Εἶπε , He said ) It is the part of wisdom, to pass with ease into profitable conversation. John 4:7-8 [Jesus taking occasion from the well, and His request to the woman of Samaria for a drink, to pass to the subject of the living water]; Acts 8:30 [Philip and the Eunuch reading Isaiah].

Verse 18

Luke 24:18 . Ὁ εἷς , the one ) The name of the other of the two is not given; who notwithstanding was also dear to the Lord. So too John 1:35 ; John 1:40 [where “two disciples” are mentioned, of whom Andrew alone is named]. The godly are mentioned not for their own sake, but for the sake of others. [Long ago Orige [271] indeed considered Peter to be the companion of Cleopas who was meant (L. contra Celsum, p. 105); but in that case either Peter would have spoken, or at least Cleopas would have more distinctly appealed to Peter’s report of what he had seen at the sepulchre in ch. Luke 24:24 . There is to be added the fact, that both of these disciples are expressly distinguished from “the Eleven” in Luke 24:33 . Harduin suspects that Cephas, Galatians 2:9 ; 1 Corinthians 1:2 ; 1 Corinthians 1:9 ; 1 Corinthians 1:15 , was a disciple distinct from Peter; and from the passage, 1 Corinthians 15:5 , that he was the companion of Cleopas, Op. sel ., p. 928. But from 1 Corinthians 15:9 , it is not obscurely evident that Paul speaks of Kephas as an apostle. One may more reasonably raise the question, whether the Simon to whom the Lord appeared was not a disciple distinct, as well from the companion of Cleopas, as also from Peter or, as he is otherwise named, Kephas, inasmuch as the appearance of our Lord was vouchsafed to the latter before that Peter returned to the rest from the walk mentioned in ch. Luke 24:12 . Whichever of these views be correct, at least it is certain that the Saviour appeared to the women first; then to some of the disciples not distinguished with the dignity of apostles; in fine, to Simon Peter, who even most of all stood in need of this grace, and to the rest of the apostles, who as well as Peter ought to have conceived faith sooner than all the rest, and that too a faith of a more elevated character. Harm ., p. 603.] παροικεῖς , art Thou only a new-comer [‘stranger’]) Jesus here seems to have retained the dialect of Galilee, inasmuch as Cleopas does not take Him to be a citizen of Jerusalem.

[271] rigen (born about 186 A.D., died 253 A.D., a Greek father: two-thirds of the N. Test. are quoted in his writings). Ed. Vinc. Delarue, Paris. 1733, 1740, 1759.

Verse 19

Luke 24:19 . Τὰ περὶ ) The things concerning Jesus. This clause, after the description of the Subject (Jesus) has been interposed, is explained in detail in Luke 24:20 : with which comp. Luke 24:14 ; Luk 24:18 at the end.

Verse 21

Luke 24:21 . Σὺν πᾶσι τούτοις , besides all these things ) Hebr. עם כל זה . τρίτην , third) Therefore alter the death of Jesus they seem to have entertained some hope on the first and second day, which however they lay aside on that very day on which the hope is fulfilled. ἄγει ) used impersonally.

Verse 24

Luke 24:24 . [ Εἶπον , had said ) viz. that the body was not in the sepulchre. V. g.] αὐτὸν ) Himself .

Verse 25

Luke 24:25 . Ἀνόητοι , fools ) [void of mind]. In proportion as faith is the slower or the speedier in being entertained, the worse or the better is the νοῦς (from which comes ἀνόητοι ) or mind, Galatians 3:1 [O foolish Galatians]; John 1:49 [Nathanael’s quick confession, “Thou art the Son of God, Thou art the King of Israel”]. [A salutary reproof. V. g.] [ βραδεῖς , slow ) We ought to be quick in believing, where we have sufficient warrant of any word of GOD. V. g.] ἐπὶ , on the authority of [ respecting ]) The words of the prophets are open to you, and yet ye do not believe. Almost in the same way διὰ is used in John 4:41-42 [“Many more believed because of His own word ( διὰ τὸν λόγον αὐτοῦ ); not because of ( διὰ ) thy saving”].

