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Bible Commentaries

Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures

Romans 10

Verses 1-21

Divine Election and Israel Having revealed God’s four-fold plan of redemption (Romans 1:16 to Romans 8:39), Paul next explains the role of Israel in His plan of election and glorification for the Church. Chapter nine discusses Israel’s past election by God (Romans 9:1-45.9.33), while chapter ten explains Israel’s current role in divine election (Romans 10:1-45.10.21). Chapter eleven explains Israel’s future role in God’s plan of election (Romans 11:1-45.11.32). These passages serve to explain how Israel and the Church are one, but its primary emphasis is to show that the Church’s glorification is dependent upon and awaiting Israel’s restoration and glorification.

Having revealed God’s plan for the church in the first eight chapters, we can say, “But wait a minute, the story of redemption is not complete. What about Israel and the fulfillment of Old Testament Scriptures? How does this plan a role in the Church’s redemption? The story of redemption is more glorious than has been revealed up to now. Romans 9:1 to Romans 11:36 expounds upon God’s plan of divine election for His people Israel. In this lengthy passage Paul will quote directly from no less than twenty-seven passages in the Old Testament, and with others implied, thus relying heavily upon his knowledge of these Scriptures in order to establish his points concerning Israel’s divine election. He will quote from eleven books of the Old Testament, relying heavily upon the book of Isaiah (Isaiah 10:0, Genesis 3:0, Hosea 3:0, Deuteronomy 3:0, Exodus 2:0, 1 Kings 1:0; 1 Kings 1:0, Job 1:0, Psalms 1:0, Joel 1:0, Malachi 1:0).

Paul has just explained the glorification of the Church in Romans 8:17-45.8.39. He will now turn his attention to the restoration and redemption of Israel as a part of this overall plan. The reason is because the Church’s glorification is wrapped up and dependent upon Israel’s glorification. God’s redemptive plan for Israel was never nullified, but only postponed while provision was made to include the Gentiles into this wonderful plan. Israel’s restoration will also mean the glorification of the Church (Romans 11:11-45.11.12) In other words, the Gentiles have been grafted into the vine, not taken the place of Israel, as Paul will explain in Romans 11:15-45.11.19. This is exactly what Jesus meant in John 4:22 when He said that “salvation was of the Jews.”

Paul will begin this lengthy passage in Romans 9-11 by stating Israel’s divine plan of redemption as “the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises” (Romans 9:4). He will say that God is “over all” (Romans 9:5). That is, God is watching over His divine plan of redemption to perform it. Paul will take three chapters to explain how God is performing His plan in and through Israel. Thus, the word of God has taken effect, as Paul asks rhetorically in Romans 9:6 a.

Chapter nine discusses Israel’s past election by God (Romans 9:1-45.9.33), while chapter ten explains Israel’s current role in divine election (Romans 10:1-45.10.21). Chapter eleven explains Israel’s future role in God’s plan of election (Romans 11:1-45.11.32). These passages serve to explain how Israel and the Church have become one body in God’s plan of redemption.

However, the fact that the epistle of Romans separates the discussion of the divine election of Israel from its discussion of the election of the Church reveals that God has a parallel, but unique, plan for His people Israel. Old Testament prophecy supports this unique plan that God is orchestrating through Israel by the very fact that many of these prophecies are for Israel and not the Church.

The fact that Paul takes three chapters to discuss Israel’s redemption reveals the love and importance that this subject had in his heart. His opening statements in Romans 9:1-45.9.3 express his sorrow and pain because of their rejection of Christ. If Paul the apostle could have chosen his own calling, he would have wanted to evangelize his own people Israel, whom he loved. In God’s divine order, He sent Peter to the Jews and Paul far away to the Gentiles.

Paul will open this lengthy passage by explaining that God’s plan of redemption for Israel is only for those Israelites who have chosen to believe in the promises to Israel; for he says, “They which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed,” (Romans 9:8).

