Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

John 18:1

When Jesus had spoken these words, He went forth with His disciples over the ravine of the Kidron, where there was a garden, in which He entered with His disciples.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Gethsemane;   Jesus, the Christ;   Kidron;   Prophecy;   Thompson Chain Reference - Brooks;   Cedron;   Gethsemane;   Kidron;   The Topic Concordance - Judas Iscariot;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Brooks;   Gardens;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Gardens;   Kidron or Cedron;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Gethsemane;   Jerusalem;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Cedron;   Gardens;   Gethsemane;   Kedron;   Kidron;   Torches;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Cedron;   Garden;   Gethsemane;   John, the Gospel According to;   Kedron;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Cedron;   Garden;   Gethsemane;   John, the Gospel of;   Kidron Valley;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Garden;   John, Gospel of;   Kidron (1);   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Brook ;   Garden ;   Gethsemane ;   Jerusalem (2);   Mount of Olives ;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Brook;   Gethsemane ;   Kidron, Kedron, Brook;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Cedron;   Mount olivet;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Cedron;   Gethsemane;   Kidron;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Ce'dron;   Gethsem'a-Ne;   John, Gospel of;   Kid'ron,;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Day;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Brook;   Garden;   Gethsemane;   Kidron, the Brook;   Prayers of Jesus;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Cedron;   Judas Iscariot;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Over the brook Cedron - Having finished the prayer related in the preceding chapter, our Lord went straight to the garden of Gethsemane, Matthew 26:36, which was in the mount of Olives, eastward of Jerusalem. This mount was separated from the city by a very narrow valley, through the midst of which the brook Cedron ran: see 1 Maccabees 12:37; Joseph. War, b. v. c. 2, s. 3. xii. 2. Cedron is a very small rivulet, about six or seven feet broad, nor is it constantly supplied with water, being dry all the year, except during the rains. It is mentioned in the Old Testament: 2 Samuel 15:23; 1 Kings 15:13; 2 Kings 23:4. And it appears the evangelist only mentions it here to call to remembrance what happened to David, when he was driven from Jerusalem by his son Absalom, and he and his followers obliged to pass the brook Cedron on foot: see 2 Samuel 15:23. All this was a very expressive figure of what happened now to this second David, by the treachery of one of his own disciples. This brook had its name probably from קדר Kadar, he was black; it being the place into which the blood of the sacrifices, and other filth of the city, ran. It was rather, says Lightfoot, the sink, or the common sewer, of the city, than a brook. Some copyists, mistaking Κεδρων for Greek, have changed του into των, and thus have written των Κεδρων, of cedars, instead of του Κεδρων, the brook of Cedron: but this last is undoubtedly the genuine reading.

A garden - Gethsemane: see on Matthew 26:36; (note).

The Jewish grandees had their gardens and pleasure grounds without the city even in the mount of Olives. This is still a common custom among the Asiatics.

St. John mentions nothing of the agony in the garden; probably because he found it so amply related by all the other evangelists. As that account should come in here, the reader is desired to consult the notes on Matthew 26:36-47; (note). See also Mark 14:30-36; (note), and Luke 22:40-44; (note).

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on John 18:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/john-18.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

The brook Cedron - This was a small stream that flowed to the east of Jerusalem, through the valley of Jehoshaphat, and divided the city from the Mount of Olives. It was also called Kidron and Kedron. In summer it is almost dry. The word used here by the evangelist - χειμάῤῥου cheimarrou- denotes properly a water-stream (from χεῖρμα , shower or water, and ῥέω reō ῥόος roosto flow, flowing), and the idea is that of a stream that was swollen by rain or by the melting of the snow (Passow, Lexicon). This small rivulet runs along on the east of Jerusalem until it is joined by the water of the pool of Siloam, and the water that flows down on the west side of the city through the valley of Jehoshaphat, and then goes off in a southeast direction to the Dead Sea. (See the map of the environs of Jerusalem.) Over this brook David passed when he fled from Absalom, 2 Samuel 15:23. It is often mentioned in the Old Testament, 1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chronicles 15:16; 2 Chronicles 30:14; 2 Kings 23:6, 2 Kings 23:12.

Where was a garden - On the west side of the Mount of Olives. This was called Gethsemane. See the notes at Matthew 26:36. It is probable that this was the property of some wealthy man in Jerusalem - perhaps some friend of the Saviour. It was customary for the rich in great cities to have country-seats in the vicinity. This, it seems, was so accessible that Jesus was accustomed to visit it, and yet so retired as to be a suitable place for devotion.

Copyright Statement
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Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/john-18.html. 1870.

William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament

GETHSEMANE

Matthew 26:30-46; Mark 14:26-42; Luke 22:39-46;John 18:1. Jesus speaking these things, went out with His disciples beyond the brook Kidron, where was a garden, into which He and His disciples went.” This is the Garden of Gethsemane, which means “oil- press,” as evidently it had some celebrity for the manufacture of olive-oil, corroborative of which the olive-trees there still abound. They look very venerable. Since the olive-tree ordinarily lives five hundred to a thousand years, there is a degree of plausibility in the tradition that the identical trees under which Jesus and His disciples frequently sat still survive, as several trunks from the same root are still green and flourishing, some looking old and others young, favoring the conclusion that as the old die, others grow up, thus perpetuating the tree from the same root. “Garden,” in the Old World, is: frequently synonymous with “park” in this country; e. g., “the Garden of Eden.”

Matthew 26:30; Matthew 26:36-37. And having sung a hymn, they went out into the Mount of Olives. Then Jesus comes with them into a place called Gethsemane, and says to His disciples, Sit here, until, having gone, I shall pray yonder. And taking Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, He began to give way to sorrow and dejection.” You see how He compliments Peter, James, and John by taking them with Him to the exclusion of the rest. He did the same on the Mount of Transfiguration, and also at the resurrection of Jairus’s daughter — evidencing a deeper insight into spiritual things on the part of the apostolic trio. The unfallen humanity of Jesus, never callused by sin, is intensely emotional, feeling infinitely more acutely than we are likely to apprehend.

Luke 22:41-44. And He departed from them about a stones cast, and putting down His knees, continued to pray, saying, Father, if this cup wishes to pass from Me.” This was spoken proleptically, implying a desire on the part of His humanity to retreat from the terrible ordeals of blood, insult, treason, abuse, and death which His Divinity saw in diabolical panorama moving before His eyes. Moreover, not My will, but Thine be done.” Here you see He prefers the Divine will to his own human will, giving us an exceedingly profitable example. The human will of Jesus recoiled from the horrific tragedy coming to meet Him. So will ours under all circumstances. Hence we are to sink away into the Divine will, always keeping the human meekly acquiescent.

