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Bible Commentaries

Vincent's Word Studies

Romans 10

Verse 1

Brethren. See on 1 John 2:9. An expression of affectionate interest and indicating emotion.

My heart 's desire [η ευδοκια της εμης καρδιας] . More literally, the good will of my heart. See on Luke 2:14. Compare Philippians 1:15; Philippians 2:13; Ephesians 1:5, Ephesians 1:9; 2 Thessalonians 1:11.

Prayer [δεησις] . See on Luke 5:33.

To God [προς] . Implying communion. See on with God, John 1:1.

For Israel. The best texts substitute aujtwn for them; those described in the last three verses of ch. 9. Bengel remarks that Paul would not have prayed had they been utterly reprobate.

That they may be saved [εις σωτηριαν] . Lit., unto (their) salvation.

Verse 2

I bear them record [μαρτυρω] . Rev. witness. "He seems to be alluding to his conduct of former days, and to say, 'I know something of it, of that zeal '" (Godet).

Zeal of God [ζηλον θεου] . Rev., zeal for God. Like the phrase "faith of Christ" for "faith in Christ" (Philippians 3:9); compare Colossians 2:12; Ephesians 3:12; John 2:17, "the zeal of thine house," i e., "for thy house." Knowledge [επιγνωσιν] . Full or correct and vital knowledge. See on ch. Romans 1:28; Romans 3:20.

Verse 3

God 's righteousness. That mentioned in Romans 9:30. Compare Philippians 3:9; Romans 1:16, Romans 1:17; Romans 3:20-22.

To establish [στησαι] . Or set up, indicating their pride in their endeavor. They would erect a righteousness of their own as a monument to their own glory and not to God 's.

Verse 4

The end of the law [τελος νομου] . First in the sentence as the emphatic point of thought. Expositors differ as to the sense. 1. The aim. Either that the intent of the law was to make men righteous, which was accomplished in Christ, or that the law led to Him as a pedagogue (Galatians 3:24). 2. The fulfillment, as Matthew 5:17. Matthew 5:3. The termination. To believers in Christ the law has no longer legislative authority to say, "Do this and live; do this or die" (Morison). The last is preferable. Paul is discussing two materially exclusive systems, the one based on doing, the other on believing. The system of faith, represented by Christ, brings to an end and excludes the system of law; and the Jews, in holding by the system of law, fail of the righteousness which is by faith. Compare Galatians 2:16; Galatians 3:2-14.

Verse 5

Describeth the righteousness - that [γραφει την δικαιοσυνην - οτι] . The best texts transfer oti that, and read grafei oti, etc. Moses writeth that the man, etc. See Leviticus 18:5.

Those things - by them [αυτα - εν αυτοις] . Omit those things, and read for ejn aujtoiv by them, ejn aujth by it, i e., the righteousness which is of the law. The whole, as Rev., Moses writeth that the man that doeth the righteousness which is of the law shall live thereby.

Verse 6

The righteousness which is of faith [η εκ πιστεως δικαιοσυνη] .

The of - faith righteousness. Righteousness is personified. Paul makes the righteousness of faith describe itself. Of faith, ejk from. Marking the source.

Speaketh on this wise [ουτως λεγει] . The quotation in 6 - 8 is a free citation from Deuteronomy 30:11-14. Paul recognizes a secondary meaning in Moses ' words, and thus changes the original expressions so as to apply them to the Christian faith - system. His object in the change is indicated by the explanatory words which he adds. He does not formally declare that Moses describes the righteousness of faith in these words, but appropriates the words of Moses, putting them into the mouth of the personified faith - righteousness.

Say not in thy heart. In thy heart is added by Paul. The phrase say in the heart is a Hebraism for think, compare Psalms 14:1; Psalms 36:1; Psalms 10:11. Usually of an evil thought. Compare Matthew 3:9; Matthew 24:48; Revelation 18:7. Who shall ascend into heaven ? The Septuagint adds for us, and bring it to us, and hearing it we will do it.

To bring down. Interpreting the Septuagint, and bring it to us.

Verse 7

Descend into the deep. Rev., abyss. Septuagint, Who shall pass through to beyond the sea ? See on Luke 8:31. Paul changes the phrase in order to adapt it to the descent of Christ into Hades. The two ideas may be reconciled in the fact that the Jew conceived the sea as the abyss of waters on which the earth rested. Compare Exodus 20:4. Thus the ideas beyond the sea and beneath the earth coincide in designating the realm of the dead. Compare Homer's picture of the region of the dead beyond the Ocean - stream :

" As soon as thou shalt cross.