Verse 26

Luke 24:26 . Ταῦτα , these things ) The very things which ye take up as causes to create doubt, are characteristic marks of the Christ. ἔδει , ought ) because it was so foretold. παθεῖν , to suffer ) It is respecting this point of faith that the slowness of belief on the part of men most especially exhibits itself. See Matthew 16:22 [Peter, after his noble confession of Christ’s divinity, on hearing of His cross, saith, “Be it far from Thee, Lord,” etc.]. [ τὸν Χριστὸν , the Christ ) the Redeemer of Israel, Luke 24:21 . V. g.] εἰσελθεῖν , to enter ) which could not have been accomplished in any other way.

Verse 27

Luke 24:27 . Τὰ περὶ ἑαυτοῦ , the things concerning Himself ) namely, the things which had been written. There is no doubt but that the passages alluded to were the same as those which the apostles subsequently were wont especially to quote.

Verse 28

Luke 24:28 . Προσεποιεῖτο ) He made (acted) as though He was about to go farther; and He had been about to go farther, had not they besought Him, and perhaps had been about to appear to them in another way.

Verse 29

Luke 24:29 . Μεῖνον , abide ) They were beseeching Him, from love for His own sake, and from hospitality, that He should not venture to proceed on His journey by night.

Verse 30

Luke 24:30 . Λαβὼν , having taken ) according to His wonted mode.

Verse 31

Luke 24:31 . Ἄφαντος ἐγένετο ) He vanished out of their sight. This too showed that it was He. The former appearances of Jesus after His resurrection were of shorter continuance, in order that the move room (scope) might be left for faith.

Verse 32

Luke 24:32 . Καιομένη , burning ) much and for long. [A most blessed sensation! V. g.] ἦν , was ) They observed the fact more afterwards than during the actual continuance of the burning sensation. ἐλάλει ἡμῖν ) He spake to us . This means more than with us [which is however the Engl. rendering]. [ διήνοιγεν , He opened ) The Scripture is opened out, when “the understanding” is opened, Luke 24:45 . V. g.]

Verse 33

Luke 24:33 . Αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ , the same hour ) of the night or the evening. Now no longer have they any fear of the journey by night, which they had previously dissuaded their unknown companion against in Luke 24:29 . [ ὑπέστρεψαν , they returned ) actively. V. g.] συνηθροισμένους , gathered together ) as persons who meet to consult on some sudden emergency.

Verse 34

Luke 24:34 . Λέγοντας , saying ) Appearances had taken place on both sides, whereby they to whom they had been vouchsafed mutually confirmed one another. So the distinct appearances to Paul on the one hand, and to Ananias on the other, mutually confirmed one another, Acts 9:10 ; Acts 9:12 ; and to Cornelius and Peter respectively, Luke 10:3 ; Luke 10:10 ; and to Moses and to Aaron, Exodus 4:27-28 . ὄντως , in very deed ) They cast away their former doubt, but not completely; for in Luke 24:37 , “they are affrighted at His appearance as if they had seen a ghost.” Mark 16:13 [They (the two) went, and told it to the residue; neither believed they them].

Verse 35

Luke 24:35 . Ἐγνώσθη ) He made Himself known . So אתודע , LXX. γνωσθήσομαι , Numbers 12:6 , “I will make myself known.” So εὑρέθην (“præsto fui”), I caused myself to be found, Romans 10:20 .

Verse 36

Luke 24:36 . Ἔστη ) stood : before that they perceived Him coming. ἐν μέσῳ , in the midst ) This is more significant than εἰς μέσον , into the midst , would be. εἰρήνη , peace ) A form of salutation, transferred by the Saviour to higher things: Ephesians 2:17 , [He came and preached peace to you which were afar off, etc.] ἐγώ εἰμι , μὴ φοβεῖσθε , it is I, be not afraid ) The Versions present these four words, in accordance with the MS. of Wolf, with great unanimity: and they are in consonance with Luke 24:38-39 . [272]

[272] GP c Vulg. read the words. But ABD ab Memph. (1 MS.) Theb. omit them. Lachm. retains them in brackets. E. and T.

Verse 38

Luke 24:38 . Διαλογισμοἰ , thoughts ) The Lord throws open their thoughts. ἀναβαίνουσιν , rise up ) A well chosen phrase. Our thoughts are hidden from us, before that they rise up.