And an angel appeared unto Him from heaven, strengthening Him.” While there was no retreat from the appalling and horrific maelstrom which opened its in hellish malice, yet the loving Father sends awful crisis. Hence you see the pertinency of prayer amid all of our temptations and trials; not that we will always be delivered from them, but that our Heavenly Father will send an angel to strengthen us, giving us the needed patience, resignation, forbearance, and perseverance adequate to the conflict. And being in agony, He continued to pray the more fervently. And His perspiration was like drops of blood falling down upon the ground.” All efforts to explain this agony of His human soul are utterly vain. Millions of martyrs have gone singing to the burning stake, and shouted triumphantly amid the wreathing flames. Then why did Jesus agonize so intensely in contemplation of His martyrdom? You must remember that all comparison is really impertinent and utterly out of place as to any attempted exegesis, from the simple fact that none of the martyrs atoned for the sins of the world. The Divinity could neither suffer nor die, but only served as the altar on which the humanity was immolated to atone for the sins of a guilty world. Hence the innocent Man Jesus carried upon His spotless soul all the mountains of sin committed by the guilty; race in all ages, from Adam to the latest generation. Consequently, we are utterly incompetent to know or to realize the agony which He endured in the garden. There the battle was fought between the human and the Divine will, the latter triumphing. Gethsemane was the consecration and Calvary the sanctification. In the case of the latter, we see Him nailed to the cross, and pouring out His blood, and hear nothing of humanity’s recoil from the appalling tragedy, the battle having been fought and the victory won in Gethsemane. Hence the soul seeking sanctification must first pass the Gethsemane of consecration, where the human utterly and eternally submits to the Divine will. Then you are prepared cheerfully to let the Holy Ghost nail Adam the First to the cross, and let him bleed and die. The followers of Jesus must all pass through Gethsemane on their way to Calvary. This bloody sweat is unparalleled in all the history of human suffering, illustrative of the fact that the world has never seen but the one Savior, who actually carried upon His spotless soul all of its guilt and crime.

Mark 14:38-39. And He comes and finds them sleeping, and says to Peter, Simon , do you sleep? Were you not able to watch with Me one hour? Watch and pray, lest ye may enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.” They had been constantly on foot and their attention engaged so long that drowsiness and nervous relaxation proved irresistible. And again having gone away; He prayed, speaking the same word. And returning, He found them again sleeping; for their eyes were heavy, and they knew not what they respond to Him.”

It is about midnight. The apostles were stout, muscular men who, in case of nervous collapse, found drowsiness irresistible. He comes the third time, and says to them, Do you sleep on and take your rest. It is over: the hour has come; behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. Arise, let us be going; behold; the one having betrayed Me draweth nigh.” Jesus having seen all the maneuvers of His enemies, who, under the escort of Judas, have tracked them — making inquiry of the people on the streets

— from the upper room where they had taken the supper on Mount Zion, through the long way of the city to the east wall, and out across the Valley of Jehoshaphat and the brook Kidron to this garden, where Jesus had so often resorted with His disciples while Judas was with them, and who consequently kept His track, leading the mob, and also having seen all the hurry and bustle of His enemies, parading the temple guards and hiring the street rabble to accompany them, now, that they are coming right into the park, and knowing they are going to arrest Him, He commands the Eleven all to wake up, and goes to meet them.

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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Godbey, William. "Commentary on John 18:1". "William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ges/john-18.html.

The Biblical Illustrator

John 18:1

Then Pilate, therefore, took Jesus and scourged Him.
--

Pilate’s second attempt to rescue Christ

I. A SHAMEFUL INFLICTION on Jesus. Scourging and mockery (John 19:1-3).

1. The character of it.

2. The object of it

II. AN EARNEST APPEAL (John 19:4-5) to the Jews. Setting Christ before them, clothed in purple, crowned with thorns, a mocking king of woe, he appeals to

1. Their sense of justice.

2. Their feelings of compassion--“Behold the Man!--have you no pity?”

3. Their perception of truth. Was it reasonable that that meek Prisoner should be a rival to Caesar?

III. A HOPEFUL DECISION by Pilate (John 19:6).

1. The fierce demand “Crucify Him!” A week ago they cried Hosannah.

2. The firm reply “Take ye Him.” Pilate again refuses to incarnadine his hands. Only, Pilate, having put thy foot down, pray heaven for strength to keep it fast.

3. The forceful reason “I find no crime in Him.” If those blood-thirsty ruffians will have Him crucified they must do it themselves.

Learn

1. The certainty that Christ’s words will be fulfilled. Six months before He had predicted this (Matthew 20:19).

2. The depth of humiliation to which Christ stooped for men.

3. The difficulty felt by even wicked men in doing crimes. Conscience “makes a man a coward … fills one full of obstacles … beggars any [wicked] man that keeps it” (“Richard III.” Acts 1:1-26. scene 4).

4. The moral insensibility which men professing religion may at times exhibit. (T. Whitelaw, D. D.)

A wonderful picture

Like every great historical picture, this one contains special points for special attention. It contains three lifelike portraits.

I. THAT OF OUR LORD HIMSELF. We see the Saviour scourged, crowned with thorns, &c. Yet this was He whom angels delighted to honour, and who spent His time in going about doing good. Surely the sun never shone on a more wondrous sight.

1. Let us admire that love of Christ which “passeth knowledge.” There is no earthly love with which it can be compared, and no standard by which to measure it.

2. Never let us forget, when we ponder this tale of suffering, that Jesus suffered for our sins, and that with His stripes we are healed.

3. Let us diligently follow the example of His patience in all the trials and afflictions of life, and especially in those which may be brought upon us by religion. When He was reviled, He reviled not again.

II. THAT OF THE UNBELIEVING JEWS. We see them for three or four long hours obstinately rejecting Pilate’s offer to release our Lord--fiercely demanding His crucifixion--declaring that they had no king but Caesar--and finally accumulating on their own heads the greater part of the guilt of His murder. Yet these were the children of Israel and the seed of Abraham, to whom pertained the promises, &c. These were men who professed to look for a “Prophet like unto Moses,” and a “Son of David,” who was to set up a kingdom as Messiah. Never, surely, was there such an exhibition of the depth of human wickedness. Let us mark the danger of long-continued rejection of light and knowledge. There is such a thing as judicial blindness; and it is the last and sorest judgment which God can send upon men. He who, like Pharaoh and Ahab, is often reproved but refuses to receive reproof, will finally have a heart harder than the nether millstone, and a conscience past feeling, and seared as with a hot iron (Proverbs 1:24-26; 2 Thessalonians 2:11).

