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Bible Commentaries

Vincent's Word Studies

Luke 8

Verse 1

Afterward [εν τω καθεξης] . Rev., soon afterward. See on ch. Luke 7:11. Throughout every city and village [κατα πολιν και κωμην] . Lit., by city and village. See on ver. 4.

Preaching [κηρυσσων] . Or proclaiming, as a herald. Compare ch. 4 18, and see on 1 Peter 2:5.

And the twelve were with him. The were is supplied by the translators. Better, "he himself went about," etc., "and the twelve (went) with him;" or, as Rev., and with him the twelve.

Verse 3

Steward [επιτροπου] . From ejpitrepw, to turn toward; thence to turn over to, transfer, and so commit or intrust to. The word thus literally means, one to whom the management of affairs is turned over.

4 - 18. Compare Matthew 13:1-23; Mark 4:1-25.

Verse 4

Out of every city [κατα πολιν] . City by city.

Were come [επιπορευομενων] . The present participle denoting something in progress. They kept coming. Rev., resorted.

Verse 5

To sow. See on Matthew 13:3.

His seed. Peculiar to Luke.

By the way - side. See on Matthew 13:4.

Was trodden down. A rendering which would apply better to standing grain. Render, as Rev., trodden under foot. Peculiar to Luke.

Verse 6

The rock [την πετραν] . Matthew has the rocky places, and Mark the rocky ground.

Sprung up [φυεν] . Lit., having sprung up. Rev., better, grew. Sprung up is Matthew's ejxaneteilen. Only here and Hebrews 12:15, where it is a quotation from the Septuagint. See on Matthew 13:7.

Moisture [ικμαδα] . Only here in New Testament. Matthew and Mark have depth of earth. The word is the medical expression for juices of the body, of plants, and of the earth. Aristophanes, metaphorically, the juice of thought (" Clouds, " 233). Hippocrates uses this and the preceding word together, comparing the juices of the body with those of the earth.

Verse 7

Among [εν μεσω] . In the midst. Stronger than the simple ejn, in, as giving more prominence to the danger.

Sprung up with it [συμφυεισαι] . Only here in New Testament. See on ver. 6, and Matthew 13:7. The technical word among physicians for closing of wounds or ulcers, and uniting of nerves or bones. Dioscorides uses it, as here, of plants growing in the same place : "The hellebore grows together with the vines."

Choked [απεπνιξαν] . Lit., choked off. Matthew has the simple epnixan, choked; and Mark sunepnixan; the sun, together, emphasizing the idea of compression. Luke is very fond of compounds and sonorous words. See on ch. Luke 23:51.

Verse 8

A hundred - fold. Omitting the thirty and sixty of Matthew and Mark. See on Matthew 13:8.

Verse 10

Mysteries. See on Matthew 13:11.

Understand (suniwsin). See on understanding, the kindred noun, Mark 12:33.

Verse 11

The parable is this. According to its interpretation.

Verse 13

For awhile believe. See on Matthew 13:21. Matthew and Mark have endureth, or endure for a while.

In time of temptation. Matthew and Mark have, when tribulation or persecution cometh.

Fall away. Lit., withdraw or stand aloof. Matthew and Mark have stumble.

Verse 14

Go forth [πορευομενοι] . The present participle. Much better Rev., "they that have heard, and as they go on their way are choked," etc.

Choked with [υπο, υνδερ] . Implying the impulse under which they pursue their course.

Bring (no fruit) to perfection (telesforousin). Only here in New Testament. Matthew and Mark have, it becometh unfruitful. The verb literally means to bring to an end or accomplishment.

Verse 15

These are they which [ουτοι εισιν οιτινες] . Which denotes them as belonging to a class. Hence Rev., rightly, such as.

Honest and good heart. Peculiar to Luke. Honest; lit., fair, noble.

Honest, not in the popular sense, but in the sense of the Latin honestus; noble, virtuous, worthy.

Keep (katecousin). Much better Rev., hold it fast, giving the force of the compound verb.

With patience. Or in patience. Peculiar to Luke. In contrast with fall away, ver. 13.

Verse 16

Candle [λυχνον] . Rev., properly, lamp. See on Mark 4:21.

Candlestick [λυχνιας] . Correctly, as Rev., a stand. See on Matthew 5:15.

Verse 17

Nothing is secret - manifest. Correctly rendered in A. V., but not so the parallel passage, Mark 4:22, on which see note.

Verse 18

How ye hear [πως] . The manner of hearing. Mark has ti, what ye hear; the matter.

Seemeth [δοκει] . Peculiar to Luke. Rev. renders "thinketh he hath," as James 1:26, on which see note. Wyc., guesseth; Tynd., supposeth.