Verse 39

Luke 24:39 . Αὐτὸς ) I Myself , Jesus. πνεῦμα , a spirit ) See Luke 24:37 .

Verse 40

Luke 24:40 . Τὰς χεῖρας , His hands ) well known to them. The senses of touch and sight assure the soul.

Verse 41

Luke 24:41 . Ἀπιστούντων , whilst they were distrusting the evidence of their senses) They no doubt believed at the time, otherwise they would not have rejoiced: but the full exercise of their faith was being retarded by their joy. Strong affection and intent knowledge mutually impede one another.

Verse 43

Luke 24:43 . Ἔφαγεν , He did eat ) freely, without any necessity: on this account He did not also drink.

Verse 44

Luke 24:44 . Εἶπε , He said ) namely, on the day of the Ascension. See Luke 24:50 , with which comp. Acts 1:2 ; Acts 1:5 ; Acts 1:9 . [273] ἔτι , as yet ) It was a thing sad to hear of, before that it took place; but now most joyous, when it has taken place. ἐν τῷ νόμῳ , κ . τ . λ ., in the law , etc.) Here we have the division of the Hebrew Bible [the Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa], προφήταις , the Prophets ) the former and later Prophets. It is in reference to the former ones, that the Prophets are put before the Psalms. As to the Twelve especially, see Sir 49:12 . ψαλμοῖς , the Psalms ) The Hagiographa, the foremost place in which is occupied by the Psalms, a remarkable portion of the Scriptures, in which also the subject of Christ and His kingdom is most copiously discussed. See note on Hebrews 10:8 [which quotes Psalms 40:6 , “Sacrifice and offering Thou didst not desire then said I, Lo, I come,” etc.; proving the great authority of the Psalms].

[273] Verse 47, “Beginning at Jerusalem.” accords with Acts 1:8 , “Ye shall be witnesses to Me, both in Jerusalem,” etc., spoken just before the Ascension. E. and T.

Verse 45

Luke 24:45 . Διήνοιξεν , He opened ) Many obstacles which are in our mind need to be removed out of the way, in order that we may understand. See Acts 16:14 [“The Lord opened the heart of Lydia, that she attended to the things which were spoken of Paul”]. He opened both by His power and by His words. τὰς γραφὰς , the Scriptures ) See with what power, not long after, Peter brought forward the Scriptures in Acts 2:0 et seqq. ; as also with what wisdom in Acts 1:16 ; Acts 1:20 [the prophecy and direction of the psalm as to Judas].

Verse 46

Luke 24:46 . Καὶ σὕτως ) and therefore thus .

Verse 47

Luke 24:47 . Ἀρξάμενον ) The Accusative absolute, as in Acts 10:37 [ οἴδατε τὸ γενόμενον ῥῆμα ἀρξάμενον ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας ].

Verses 48-49

Luke 24:48-49 . Μάρτυρες ἐπαγγελίαν , witnesses the promise ) John 15:27 ; John 15:26 [“Ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with Me from the beginning When the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, He shall testify of Me”].

Verse 49

Luke 24:49 . Ἀποστέλλω , I send ) The Present. Comp. note on John 20:17 . [274] τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν , the promise) i.e. the Spirit, who has been promised; Acts 1:4 ; Acts 2:33 , notes. [Ammonius says, ὑπισχνεῖται is applied to one who undertakes or engages that he will give to him who has asked; ἘΠΑΓΓΈΛΛΕΤΑΙ , of one who of himself promises or engages to give.] This was clear to them from the conversation He had with them, John 14:16-17 [I will pray the Father, and He shall give you another Comforter, that He may abide with you for ever, even the Spirit of truth, which the world cannot receive, etc.]. For ἈΠΟΣΤΈΛΛΕΣΘΑΙ is for the most part used of persons; ΠΈΜΠΕΣΘΑΙ , of the person and of the thing. The abstract for the concrete is suitable to those times of the beginning of the Church; comp. note on Matthew 4:17 . [The first preaching was in the abstract, “The kingdom of God is at hand;” afterwards in the concrete, “The King ,” or “Messiah.” The former suited the hidden beginnings of the Gospel; the latter, the glorification of Jesus.] So presently, δύναμιν , power. ΤΟῦ ΠΑΤΡΌς ΜΟΥ , of My Father ) The Father promised and gave His gifts through His Son. Ἱερουσαλὴμ , Jerusalem ) For it was there that they were about to receive the promise. [If they had not received this direction, they without a doubt would have left the city. V. g.] ἐνδύσησθε , until ye be clothed [ endued ]) suddenly and completely. We are naked whilst destitute of the heavenly power. They had heretofore been purified, viz. through the word, John 15:3 [“Now ye are clean through the word, which I have spoken unto you”]: now clothing also is promised to them. ἐξ ὕψους , from on high ) to which Jesus ascended. The height , put for heaven , is an expression from sacred poetry. See Ephesians 4:8 , from Psalms 68:18 [“When He ascended up on high , He led captivity captive”].