III. THAT OF PONTIUS PILATE. We see the Roman governor--a man of rank and high position--halting between two opinions in a case as clear as the sun at noon-day, sanctioning from sheer cowardice an enormous crime--and finally countenancing, from love of man’s good opinion, the murder of an innocent person. Never perhaps did human nature make such a contemptible exhibition. Never was there a name so justly handed down to a world’s scorn as the name which is embalmed in all our creeds.

1. Let us learn what miserable creatures great men are, when they have no high principles within them, and no faith in the reality of a God above them. The meanest labourer who fears God is a nobler being than the king, ruler, or statesman, whose first aim is to please the people.

2. Let us pray that our own country may never be without men in high places who have grace to think right, and courage to act up to their knowledge, without truckling to the opinion of men. (Bp. Ryle.)

A threefold type of sinners

I. THOSE WHO SIN AGAINST CONVICTION. To this class Pilate belonged. To do this is

1. Hard work. How difficult did Pilate find it!

2. Fiendish work. Satan and his legions do it.

II. THOSE WHO SIN FROM CONVICTION. Such were the chief priests and officers, &c. Innumerable heathen, heretics, persecutors believe they are doing right whilst they are perpetrating the greatest enormities. There are no crimes blacker than those enacted from religious convictions.

III. THOSE WHO SIN WITHOUT CONVICTION--the soldiers and the thoughtless rabble. (D. Thomas, D. D.)

Pilate taking Jesus

1. The surrender of innocence.

2. The triumph of malice.

3. The abuse of authority. (S. S. Times.)

Took Jesus

1. From whose custody?

2. For what purpose?

3. On what grounds?

4. With what results? (S. S. Times.)

Jesus delivered to be crucified

Shows

I. THE PERPLEXITY AND SHAME LIKELY TO BE EXPERIENCED BY ONE WHO ACTS FROM SELFISH EXPEDIENCY INSTEAD OF HIS CONVICTIONS OF RIGHT. Poor mockery of a ruler! Set by the Eternal to do right upon earth, and afraid to do it; told so by his own bosom; strong enough in his legions and in the truth itself to have saved the Innocent One and kept his own soul, he could only think of the apparently expedient! Type of the politician in all ages, who forgets that only the right is the strong or the wise.

II. THE POWER OF POPULAR CLAMOUR, AND THE NECESSITY AT TIMES OF RESISTING IT. Very impressive is the voice of a multitude. Its applause is intoxicating, its condemnation dreadful, its strenuous demand most difficult to deny. When this voice represents the ripe moral sentiment of an intelligent people, or when it is the swift, honest judgment of that people in regard to wrong, then Vox populi est vox Dei. But the clamour by which Pilate was swayed was a different thing. It was the voice of a mob inflamed by passion, worked upon by wicked and crafty leaders--the voice of Satan. Whenever a crowd is foolish or mad, has a cumulative force, and reaches a colossal magnitude. Hence the horrors of the French revolution, and the toleration and support given now and then by the people of a nation to great wrongs. In such cases public opinion is not to be heeded. “Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil.” It is well then to stand up like Luther at Worms and say, “To act against conscience is unsafe and unholy. Here stand I, God help me. Amen.” This was the spirit of the apostles, martyrs, and reformers.

III. THAT CHRIST’S CLAIM TO KINGSHIP, WHICH EXCITED SUCH RIDICULE, WAS A TRUE AND VALID CLAIM. Some of the most precious doctrines were first uttered in derision. The grace of Christ to sinners was the subject of a sneer--“He receiveth sinners,” &c. The necessity which constrained Him to die for the salvation of man was set forth in the jeer, “He saved others, Himself He cannot save.” Here before Pilate His claim of Kingship was made the occasion of brutal merriment. But Jesus was indeed a King! As such He came attended by a retinue of angels, and inquired for by the wise men. Through all the centuries since His kingly dignity has been owned. When the Crusaders proposed to crown Geoffrey of Bouillon king of Jerusalem, Geoffrey said, “I will not wear a crown of gold in the city where my Saviour had a crown of thorns!” He is

1. A beneficent King. He rules in the interests of His subjects. “Woe to the conquered” was the old cry. But Christ’s conquests bring good to the conquered. The more perfect their submission, the more perfect their felicity.

2. A perpetual King. His throne is established for ever. “Conceive of Caesar,” said Napoleon, “the eternal emperor watching over the destinies of Rome. Such is the power of Christ.”

3. His kingdom is constantly advancing. Because the tide ebbs, no intelligent man, viewing the naked sand, would say, “The sea is losing its dominion.” He would answer, “Wait awhile,” confident that it would reoccupy its lost ground. So with Christianity. In Damascus there is a mosque which was once a Church. Over its portal the Christian inscription still stands--“Thy kingdom, O Christ, is an everlasting kingdom, and Thy dominion endureth through all generations.” For twelve centuries that writing has been contradicted, seemingly, and probably the Moslem has suffered it to remain to convict Christianity of a vain boast. But that inscription may be regarded as a solemn prophecy that the Moslem sway is but temporary, and that the faith which has been driven from its sanctuary will return. Even now the signs of its return appear.

IV. THE SPIRITUAL CHARACTER OF CHRIST’S KINGDOM. He explicitly said to Pilate, “My kingdom is not of this world,” &c. But He did not leave His cause impotent and defenceless. There are other forces besides armed battalions. The Word of God, the Spirit of truth, the religious faculties on which they act, faith, hope, love, duty, sacrifice, and prayer; by means of these Christ sent forth His apostles to conquer the world. Christ’s patience, self-restraint, and forgiving Spirit were potent even at His trial and crucifixion. They invested Him with that majesty which could not be obscured by indignities, which awed the scoffing Pilate into respect, and moved him to an unwonted desire to do justly; which brought the thief on the cross to repentance, and led the centurion to exclaim, “Truly, this was the Son of God.” And in proportion as the followers of Christ have trusted these forces, they have been successful. Alliance with secular power, or reliance on physical force, has proved disastrous. (Sermons by the Monday Club.)

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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "John 18:1". The Biblical Illustrator. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/john-18.html. 1905-1909. New York.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

This chapter records the betrayal and seizure of Jesus (John 18:1-11), the arraignment before Annas (John 18:12-14), Peter's first denial (John 18:15-18), questioning by Annas (John 18:19-24), Peter's second and third denials (John 18:25-27), Jesus' appearance before Caiaphas and before Pilate (John 18:28-32), Pilate's questioning of Jesus (John 18:33-38) and vain efforts of Pilate to release Jesus (John 18:38-40).