Oceanus, and come to the low shore And groves of Proserpine, the lofty groups Of poplars, and the willows that let fall Their withered fruit, moor thou thy galley there In the deep eddies of Oceanus, And pass to Pluto's comfortless abode. "" Odyssey," 10. 508 - 513.

" Our bark Reached the far confines of Oceanus.

There lies the land and there the people dwell Of the Cimmerians, in eternal cloud And darkness. "" Odyssey," 11. 13 - 15.

To bring up. There is no need. He is already risen.

Verse 8

The word is nigh thee. Septuagint, Very nigh thee is the word. The word is the whole subject - matter of the Gospel. See ver. 9. Moses used it of the law. See on Luke 1:37. The whole quotation in the Hebrew is as follows : "It (the commandment) is not in heaven, that ye should say, Who will ascend for us to heaven, and bring it to us, and make us hear it that we may do it? And it is not beyond the sea, that ye should say, Who will go over for us beyond the sea, and bring it to us, and make us hear it that we may do it? But the word is very near thee, in thy mouth and in thy heart, to do it." The object of the passage is to contrast the system of faith with the system of law, and that, especially, with reference to the remoteness and difficulty of righteousness. Moses says that the commandment of God to Israel is not incapable of accomplishment, nor is it a distant thing to be attained only by long and laborious effort. The people, on the contrary, carries it in its mouth, and it is stamped upon its heart. Compare Exodus 13:9; Deuteronomy 6:6-9. In applying these words to the system of faith, Paul, in like manner, denies that this system involves any painful search or laborious work. Christ has accomplished the two great things necessary for salvation. He has descended to earth and has risen from the dead. All that is necessary is to accept by faith the incarnate and risen Christ, instead of having recourse to the long and painful way of establishing one's own righteousness by obedience to the law.

Word of faith. The phrase occurs only here. "Which forms the substratum and object of faith" (Alford). Others, the burden of which is faith.

We preach [κηρυσσομεν] . See on Matthew 4:17, and preacher, 2 Peter 2:5.

Verse 9

That [οτι] . So rendered as expressing the contents of the word of faith; but better because, giving a proof that the word is nigh. Confess and believe, correspond to mouth and heart.

The Lord Jesus [κυριον ιησουν] . Others, however, read to rJhma ejn tw stomati sou oti kuriov Ihsouv If thou shalt confess with thy mouth the word that Jesus is Lord. Rev., Jesus as Lord.

Verse 10

With the heart [καρδια] . As the seat of the energy of the divine Spirit [πνευμα σεε ον χη. ρομ; mediating the personal life (of the soul yuch, see on 11 3], which is conditioned by the Spirit. It is not the affections as distinguished from the intellect. Believing with the heart is in contrast with oral confession, not with intellectual belief. "Believing is a mode of thinking not of feeling. It is that particular mode of thinking that is guided to its object by the testimony of another, or by some kind of inter - mediation. It is not intuitive" (Morison).

Man believeth [πιστευεται] . The verb is used impersonally. Lit., it is believed. Believing takes place.

Confession is made [ομολογειται] . Also impersonal. It is confessed. "Confession is just faith turned from its obverse side to its reverse... When faith comes forth from its silence to announce itself, and to proclaim the glory and the grace of the Lord, its voice is confession" (Morison).

Verse 11

The scripture saith. The quotation from Isaiah 28:16 is repeated (see ch. 9 33) with the addition of everyone, whosoever.

Verse 12

For. Explaining the whosoever of ver. 11.

Difference. Better, as Rev., distinction. See on 3 22.

Jew and Greek. On Greek, see on Acts 6:1. Greeks here equivalent to Gentiles.

Lord [κυριος] . See on Matthew 21:3. The reference is disputed : some Christ, others God. Probably Christ. See ver. 9, and compare Acts 10:36. The hearing which is necessary to believing comes through the word of Christ (ver. 17, where the reading is Christ instead of God).

That call upon [επικαλουμενους] . See on appeal, Acts 25:11; James 2:7. That invoke Him as, Lord : recalling vers. 9, 10. Compare Joel 2:32.

Verse 15

Be sent (ajpostalwsin). See on Matthew 10:16; Mark 4:29.

Beautiful [ωραιοι] . From wra the time of full bloom or development. Hence the radical idea of the word includes both blooming maturity and vigor. Appropriate here to the swift, vigorous feet. Plato (" Republic, " 10. 601) distinguishes between faces that are beautiful [καλων] and blooming [ωραιων] . In Genesis 2:9 (Sept.) of the trees of Eden. Compare Matthew 23:27; Acts 3:2, Acts 3:10.