[274] “I ascend unto My Father,” not “I will ascend.” The time of His ascension, and, here in Luke, of the consequent sending down of the Spirit, being regarded as already present. So as to the second Coming, I come , ἔρχομαι , not I will come , Revelation 22:20 . See note on Luke 9:51 . E. and T.

Verse 50

Luke 24:50 . [ Ἐξήγαγεν δὲ , and He led them forth ) Mark and Luke make express mention of the Ascension in its own proper place; John (ch. Joh 20:17 ), as also Matthew (ch. Matthew 28:18 ; Mat 28:20 ), only in passing. He who believes the Resurrection of Christ, must, as a consequence, believe all things that follow upon it. Therefore the Gospel History strictly reaches in its extent up to the Resurrection: Acts 1:22 (“Beginning from the baptism of John unto that same day that He was taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a witness with us of His resurrection ”); Romans 10:9 [“If thou shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved”]. Harm ., p. 613.] ἔξω , out ) to that place, where He suffered. [A remarkable place was the Mount of Olives, Acts 1:12 , and Bethany especially so, in respect of all those things which are recorded in John 11:1 , et seqq. (as to the raising of Lazarus), Luke 12:1 , et seqq . (the anointing at Bethany); Luke 19:29 , et seqq . (the royal entry into Jerusalem from Bethany); Matthew 21:17 (His lodging at Bethany during Passion week), Luke 24:3 (His prophecy on the Mount of Olives as to the end of Jerusalem and of the world): Luke 22:39 (His agony in Gethsemane, which is at the side of Olivet). Comp. Zechariah 14:4 . [275] Harm ., p. 612.] εἰς ) towards . ἑπᾴρας , having lifted up ) The gesture of one in the act of praying or pronouncing a blessing. He did not now any more lay on them His hands. Comp. John 20:22 , note. [After His resurrection He did not touch mortals, although He allowed Himself to be handled by His disciples. “He breathed on them.”] εὐλόγησεν , He blessed, them ) This benediction appertains to all believers; for the Eleven, and those who were with them, were at the time the representatives of these.

[275] “His feet shall stand in that day on the Mount of Olives.” From which it appears the same mount is to be the scene of His return, as of His Ascension. Comp. Acts 1:11 . E. and T.

Verse 52

Luke 24:52 . Προσκυνήσαντες , having worshipped Him) In that attitude, which is described in Acts 1:11 [“Looked stedfastly toward heaven Stand ye gazing up into heaven”]. Therefore Christ must be God. χαρᾶς , with joy ) No longer now were they missing with sad regret the sight of the Lord. This was a prelude to Pentecost. John 14:28 [“If ye loved Me, ye would rejoice , because I said, I go unto the Father”]. [No doubt they rejoiced both concerning what was passed, and concerning what was promised in time to come. Harm ., p. 613.] So it is recorded of the Eunuch and Philip, Acts 8:39 [“The Spirit of the Lord caught away Philip : and he (the eunuch) went on his way rejoicing ”].

Verse 53

Luke 24:53 . Διαπαντὸς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ , continually in the temple ) ch. Luke 2:37 [“Anna departed not from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night and day”]. αἰνοῦντες , praising ) which is the fruit of joy. [276]

[276] Bengel, J. A. (1860). Vol. 2 : Gnomon of the New Testament (M. E. Bengel & J. C. F. Steudel, Ed.) (A. R. Fausset, Trans.) (117 225). Edinburgh: T&T Clark.

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Bibliographical Information
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Luke 24". Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/jab/luke-24.html. 1897.