John emphasized the regal bearing and demeanor of the Lord even in the hours of his humiliation; and from this some have alleged that he omitted the agony in the garden as unbecoming the impression of Jesus he wished to portray, but that view is illogical in the light of his record of the Lord's being slapped by an officer in the presence of Annas. The logical and obvious reason for the many omissions of details like the agony is found in the widespread knowledge of such details already recorded in the synoptics.

Another alleged difficulty derives from Peter's denial having occurred before Annas in John, and in the palace of Caiaphas in the synoptics. This is fully resolved by the fact that Annas and Caiaphas occupied the same palace, and the courtyard where Peter denied the Lord was in front of both apartments, that of Annas and that of his son-in-law, Caiaphas. (See my Commentary on Matthew, Matthew 26:57.)

That Annas and Caiaphas occupied the same palace, or different portions of the same edifice, solves the chief difficulty. Annas held his preliminary unofficial inquiry in his department of the building.[1]

The other difficulty, not the "chief" difficulty mentioned by Reynolds, regards the use of the title "high priest" for Annas (John 18:19); but this is not a difficulty at all in view of the prevailing prejudice of the Jews who still regarded Annas as the real high priest. John's acquaintance with the high priest (Annas) which surfaces in this chapter would certainly have inclined him to use this title in speaking of him; and this also explains the somewhat derogatory designation of Caiaphas as "high priest that year" (John 18:13). The officer who struck Jesus (John 18:22), being one of Annas' retainers, would certainly not have referred to his boss otherwise than as "high priest." Thus, like all so-called difficulties in the Bible, these alleged problems disappear in the light of a little study.

ENDNOTE:

[1] H. R. Reynolds, The Pulpit Commentary (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1962), Vol. 17, II, p. 385.

When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Kidron, where was a garden which he entered, himself and his disciples. (John 18:1)

These words ... refer to the entire farewell discourse just concluded.

The brook Kidron ... This was a "winter torrent" (English Revised Version margin), meaning that it was dry most of the year. It flowed by the southeast wall of the city, and between it and the Mount of Olives.[2] It was down this little valley that David fled from the rebellion of his son Absalom (2 Samuel 15:23); here Asa burned the abominable image (1 Kings 15:3); and near here, Josiah caused the idolatrous vessels to be burned (2 Kings 23:4). In the reign of Hezekiah, the Levites carried the unclean things to this valley (2 Chronicles 29:16); and Jeremiah called it "the valley of the dead bones and of the ashes" (Jeremiah 31:40), adding that this valley should be "holy unto the Lord."

There was a garden ... It was in the garden of Eden that Paradise was lost, and now it would be recovered in another garden where Jesus was strengthened through tears and blood to pay the price of human redemption. There an angel helped him to prepare for the ordeal of Calvary (Luke 22:43). Contrasting with the garden in Eden, this one was situated in the valley of Kidron with its overtones of shame and uncleanness; but this one was "holy unto the Lord," for here he found supernatural help through the angelic messenger who aided him to overcome through tears and blood.

ENDNOTE:

[2] William Hendriksen, Exposition of the Gospel according to John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1961), II, p. 375.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/john-18.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

When Jesus had spoken these words,.... Referring either to his discourses in John 14:1, in which he acquaints his disciples with his approaching death; comforts them under the sorrowful apprehension of his departure from them; gives them many excellent promises for their relief, and very wholesome advice how to conduct themselves; lets them know what should befall them, and that things, however distressing for the present, would have a joyful issue: or else to his prayer in the preceding chapter, in which he had been very importunate with his Father, both for himself and his disciples; or to both of these, which is highly probable:

he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron; the same with "Kidron" in 2 Samuel 15:23; and elsewhere: it had its name, not from cedars, for not cedars but olives chiefly grew upon the mount, which was near it; and besides the name is not Greek, but Hebrew, though the Arabic version renders it, "the brook" אל ארז, "of Cedar": it had its name either from the darkness of the valley in which it ran, being between high mountains, and having gardens in it, and set with trees; or from the blackness of the water through the soil that ran into it, being a kind of a common sewer, into which the Jews cast everything that was unclean and defiling; see 2 Chronicles 29:16. Particularly there was a canal which led from the altar in the temple to it, by which the blood and soil of the sacrifices were carried into itF13Misn. Middot, c. 3. sect. 2. Meila, c. 3. sect. 3. & Bartenora in ib. Maimon. & Bartenora in Misn. Zebachim, c. 8. 7. & Temura, c. 7. sect. 6. . This brook was but about three feet over from bank to bank, and in the summer time was quite dry, and might be walked over dry shod; and is therefore by Josephus sometimes called the brook of KidronF14Antiqu. l. 8. c. 1. sect. 5. , and sometimes the valley of KidronF15Ib. l. 9. c. 7. sect. 3. & de Bello Jud. l. 5. c. 4. sect. 2. & c. 6. sect. 1. : in this valley were corn fields; for hither the sanhedrim sent their messengers to reap the sheaf of the firstfruits, which always was to be brought from a place near to JerusalemF16Misna Menachot, c. 10. sect. 2, 3. ; and it is very likely that willows grew by the brook, from whence they might fetch their willow branches at the feast of tabernacles; for the Jews sayF17Misna Succa, c. 4. sect. 5. , there is a place below Jerusalem called Motza, (in the Gemara it is said to be Klamia or Colonia,) whither they went down and gathered willow branches; it seems to be the valley of Kidron, which lay on the east of Jerusalem, between that and the Mount of OlivesF18Jerom de locis Hebraicis, fol. 92. C. ; it had fields and gardens adjoining to it; see 2 Kings 23:4. So we read of a garden here, into which Christ immediately went, when he passed over this brook. The blood, the filth and soil of it, which so discoloured the water, as to give it the name of the Black Brook, used to be sold to the gardeners to dung their gardens withF19Misn. Yoma, c. 5. sect 6. Maimon. Meila, c. 2. sect. 11. . It was an emblem of this world, and the darkness and filthiness of it, and of the exercises and troubles of the people of God in it, which lie in the way to the heavenly paradise and Mount of Zion, through which Christ himself went, drinking "of the brook in the way", Psalm 110:7; and through which also all his disciples and followers enter into the kingdom of heaven: it may also be a figure of the dark valley of the shadow of death, through which Christ and all his members pass to the heavenly glory. And I see not why this black and unclean brook may not be a representation of the pollutions and defilements of sin; which being laid on Christ when he passed over it, made him so heavy and sore amazed in the human nature, as to desire the cup might pass from him. Once more let it be observed, that it was the brook David passed over when he fled from his son Absalom; in this David was a type of Christ, as in other things: Absalom represented the people of the Jews, who rejected the Messiah, and rebelled against him; Ahithophel, Judas, who betrayed him; and the people that went with David over it, the disciples of our Lord; only there was this difference; there was a father fleeing from a son, here a son going to meet his father's wrath; David and his people wept when they went over this brook, but so did not Christ and his disciples; the sorrowful scene to them both began afterwards in the garden. This black brook and dark valley, and it being very late at night when it was passed over, all add to that dark dispensation, that hour of darkness, which now came upon our Lord; yet he went forth over it of his own accord, willingly and cheerfully; not being forced or compelled by any; and his disciples with him, not to be partners of his sufferings, but to be witnesses of them, and to receive some knowledge and instruction from what they should see and hear:

where was a garden into which he entered; and his disciples: there were no orchards nor gardens within the city of Jerusalem, but rose gardens, which were from the times of the prophetsF20T. Bab. Bava Kama, fol. 82. 2. Abot. R. Nathan, c. 35. Maimon. Beth Habbechira, c. 7. sect. 14. Moses Kotsensis Mitzvot Torn praecept. Aff. 164. ; all others were without; and this was a very proper place for gardens, where so much dung was near at hand. Whether this garden belonged to one of Christ's friends, is not certain; but since he often resorted hither, no doubt it was with the leave, and by the consent of the proprietor of it. However, so it was, that as the first Adam's disobedience was committed in a garden, the second. Adam's obedience to death for sin, began here; and as the sentence of death, on account of sin, was passed in a garden, it began to be executed in one.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on John 18:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/john-18.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

When 1 Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.

(1) Christ goes of his own accord into a garden, which his betrayer knew, to be taken, so that by his obedience he might take away the sin that entered into the world by one man's rebellion, and that in a garden.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on John 18:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/john-18.html. 1599-1645.

John Lightfoot's Commentary on the Gospels

1. When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.

[Over the brook Cedron.] There is a question among expositors about the article in the plural number, and the accent in Cedron; and that upon this occasion, that it might not be thought as if any relation were to be had here to Cedars, wherein one hath been deceived when he thus comments upon it: "It is called the brook Cedron, that is, of Cedars, that grow there." So also the Arab. Interp. in this place, over the brook of Cedar. But in 2 Samuel 15:23, and 1 Kings 2:37, he retains the word Cedron.

Amongst the Talmudists, kedar signifies dung: where the Gloss renders kedar by the easing of nature. Aruch renders it by dung: and the sense of that clause is, More die of inconvenient easing nature than of hunger. I would not affirm that the word kedar was used in this sense in the primitive denomination of the brook Kidron; but rather that the brook was called so from blackness; the waters being blackened by the mud and dirt that ran into it; it being, indeed, rather the sink or common sewer of the city than a brook.

But when the word kedar was used for dung, which it might be at that time when the Greek version was made, perhaps those interpreters might translate the Hebrew word into Greek, which is not unusual with them; so that the brook Cedron might be the same with them as the brook of filth.

[Where was a garden.] The grandees of the nation had their gardens and places of pleasure about the city, yea, even in the mount of Olives: for there were none within the city itself. "The blood that was over and above, after the sprinkling of the inward altar, was poured out towards the foundation on the west of the outward altar. And the blood that was over and above at the outward altar was poured out at the foot of it on the south side: and both the one and the other meeting together ran down through a conveyance under ground into the brook Kidron; and was sold to the gardeners to dung their gardens with; which having bought they used for that purpose."

For the blood, having been once dedicated to sacred use, might not be put to any common use without trespass; so that the gardeners paid so much money for it as would purchase a trespass offering.

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Lightfoot, John. "Commentary on John 18:1". "John Lightfoot Commentary on the Gospels". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jlc/john-18.html. 1675.

People's New Testament

He went... over the brook Cedron. It flows through the valley east of Jerusalem between the city and the Mount of Olives. They went to Gethsemane.

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Original work done by Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
Bibliographical Information
Johnson, Barton W. "Commentary on John 18:1". "People's New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pnt/john-18.html. 1891.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

With (συνsun). See John 12:2 for another example of συνsun in John (common in Paul). The usual μεταmeta reappears in John 18:2.

Over (περανperan). “Beyond,” preposition with the ablative as in John 6:22, John 6:25.

Brook
(χειμαρρουcheimarrou). Old word, flowing (ροοσ ρεωroos class="normal greek">χειμα — reō) in winter (τον Κεδρωνcheima), only here in N.T.

Kidron
(του Κεδρωνton Kedrōn). Literally, “of the Cedars,” “Brook of the Cedars.” Only here in N.T. So 2 Samuel 15:23. Textus Receptus like Josephus (Ant. VIII, 1, 5) has the singular κηποςtou Kedrōn (indeclinable). As a matter of fact it was always dry save after a heavy rain.

A garden
(kēpos). Old word, in N.T. only here, John 18:26; John 19:41 (Joseph‘s); Luke 13:19. John, like Luke, does not give the name Gethsemane (only in Mark 14:32; Matthew 26:36). The brook of the cedars had many unhallowed associations (1 Kings 2:37; 1 Kings 15:13; 2 Kings 23:4.; 2 Chronicles 29:16; Jeremiah 31:40).

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/john-18.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Compare Matthew 26:30, Matthew 26:36-46; Mark 14:26, Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:39-46.

Brook ( χειμάῤῥου )

From χεῖμα , winter, and ῥέω , to flow. Properly, a winter torrent. Only here in the New Testament. Rev., in margin, ravine. In classical Greek it occurs in Demosthenes in the sense of a drain or conduit. It may be taken as equivalent to the Arabic wady which means a stream and its bed, or properly, the valley of a stream even when the stream is dry.