Outline Here is a proposed outline:

1. Election Revealed in Israel’s Past Election Romans 9:1-45.9.33

2. Election Revealed in Israel’s Present Rejection Romans 10:1-45.10.21

3. Election Revealed in Israel’s Future Salvation Romans 11:1-45.11.32

Verses 1-21

Divine Election and Israel Having revealed God’s four-fold plan of redemption (Romans 1:16 to Romans 8:39), Paul next explains the role of Israel in His plan of election and glorification for the Church. Chapter nine discusses Israel’s past election by God (Romans 9:1-45.9.33), while chapter ten explains Israel’s current role in divine election (Romans 10:1-45.10.21). Chapter eleven explains Israel’s future role in God’s plan of election (Romans 11:1-45.11.32). These passages serve to explain how Israel and the Church are one, but its primary emphasis is to show that the Church’s glorification is dependent upon and awaiting Israel’s restoration and glorification.

Having revealed God’s plan for the church in the first eight chapters, we can say, “But wait a minute, the story of redemption is not complete. What about Israel and the fulfillment of Old Testament Scriptures? How does this plan a role in the Church’s redemption? The story of redemption is more glorious than has been revealed up to now. Romans 9:1 to Romans 11:36 expounds upon God’s plan of divine election for His people Israel. In this lengthy passage Paul will quote directly from no less than twenty-seven passages in the Old Testament, and with others implied, thus relying heavily upon his knowledge of these Scriptures in order to establish his points concerning Israel’s divine election. He will quote from eleven books of the Old Testament, relying heavily upon the book of Isaiah (Isaiah 10:0, Genesis 3:0, Hosea 3:0, Deuteronomy 3:0, Exodus 2:0, 1 Kings 1:0; 1 Kings 1:0, Job 1:0, Psalms 1:0, Joel 1:0, Malachi 1:0).

Paul has just explained the glorification of the Church in Romans 8:17-45.8.39. He will now turn his attention to the restoration and redemption of Israel as a part of this overall plan. The reason is because the Church’s glorification is wrapped up and dependent upon Israel’s glorification. God’s redemptive plan for Israel was never nullified, but only postponed while provision was made to include the Gentiles into this wonderful plan. Israel’s restoration will also mean the glorification of the Church (Romans 11:11-45.11.12) In other words, the Gentiles have been grafted into the vine, not taken the place of Israel, as Paul will explain in Romans 11:15-45.11.19. This is exactly what Jesus meant in John 4:22 when He said that “salvation was of the Jews.”

Paul will begin this lengthy passage in Romans 9-11 by stating Israel’s divine plan of redemption as “the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises” (Romans 9:4). He will say that God is “over all” (Romans 9:5). That is, God is watching over His divine plan of redemption to perform it. Paul will take three chapters to explain how God is performing His plan in and through Israel. Thus, the word of God has taken effect, as Paul asks rhetorically in Romans 9:6 a.

Chapter nine discusses Israel’s past election by God (Romans 9:1-45.9.33), while chapter ten explains Israel’s current role in divine election (Romans 10:1-45.10.21). Chapter eleven explains Israel’s future role in God’s plan of election (Romans 11:1-45.11.32). These passages serve to explain how Israel and the Church have become one body in God’s plan of redemption.

However, the fact that the epistle of Romans separates the discussion of the divine election of Israel from its discussion of the election of the Church reveals that God has a parallel, but unique, plan for His people Israel. Old Testament prophecy supports this unique plan that God is orchestrating through Israel by the very fact that many of these prophecies are for Israel and not the Church.

The fact that Paul takes three chapters to discuss Israel’s redemption reveals the love and importance that this subject had in his heart. His opening statements in Romans 9:1-45.9.3 express his sorrow and pain because of their rejection of Christ. If Paul the apostle could have chosen his own calling, he would have wanted to evangelize his own people Israel, whom he loved. In God’s divine order, He sent Peter to the Jews and Paul far away to the Gentiles.

Paul will open this lengthy passage by explaining that God’s plan of redemption for Israel is only for those Israelites who have chosen to believe in the promises to Israel; for he says, “They which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed,” (Romans 9:8).