19 - 21. Compare Matthew 12:46-50; Mark 3:31-35.

Come at him [συντυχειν] . Only here in New Testament. The word properly carries the idea of an accidental meeting, and slightly so here. Jesus was lost in the crowd, and his friends could not fall in with him.

22 - 25; Luke 9:57-62. Compare Matthew 8:18-27; Mark 4:35-41.

Verse 22

Let us go over unto the other side of the lake. Wyc. has, pass we over the standing water. On lake, see on ch. Luke 5:1.

Launched forth [ανηχθησαν] . See on ch. Luke 5:3. The verb literally means to lead up; hence to lead up to the high sea, or take to sea; put to sea. It is the word used of Jesus ' being led up into the wilderness and the mount of temptation (Matthew 4:1; Luke 2:22); also of bringing up a sacrifice to an idol - altar (Acts 7:41). Often in Acts in the accounts of Paul 's voyages.

Verse 23

He fell asleep [αφυπνωσεν] . Very graphic. He fell off [απο] into sleep.

Came down [κατεβη] . More vivid than either Matthew or Mark, who have there arose. The word describes the action of the sudden storms which literally came down from the heights surrounding the lake. See on Matthew 8:24.

Storm [λαιλαψ] . See on Mark 4:37. Matthew has seismov, a shaking.

See on Matthew 8:24.

They were filling with water [συνεπληρουντο] . Used by Luke only.

Mark, as usual, goes into minuter detail, and describes how the waves beat into the boat. Note the imperfects : they were filling; they were beginning to be in danger, contrasted with the instantaneous descent of the storm expressed by the aorist came down.

Verse 24

Master. See on ch. Luke 5:5.

Rebuked. Compare the more detailed narrative of Mark 4:39, and see notes there. Wyc., blamed.

The raging [κλυδωνι] . See on James 1:6.

Arose [διεγερθεις] . Wrong. It is the word used just before, awoke. Lit., having been thoroughly awakened. Rev., correctly, he awoke. Luke is especially fond of compounds with dia.

A calm. Matthew and Mark have "a great calm."

Verse 25

He commandeth. Peculiar to Luke.

Verse 26

They arrived [κατεπλευσαν] . The verb means literally to sail down from the sea to the shore. Compare launched forth, ver. 22. Only here in New Testament. The two prepositions, up and down, are used in our nautical terms bear up and bear down. See Introduction, on Luke's variety of words for sailing. Matthew and Mark have came [ελθοντος ηλθον] . Gerasenes. The texts vary, some reading Gadarenes, as A. V., others Gergesenes.

Over against [αντιπερα] . Only here in New Testament.

Verse 27

There met him out of the city. The words out of the city belong rather with a certain man. So Rev.

Which had devils long time. The best texts insert kai, and, after devils (demons), and read "who had demons, and for a long time he had worn," etc. Long [ικανω] . See on ch. Luke 7:16.

Tombs. See on Matthew 8:28. Compare Mark 5:4-6.

Verse 28

Fell down [προσεπεσεν] . Mark has prosekunhsen, which often implies religious or superstitious feeling, as Matthew 4:9, Matthew 4:10. This is the prostration of abject terror.

Cried out [ανακραξας] . The compound verb with ajna, up, implies what is conveyed by our phrase, lifting up the voice. See on Mark 5:5.

What have I to do with thee? See on Mark 5:7.

Torment [βασανισης] . See on Matthew 4:24. Luke never uses the word of sickness, as Matthew 8:6. See on ch. Luke 4:41.

Verse 29

He had commanded [παρηγγελλεν] . Imperfect tense. Rev. does not improve by reading he commanded. The imperfect expresses the simultaneousness of the exorcism and the cry torment me not. Better, for he was commanding. So the Am. Rev.

It had seized [συνηρπακει] . Used by Luke only. See Acts 6:12; Acts 27:15. The verb literally means to snatch and carry away with [συν] .

He was kept bound [εδεσμευετο φυλασσομενος] . Lit., he was bound, being guarded. Rev., was kept under guard and bound. The A. V. does not sufficiently bring out the vigilance with which he was attended.

Chains and fetters. See on Mark 5:4.

Breaking [διαρρησσων] . Compare Mark 4:4, and see note there.

Was driven, etc. Peculiar to Luke.

Verse 30

Many devils were, etc. Compare Mark 5:9.

Verse 31

Command them. The plural, referring to the legion.

The deep [αβυσσον] . Lit., the bottomless. Transcribed into our abyss, as Rev. Mark has a quite different request, that he would not send them out of the country (v. 10). In Romans 10:7, used of Hades, to which Christ descended; and in Revelation always of the bottomless pit. The demons refer to their place of abode and torment.