Kidron ( Κέδρων )

Which might also be rendered of the cedars, which some editors prefer. There is some uncertainty as to the exact meaning of the word cedar, which occurs frequently, some supposing it to be a general name for the pine family. A tree of dark foliage is mentioned in the Talmud by the name of cedrum. The ravine of Kidron separated the Mount of Olives from the Temple-Mount. Westcott cites from Derenbourg (“On the History and Geography of Palestine”) a passage of the Talmud to the effect that on the Mount of Olives there were two cedars, under one of which were four shops for the sale of objects legally pure; and that in one of them pigeons enough were sold for the sacrifices of all Israel. He adds: “Even the mention of Kidron by the secondary and popular name of 'the ravine of the cedars' may contain an allusion to a scandal felt as a grievous burden at the time when the priests gained wealth by the sale of victims by the two cedars.” The Kidron is the brook over which David passed, barefoot and weeping, when fleeing from Absalom (2 Samuel 15:23-30). There King Asa burned the obscene idol of his mother (1 Kings 15:13). It was the receptacle for the impurities and abominations of idol-worship, when removed from the temple by the adherents of Jehovah (2 Chronicles 29:16); and, in the time of Josiah, was the common cemetery of the city (2 Kings 23:6). In the vision of Ezekiel (Ezekiel 47:5, Ezekiel 47:6, Ezekiel 47:7) he goes round to the eastern gate of the temple, overhanging the defile of Kidron, and sees the waters rushing down into the valley until the stream becomes a mighty river.

A garden

Neither John nor Luke give the name Gethsemane.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/john-18.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

A garden - Probably belonging to one of his friends. He might retire to this private place, not only for the advantage of secret devotion, but also that the people might not be alarmed at his apprehension, nor attempt, in the first sallies of their zeal, to rescue him in a tumultuous manner. Kedron was (as the name signifies) a dark shady valley, on the east side of Jerusalem, between the city and the mount of Olives, through which a little brook ran, which took its name from it. It was this brook, which David, a type of Christ, went over with the people, weeping in his flight from Absalom. Matthew 26:30 ; Mark 14:26 ; Luke 22:39 .
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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
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Wesley, John. "Commentary on John 18:1". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/john-18.html. 1765.

The Fourfold Gospel

When Jesus had spoken these words1, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Kidron, where was a garden, into which he entered, himself and his disciples.
    GOING TO GETHSEMANE, AND AGONY THEREIN. (A garden between the brook Kidron and the Mount of Olives. Late Thursday night.) Matthew 26:30,36-46; Mark 14:26,32-42; Luke 22:39-46; John 18:1

  1. When Jesus had spoken these words. The words contained in John chapters 14-17.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
Bibliographical Information
J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on John 18:1". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/john-18.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

John 18

John 18:4-6. The other evangelists give a very different account of the circumstances which attended the apprehension of Jesus. We can reconcile them only by supposing that Jesus advanced in order to surrender himself, and Judas in order to betray him, simultaneously, and that John relates one circumstance, and the three remaining evangelists the other.

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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/john-18.html. 1878.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Сказав сие. В своем рассказе Иоанн пропускает многое, повествуемое у других Евангелистов, и делает это сознательно. Его намерением было собрать многое достойное упоминания, но лишь то, о чем умолчали другие. Итак, пусть читатели восполнят пробелы в повествовании, обращаясь к другим священнописателям.

За поток Кедрон. На греческом здесь добавляется артикль, будто поток был назван так из-за кедров. Однако артикль, вероятно, был вставлен по ошибке. Ведь Писание часто упоминает о долине и потоке Кедрон. И место это было названо так из-за своей затемненности. Ибо представляло собой низкую, и потому затененную, долину. Хотя я не настаиваю на этом объяснении и говорю лишь то, что считаю вероятным. В упоминании этого места цель Евангелиста вполне ясна. Он хотел показать, что Христос шел на смерть добровольно. Ведь Иисус пришел на то место, которое, как Он знал, было хорошо знакомо Иуде. Для чего же, если не для того, чтобы добровольно предать Себя изменнику и врагам? И Его не могло обмануть неведение. Ибо Христос знал наперед все, чему предстояло случиться. Затем Иоанн добавляет, что Иисус пошел навстречу врагам. Итак, Он пошел на смерть не вынужденно, но охотно, дабы жертва Его была добровольной. Ведь без Его послушания не было бы нашего искупления. Далее, Он вошел в сад, не для поиска укрытия, но с целью спокойно помолиться. То же, что Он трижды молил спасти Его от смерти, не противоречит Его послушанию. Ему надлежало сражаться с трудностями, дабы победить их. И ныне, покорив страх перед смертью, Он охотно и окрыленно идет ей навстречу.

 

 

 

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-18.html. 1840-57.

James Nisbet's Church Pulpit Commentary

GETHSEMANE

‘Jesus … went forth with His disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden.’

John 18:1

I. Sorrow experienced.—The agony and bloody sweat (Matthew 26:36; Luke 22:44).

II. Indignity suffered.—The traitor’s kiss (Matthew 26:49) and the soldiers’ assault (John 18:3; John 18:12).

III. Majesty displayed.—Christ’s advance towards the band (John 18:4) and announcement of Himself (John 18:5-6).

IV. Power exerted.—The hurling of the band to the ground (John 18:6) and the restraining of them while the disciples escaped (John 18:8).

V. Love manifested.—Christ’s care for His own. ‘Let these go their way’ (John 18:8).

VI. Mercy extended.—The healing of the servant’s ear (Luke 22:51).

VII. Submission rendered.—The drinking of the Father’s cup (John 18:11).

Illustration

‘A great painter, who painted the Man of Sorrows, as an act of the highest worship, showed at once his genius and his reverence by hiding the marred visage, leaving the less noble parts to reveal the agony that had broken His heart. So to us Gethsemane ought ever to be a veiled holy of holies, to be visited, if at all, only at moments when we can look with purified eyes, and allow the meaning of the Saviour in His Passion to steal softly into our minds. We are here on holy ground, and must stand, as it were, in spirit, bareheaded and barefooted, reverent while inquiring.’

(SECOND OUTLINE)

THE SHADOWED GARDEN

From Bethlehem to Calvary Christ’s way was one long Via Dolorosa—the shadow of the Cross was flung before each onward step—but here is agony and bloody sweat indeed, and we may well believe that

‘Weeping angels stood confounded

To behold their Maker thus.’

I. Gethsemane speaks to those who have been led by grace to feel the sinfulness of sin.—It is here and at the Cross that we do indeed see sin in its true colours. Here we see the sinless Christ bowed down with horror to the ground—no sorrow is like unto His sorrow—exceeding great and bitter are His cries. If He were only an example, a hero, a martyr, He showed less heroism than many a martyr. Socrates, Polycarp, Huss, displayed greater courage. But Christ and His unexampled sorrow, Christ and His unknown agony, what does it all mean? It means that ‘Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us.’ (Galatians 3:13).