Feet. Emphasizing the rapid approach of the messenger. "In their running and hastening, in their scaling obstructing mountains, and in their appearance and descent from mountains, they are the symbols of the earnestly - desired, winged movement and appearance of the Gospel itself" (Lange). Compare Nahum 1:15; Ephesians 6:15; Romans 3:15; Acts 5:9. Paul omits the mountains from the citation. Omit that preach the gospel of peace.

Bring glad tidings. See on Gospel, Matthew, superscription.

16 Obeyed [υπηκουσαν] . See on obedience and disobedience, ch. 5 19. Also on Acts 5:29. Obeyed as the result of listening, and so especially appropriate here. Compare head and hear, ver. 14. For the same reason hearken (Rev.) is better than obeyed.

Report [ακοη] . Lit., hearing. Similarly, Matthew 14:1; Mark 13:7. Compare the phrase word of hearing, 1 Thessalonians 2:13; Hebrews 4:2 (Rev.); and hearing of faith, i e., message of faith, Galatians 3:2.

Verse 17

By hearing [εξ ακοης] . The same word as report, above, and in the same sense, that which is heard.

Word of God [ρηματος θεου] . The best texts read of Christ. Probably not the Gospel, but Christ 's word of command or commission to its preachers; thus taking up except they be sent (ver. 15), and emphasizing the authority of the message. Belief comes through the message, and the message through the command of Christ.

Verse 18

Did they not hear? [μη ουκ ηκουσαν] . A negative answer is implied by the interrogative particle. "Surely it is not true that they did not hear." Sound [φθογγος] . Only here and 1 Corinthians 14:7, on which see note. Paul uses the Septuagint translation of Psalms 19:4, where the Hebrew line or plummet - line (others musical chord) is rendered sound. The voice of the gospel message is like that of the starry sky proclaiming God 's glory to all the earth. The Septuagint sound seems to be a free rendering in order to secure parallelism with words.

Of the world [της οικουμενης] . See on Luke 2:1; John 1:9.

Verse 19

Did Israel not know? As in ver. 18, a negative answer is implied. "It is surely not true that Israel did not know." Did not know what? That the Gospel should go forth into all the earth. Moses and Isaiah had prophesied the conversion of the Gentiles, and Isaiah the opposition of the Jews thereto.

First Moses. First in order; the first who wrote.

I will provoke you to jealousy [εγω παραζηλωσω υμας] . From Deuteronomy 32:21. See Romans 11:11, Romans 11:14; 1 Corinthians 10:22. Used only by Paul. The Septuagint has them instead of you.

By them that are no people [επ ουκ εθνει] . Lit., upon a no - people. The relation expressed by the preposition is that of the no - people as forming the basis of the jealousy. The prediction is that Israel shall be conquered by an apparently inferior people. No - people as related to God 's heritage, not that the Gentiles were inferior or insignificant in themselves. For people render nation, as Rev. See on 1 Peter 2:9.

By a foolish nation [επι εθνει ασυνετω] . Lit., upon a foolish nation as the basis of the exasperation. For foolish, see on ch. Romans 1:21.

I will anger [παροργιω] . Or provoke to anger. The force of the compounded preposition para in this verb and in parazhlwsw provoke to jealousy, seems to be driving to the side of something which by contact or comparison excites jealousy or anger.

Verse 20

Is very bold [αποτολμα] . Only here in the New Testament. Plato, "Laws," 701, uses it of liberty as too presumptuous [αποτετολμημενης] . The force of the preposition is intensive, or possibly pointing to him from whom the action proceeds; bold of himself : The simple verb means primarily to dare, and implies the manifestation of that boldness or confidence of character which is expressed by qarjrJew. See 2 Corinthians 5:6, 2 Corinthians 5:8; 2 Corinthians 7:16; 2 Corinthians 10:2, note.

Saith. Isaiah 65:1. Following the Septuagint, with the inversion of the first two clauses. Hebrew : "I have offered to give answers to those who asked not. I have put myself in the way of those who sought me not. I have spread out my hand all the day to a refractory people." The idea in the Hebrew is, "I have endeavored to be sought and found." Compare the clause omitted in Paul 's quotation : "I have said 'Here am I' to a people who did not call upon my name."

Verse 21

Disobedient - gainsaying [απειθουντα - αντιλεγοντα] . See on John 3:36; Jude 1:11. Disobedience is the manifestation of the refractoriness expressed in gainsaying. Some explain gainsaying as contradicting. Compare Luke 13:34, Luke 13:35.

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Bibliographical Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Romans 10". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/vnt/romans-10.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.