Verse 33

Ran violently [ωρμησεν] . Rev., more neatly, rushed. Only Mark gives the number of the swine, two thousand.

A steep place. See on Matthew 9:32.

Verse 36

He that was possessed with devils. Expressed in the Greek by two words, oJ daimonisqeiv, the demonized.

Was healed [εσωθη] . See on ch. Luke 6:19.

Verse 37

They were taken [συνειχοντο] . See on ch. Luke 4:38. The same word as of the fever.

Verse 38

Besought [εδεετο] . Imperfect : was beseeching. See on prayers, ch. 5 33. Rev., prayed. Beseech is used to render parakalew (Mark 5:10). See on consolation, ch. 6 24. Parakalew, beseech, is used of prayer to God in only one instance, 2 Corinthians 12:8, where Paul besought the Lord to remove the thorn in the flesh. Frequently of requests to Christ while on earth. Deomai, to pray, often of prayer to God (Matthew 9:38; Luke 10:2; Acts 8:22). It is noticeable that in ver. 28, where the demons address Christ as the Son of the highest God, they say deonai, I pray. In vv. 31, 32, where they ask not to be sent away, and to be allowed to enter into the swine, they say parakalew, I beseech. The restored man, recognizing Jesus ' divine power, prayed [εδειτο] to be with him. The distinction, however, must not be closely pressed. The two words seem to be often used interchangeably in the New Testament.

Verse 39

Shew [διηγου] . Rather relate, recount, with the idea of telling the story throughout [δια] . See on declaration, ch. 1 1.

Throughout the whole city. Mark says in Decapolis.

How great things [οσα] . Lit., how many things, and thus according with recount. Declared all things throughout, as many as Jesus had done.

41 - 56. Compare Matthew 9:18-26; Mark 5:22-43.

Verse 41

Jairus. The name of one of the Israelite chiefs, Jair, who conquered and settled Bashan (Numbers 32:41; Joshua 13:30). "His name lingered down to the time of the Christian era, when, in the same region as that which he conquered, we find a ruler of the synagogue named Jair" (Stanley, " Jewish Church ").

Verse 42

Thronged [συνεπνιγον] . With the idea of pressing together [συν] upon him : stifling. The simple verb is that rendered choke, as in vv. 8, 33.

Verse 43

Had spent [προσαναλωσασα] . Only here in New Testament. Some texts omit who had spent all here living upon physicians. Luke, with professional sensitiveness, omits Mark's statement that she had suffered many things from many physicians, and was not bettered but made worse.

Verse 44

Hem. See on Matthew 9:20.

Stanched [εστη] . A common medical term.

Verse 45

Who touched [τις ο αψαμενος] . Lit., who is he that touched? Rev., who is it that.

Throng and press [συνεχουσιναποθλιβουσιν] . On the former word, see ver. 37, and ch. 4 38. Rev. renders the latter, which occurs here only, more literally, crush. It means to squeeze out, as wine from grapes. See on tribulation, Matthew 13:21.

Verse 46

Hath touched [ηψατο] - I perceive [εγνων] . Rev. renders the two aorists strictly : did touch, and I perceived, with reference to Jesus ' knowledge of the touch at the moment it was applied.

Virtue [δυναμιν] . Rev., power. The evangelists use the word frequently of miracles - mighty works. It is used here in the sense of virtue, according to its use by naturalists and physicians. Still, too much stress must not be laid upon it as a mark of Luke's professional accuracy, as Dean Plumptre in "The Expositor," 4 139; since Mark uses it in his narrative of the same incident, and in the same sense (Mark 5:30).

Verse 47

Falling down. Not in worship, but in terror. See on fell down, Luke 5:28.

Verse 48

In peace. See on ch. Luke 7:50.

Verse 49

From the ruler of the synagogue 's house. A. V. and Rev. properly supply house, as the ruler himself is present with Jesus.

Dead. Placed first in the Greek order, for emphasis. "Dead is thy daughter."

Trouble. See on Matthew 9:36; Mark 5:35. Tyndale renders dis - ease, in the old verbal sense of disturb.

Verse 52

Wept and bewailed. Both imperfects, were weeping and bewailing.

So, rightly, Rev. Compare on bewailing, Mark 5:38.

Verse 54

Maid [η παις] . Instead of the unclassical korasion, damsel, of Matthew and Mark. ===Luke 9:0


1 - 6. Compare Matthew 10:1, Matthew 10:7, Matthew 10:9-11, Matthew 10:14; Mark 6:7-13.

Copyright Statement
The text of this work is public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Luke 8". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.