II. Gethsemane speaks to the lonely.—It may be you feel desolate and sad. The desire of your eyes has been taken from you, and you are alone. You try to keep up before the world, but often bitter tears fall down your cheeks. Now, if you are a disciple of Jesus, remember the disciple is not above his Master. Go and sit among the shadows of Gethsemane, and as you hear the wind moaning through the trees look around and let your eyes fall on Christ. He was there before you. He knows what it is to be desolate and low. When your heart is overwhelmed think of that prostrate Form beneath the olives of Gethsemane. In His agony your Lord prayed there three several times. And herein He set you an example: Go and pray, for you are never so near Christ as when you are drawing near to Him in prayer. ‘Could you not watch with Him one hour?’ (Matthew 26:40). Go and pray, and you will realise the joy and strength and peace of prayer. Go and pray, and you will know in very deed the Christ of Gethsemane can comfort the lonely and sad. Go and pray, and you will find that what begins in prayer will end in praise.

III. Gethsemane speaks to the tempted.—All God’s children pass through the furnace of temptation; all true gold must feel the fire; all good wheat must be threshed; all diamonds must be cut. But the Lord Jesus is able to sympathise with His tempted people, for ‘He knows what sore temptations mean.’ If you were very ill, would you care to be nursed by one who never felt a thrill of pain? Job’s friends could not comfort him, because they were utterly unable to understand his sufferings. But Christ possesses an ability to succour, arising out of knowledge gained by experience. ‘For in that He Himself hath suffered being tempted, He is able to succour them that are tempted’ (Hebrews 2:18). The Lord Himself knows the power of Satan; and it is a mercy indeed that He has bruised the head of the serpent, and that He will give His children strength to tread on the lion and adder, and to trample the dragon under their feet.

—Rev. F. Harper.

Illustration

‘Oh, what wonders love has done!

But how little understood!

God well knows, and God alone,

What produced that sweat of blood.

Who can thy deep wonders see,

Wonderful Gethsemane?

Here’s my claim, and here alone;

None a Saviour more can need.

Deeds of righteousness I’ve none;

No, not one good work to plead.

Not a glimpse of hope for me,

Only in Gethsemane.

Saviour, all the stone remove

From my flinty, frozen heart;

Thaw it with the beams of love,

Pierce it with a blood-dipped dart.

Wound the heart that wounded Thee,

Melt it in Gethsemane.’

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Nisbet, James. "Commentary on John 18:1". Church Pulpit Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cpc/john-18.html. 1876.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.

Ver. 1. Over the brook Cedron] This was the town ditch, 2 Chronicles 30:14, and had its name from its darkness or muddiness; for it received the baggage, as a common sink. Not far from hence was the valley of Hinnom, wherein there was kept a continual fire for the burning of dead carcases and other garbage, as Kimchi notes upon Psal. 27. Hence hell is called Gehenna.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on John 18:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/john-18.html. 1865-1868.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

No sooner had our dear Lord ended his divine prayer, recorded in the foregoing chapter, but he goes forth to meet his sufferings with a willing cheerfulness. He retires with his disciples into a garden, not to hide and shelter himself from his enemies; for, if so, it had been the most improper place he could have chosen; it being the accustomed place where he was wont to pray, and a place well known to Judas, who was now coming to seek him. Judeas which betrayed him knew the place; for Jesus oft-times resorted thither with his disciples; so that Christ repaired to this garden, not to shun but to meet the enemy, to offer himself a prey to the wolves, which in the garden hunted him, and laid hold upon him; he also resorted to this garden now for privacy, that he might freely pour out his soul to God.

Learn hence, that the Lord Jesus Christ was praying to his Father in the garden, when Judas with his black guard came to apprehend him.

As the sin of the first Adam, which brought destruction upon his posterity, was committed in a garden, so the salutary passion of the second Adam, which was to rescue us from that destruction, did begin in a garden also.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on John 18:1". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/john-18.html. 1700-1703.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

Jesus is here in the Garden of Gethsemane. Judas, with the Band of Soldiers, apprehend Christ. He is arraigned before Pilate.

(John 18:1) When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.

I detain the Reader at the very entrance on this Chapter, in order to beg his attention to what the Sacred Writer hath said of this brook Cedron, or Kidron. It is evidently the same as that mentioned, 2 Samuel 15:23. And as David, in passing over this brook in his distresses, was clearly a type of Christ, it merits our attention the more. Some have thought that the name of Cedron, or Kidron, which signified black, was given to it because it lay in a dark valley. And others conclude, that its name was taken from the black and foul waters which ran into it from the temple sacrifices. In either sense, the gloominess of it, and the filth of it, rendered it loathsome. And if, as is supposed, the prophetic Psalm concerning Christ had an eye to this brook when it is said, that he should drink of the brook in the way; Psalms 110:7. it may serve to lead the mind to some very solemn and interesting reflections. Here it was that the good king Josiah caused the polluted vessels of the temple to be burnt. 2 Kings 23:4. And all the uncleanness found in the house of the Lord in Hezekiah's reign, was carried here. 2 Chronicles 29:16. Jesus passing over it, and drinking of the brook in his way, may not unaptly be supposed to represent the filth and blackness of sin, in which Christ as our representative appeared. And his drinking of it might be supposed to refer to the cup of trembling, which, as the Church's Surety he drank to the very dregs, that his people might drink the cup of salvation, and call upon the name of the Lord. Isaiah 51:22; Psalms 116:13.

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/john-18.html. 1828.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

1. τῶν κέδρων] This is evidently a Greek corruption of the Hebrew ( קִדְרוֹן); and coincides with the LXX in ref. and 3 Kings John 15:13, where however (239) (not (240)) has τοῦ κέδρων. If there were cedars in the ravine, the corruption would be easily accounted for. Suidas, under ἰαβίν, quotes Ps. 82:9 thus, ἰαβὶν ἐν τῷ χειμάῤῥῳ τῶν κισσῶν. Instances of the practice of changing foreign names into other words bearing sense in the new language are common in all countries. This being so, it is perhaps safer to follow the best MSS., even against our own conviction, that St. John can hardly have written τῶν κέδρων. Josephus calls it χειμ. κεδρῶνος, or φάραγξ κεδρῶνος. Antt. viii. 1. 5; ix. 7. 3: see 2 Kings 23:6; 2 Kings 23:12.

The ravine in the bottom of which flows the Kidron, is to the East of Jerusalem, between the city and the Mount of Olives.

κῆπος] Lücke suggests that the owner of this garden may have been friendly to (or a disciple of?) Jesus. It was called Gethsemane,—Matt., Mark.

Traditions as to its site are, as usual, various. A square plot of ground in the depth of the ravine is now usually pointed out, and seems to have been fixed on at the time when the empress Helena visited Jerusalem, A.D. 326. Euseb. says Gethsemane was at the Mount of Olives: Jerome, at the foot of the mount. The language of Luke 21:37 leads to a belief that it may have been higher up the mount. Robinson, i. 346.

