Bible Commentaries
Romans 10

Peake's Commentary on the BiblePeake's Commentary

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Verses 1-4

Romans 9:30 to Romans 10:4 . Paul has discussed the Jewish situation as from God’ s side; he proceeds to point out, from man’ s side, the Cause of Israel’ s Stumbling. This chs. 3– 5 have prepared us to understand.

Romans 9:30-32 a . The paradox is that “ Gentiles, who were out of the way of righteousness, have obtained it; while Israel, intent upon a law of righteousness, missed the mark, because it rejected the way of faith (which Gentiles took), preferring that of works.” In other words ( Romans 10:3), Israel wanted “ to set up its own righteousness” ( cf. Php_3:6 ; Php_3:9 ) and “ did not recognise” nor “ submit to God’ s righteousness.”

Romans 9:32 b , Romans 9:33 . They stumbled at the” old “ stumbling-block” marked in Isaiah 8:14; Isaiah 28:16— the demand for “ trust” in God as the basis of salvation.

Romans 10:1 f. So Paul’ s “ good-will and prayers” ( cf. Romans 9:16), and Israel’ s unquestioned “ zeal for God,” are unavailing. Their zeal “ lacks knowledge”— though the Jew prides himself on this ( Romans 2:18 f.)!

Romans 10:3. This ignorance is bound up with self-conceit and insubordination ( cf. Romans 2:4; also John 8:19; John 8:55, etc.).— On “ the righteousness of God,” see Romans 1:17 *, Romans 3:22; Romans 3:26 *.

Romans 10:4 . The Jews deem the Mosaic system eternal; they fail to discern “ the end of the law ( cf. 2 Corinthians 3:13-16, Hebrews 7:18 f., etc.) in Christ,” who, revealing God’ s righteousness, imparts “ righteousness to every believer.”— end: i.e. terminus and goal; see Galatians 2:19; Galatians 3:24, Matthew 5:17, Luke 16:16.

Verses 5-15

Romans 10:5-15 . The New Way of Righteousness.

Romans 10:5 . The legal plan was “ Do, and thou shalt live” ( Leviticus 18:5).

Romans 10:6-10 . But there is a deeper secret: behind the deed the heart, voiced by the mouth; and “ with the heart man believes, with the mouth confesses” ( Romans 10:10). To “ believe unto righteousness” is to believe so as to gain righteousness ( Romans 4:4 f.). In the oracle of Deuteronomy 30:12 f., “ the righteousness that comes of faith” spoke from the inmost of man ( Romans 10:6; Romans 10:8). “ The heaven” it pointed to is that “ from which Christ came down” ; “ the abyss,” the region of “ the dead whence He was brought up” ( Romans 10:7). “ The word” then so “ nigh” has become “ the word of faith which we proclaim,” running to this effect: “ If thou confessest with thy mouth that Jesus is Lord ( cf. 1 Corinthians 8:6; 1 Corinthians 12:3, etc.), and believest in thy heart that God raised Him from the dead, thou wilt be saved” ( Romans 10:8 f.). The mouth-confession, regularly made in baptism, declared and sealed the heart-faith ( Romans 6:3 *). His resurrection established Christ’ s Lordship ( Romans 1:4, Acts 2:36, etc.).— Paul quotes Dt. as disclosing heart-religion beneath the legal economy, in language appropriate to Christian faith.

Romans 10:11-13 . Once more it appears, as the prophets teach us, that “ there is no distinction of Jew and Greek”— in point of salvation as of transgression (see Romans 3:22, etc.); “ that the same Lord is Lord of all ( cf. Romans 3:29 f.), since He is rich in bounty to all that call upon Him”— the all is borne out by Joel’ s oracle, which Peter cited at Pentecost inviting all the world “ to call on the name of the Lord” ( Acts 2:21).

Romans 10:14 f. Such “ invocation” presumes “ faith” ; faith, “ hearing” ; hearing, “ preaching” ; and preaching, “ a” Divine “ commission.” Through the apostolate Christ linked the nations to Himself (Acts 18, etc.). How welcome the bearers of such a message! ( Romans 10:15 b).

Verses 16-21

Romans 10:16-21 . The Rejectors of God’ s Message.

Romans 10:16-18 . “ Hearing the glad tidings” is the opportunity of salvation: “ can it be that they did not hear? Nay, surely, the sound has reached every land.” Not hearing, but obedience was to seek.

Romans 10:19-21 . “ Or” should we put it that “ Israel did not know” ?— the double “ I say” ( Romans 10:18 f.) marks the repetition of the same question in another form: “ to know” is “ to hear” understandingly (see Romans 10:2; cf. Matthew 13:14 f.). Israel should have known ( cf. Luke 24:44, John 1:10 f., etc.). Yet Law and Prophets both foretold that despised, senseless heathen would win God’ s favour, to Israel’ s provocation; “ Isaiah daringly speaks of” God as “ found by men who had not sought Him,” after “ stretching out His hands all day to a disobedient, contradictious people” ; cf. Acts 7:51; Acts 13:46 f., etc. The words borrowed from Isaiah 65, like those drawn from Hosea in Romans 9:25 f., referred to apostate Israelites; in principle, they apply equally to Gentiles.

Bibliographical Information
Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on Romans 10". "Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". 1919.