Outline Here is a proposed outline:

1. Election Revealed in Israel’s Past Election Romans 9:1-45.9.33

2. Election Revealed in Israel’s Present Rejection Romans 10:1-45.10.21

3. Election Revealed in Israel’s Future Salvation Romans 11:1-45.11.32

Verses 1-21

Divine Election and Israel Having revealed God’s four-fold plan of redemption (Romans 1:16 to Romans 8:39), Paul next explains the role of Israel in His plan of election and glorification for the Church. Chapter nine discusses Israel’s past election by God (Romans 9:1-45.9.33), while chapter ten explains Israel’s current role in divine election (Romans 10:1-45.10.21). Chapter eleven explains Israel’s future role in God’s plan of election (Romans 11:1-45.11.32). These passages serve to explain how Israel and the Church are one, but its primary emphasis is to show that the Church’s glorification is dependent upon and awaiting Israel’s restoration and glorification.

Having revealed God’s plan for the church in the first eight chapters, we can say, “But wait a minute, the story of redemption is not complete. What about Israel and the fulfillment of Old Testament Scriptures? How does this plan a role in the Church’s redemption? The story of redemption is more glorious than has been revealed up to now. Romans 9:1 to Romans 11:36 expounds upon God’s plan of divine election for His people Israel. In this lengthy passage Paul will quote directly from no less than twenty-seven passages in the Old Testament, and with others implied, thus relying heavily upon his knowledge of these Scriptures in order to establish his points concerning Israel’s divine election. He will quote from eleven books of the Old Testament, relying heavily upon the book of Isaiah (Isaiah 10:0, Genesis 3:0, Hosea 3:0, Deuteronomy 3:0, Exodus 2:0, 1 Kings 1:0; 1 Kings 1:0, Job 1:0, Psalms 1:0, Joel 1:0, Malachi 1:0).

Paul has just explained the glorification of the Church in Romans 8:17-45.8.39. He will now turn his attention to the restoration and redemption of Israel as a part of this overall plan. The reason is because the Church’s glorification is wrapped up and dependent upon Israel’s glorification. God’s redemptive plan for Israel was never nullified, but only postponed while provision was made to include the Gentiles into this wonderful plan. Israel’s restoration will also mean the glorification of the Church (Romans 11:11-45.11.12) In other words, the Gentiles have been grafted into the vine, not taken the place of Israel, as Paul will explain in Romans 11:15-45.11.19. This is exactly what Jesus meant in John 4:22 when He said that “salvation was of the Jews.”

Paul will begin this lengthy passage in Romans 9-11 by stating Israel’s divine plan of redemption as “the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises” (Romans 9:4). He will say that God is “over all” (Romans 9:5). That is, God is watching over His divine plan of redemption to perform it. Paul will take three chapters to explain how God is performing His plan in and through Israel. Thus, the word of God has taken effect, as Paul asks rhetorically in Romans 9:6 a.

Chapter nine discusses Israel’s past election by God (Romans 9:1-45.9.33), while chapter ten explains Israel’s current role in divine election (Romans 10:1-45.10.21). Chapter eleven explains Israel’s future role in God’s plan of election (Romans 11:1-45.11.32). These passages serve to explain how Israel and the Church have become one body in God’s plan of redemption.

However, the fact that the epistle of Romans separates the discussion of the divine election of Israel from its discussion of the election of the Church reveals that God has a parallel, but unique, plan for His people Israel. Old Testament prophecy supports this unique plan that God is orchestrating through Israel by the very fact that many of these prophecies are for Israel and not the Church.

The fact that Paul takes three chapters to discuss Israel’s redemption reveals the love and importance that this subject had in his heart. His opening statements in Romans 9:1-45.9.3 express his sorrow and pain because of their rejection of Christ. If Paul the apostle could have chosen his own calling, he would have wanted to evangelize his own people Israel, whom he loved. In God’s divine order, He sent Peter to the Jews and Paul far away to the Gentiles.

Paul will open this lengthy passage by explaining that God’s plan of redemption for Israel is only for those Israelites who have chosen to believe in the promises to Israel; for he says, “They which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed,” (Romans 9:8).

Outline Here is a proposed outline:

1. Election Revealed in Israel’s Past Election Romans 9:1-45.9.33

2. Election Revealed in Israel’s Present Rejection Romans 10:1-45.10.21

3. Election Revealed in Israel’s Future Salvation Romans 11:1-45.11.32

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No distribution beyond personal use without permission.
Bibliographical Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Romans 10". Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghe/romans-10.html. 2013.