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on John 18:1". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/john-18.html. 1863-1878.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

John 18:1. ἐξῆλθε, He went forth) straightway. Therefore He had spoken in the city the words which have been written in the preceding chapters.— τῶν κέδρων) It is called by the Hebrews קדרון. The Latin Vulgate has Cedron, not Cedrorum. Therefore we regard the τῶν as inserted by transcribers.(376) The Greeks inflected several Hebrew nouns so as to accord with the sounds of their own language, as Hiller shows in the Onom., p. 715: therefore in this way τῶν κέδρων might have place. But the LXX. never have it so, save at 1 Kings 15:13, where however the Tigurine Edition,(377) and moreover the Cod. Alex., have ἐν τῷ χειμάῤῥῳ τοῦ κέδρων. In other cases the LXX. are wont to say, without an article, ἐν τῷ χειμάῤῥῳ χοῤῥάθ, εἰς τὸν χειμάῤῥουν κεισῶν, κ. τ. λ. Also, during the times of the LXX. translators and of John, the phrase, τῶν κέδρων, does not seem to have been in use.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on John 18:1". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/john-18.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

JOHN CHAPTER 18

John 18:1-9 Judas betrayeth Jesus: the officers and soldiers at

Christ’s word fall to the ground.

John 18:10,11 Peter cutteth off Malchus’s ear.

John 18:12-14 Jesus is led bound to Annas and Caiaphas.

John 18:15-18 Peter denieth him.

John 18:19-24 Jesus is examined by the high priest, and struck by

one of the officers.

John 18:25-27 Peter denieth him the second and third time.

John 18:28-40 Jesus, brought before Pilate, and examined,

confesses his kingdom not to be of this world;

Pilate, testifying his innocence, and offering to

release him, the Jews prefer Barabbas.

Chapter Introduction

Having so largely discoursed the history of our Saviour’s passion, See Poole on "Matthew 26:1", and following verses to Matthew 26:71, See Poole on "Matthew 27:1", and following verses to Matthew 27:66, where (to make the history entire) we compared what the other evangelists also have about it; I shall refer the reader to the notes upon those two chapters, and be the shorter in the notes upon this and the following chapters.

Matthew hath nothing of those discourses, and prayer, which we have had in the four last chapters; no more have any of the other evangelists, who yet all mention his going into the mount of Olives, after his celebration of his last supper, Matthew 26:30 Mark 14:26 Luke 22:39. Our evangelist saith, he went over the brook Cedron into a garden. The others say nothing of a garden, but mention his coming to a place called Gethsemane. It is probable that this village was at the foot of Mount Olivet; and the garden mentioned was a garden near that village, and belonging to it (for they had not their gardens within their towns, but without): now the way to this was over the brook Cedron; of which brook we read, 2 Samuel 15:23; David passed over it when he fled from Absalom; and 1 Kings 2:37, where it is mentioned as Shimei’s limit, which he might not pass. This brook was in the way towards the mount of Olives; which being passed, he with his disciples went into a garden belonging to the town Gethsemane.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on John 18:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/john-18.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

Иисус вышел Величайшее мужество Иисуса видно в Его решимости идти на крест, где будет происходить глумление над Его чистотой и безгрешностью, так как Он понесет гнев Божий за грехи мира (3:16; см. пояснение к 12:27). Наступило время «власти тьмы» (Лк. 22:53; см. пояснение к 1:5; 9:4; 13:30).

поток Кедрон Слово «поток» означает, что это был прерывистый ручей, который большую часть года был пересохшим, а во время сезонных дождей становился стремительным потоком. Этот поток бежал через долину Кедрон между горой храма (на востоке Иерусалима) и Елеонской горой, расположенной еще восточнее.

сад На склонах Елеонской (или Масличной) горы, названной так за постоянно имеющиеся на ней оливковые рощи, было много садов. В Мф. 26:36 и в Мк. 14:32 этот особенный сад назван «Гефсимания», что означает «оливковый (масличный) пресс».

вошел Употребленная здесь форма глагола предполагает наличие обнесенного стеной огороженного вокруг сада места.

(18:1-40) В этой главе приобретают выразительность события ареста Иисуса и суда над Ним. Так как в Евангелии от Иоанна Иисус изображен как Мессия и Сын Божий, то Иоанн описал такие события о страданиях Христа, которые наиболее полно служат этой цели. Описывая все унизительные и позорные действия, направленные против Иисуса, Иоанн умело показывает, что эти события не умаляют Его Личность и миссию, а скорее представляют убедительное доказательство, подтверждающее, Кто Он и для чего пришел (1:29; ср. 2Кор. 5:21).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on John 18:1". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/john-18.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

These words; the words of the wonderful prayer which he had just offered.

Cedron; or Kidron, a torrent-bed which ran through the valley of Jehoshaphat, on the east side of Jerusalem, between the city and the mount of Olives. It has water only in the rainy season. 2 Samuel 15:23. By communing with God in prayer and supplication with thanksgiving, a man is prepared to go forth, in His name and strength, to any duties or trials to which he is called.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/john-18.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

§ 132-3.THE AGONY IN GETHSEMANE, vv. AND THE BETRAYAL, John 18:1-12.

1.He went forth—That is, as we understand it, from the supper-room on the eastern part of Mount Zion. As no other going forth is unequivocally indicated from the beginning of chapter xiii to this present clause, we are obliged to conclude that the discourse, stretching probably into midnight, was entirely uttered in the same room. The route now taken by Jesus to Gethsemane the reader will find described in our note on Matthew 26:36.

The brook Cedron—The brook Cedron, Kedron, or Kidron, (the name being derived from a Hebrew word signifying turbid,) is a winter or rain torrent, formed by the waters occasionally running from the sides of Olivet and Moriah, into what is now called the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The ravine or valley takes its origin above a mile to the northwest of the city, and, deepening as it proceeds, makes an angular turn opposite the temple. Thence southeastwardly, it passes between Siloam and the city, and thence goes toward the Dead Sea through a deep and singularly wild gorge. During the summer season, in the absence of rains, the channel is perfectly dry, so that in reality its occasional turbid stream formed a sort of gutter for the eastern margin of the city. By a bridge over the ravine the traveller still passes from St. Stephen’s gate to Gethsemane.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/john-18.html. 1874-1909.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

“When Jesus had spoken these words He went out with His disciples over the Brook Kidron where there was a garden into which he and his disciples entered.”

Having given His last words to His disciples and having made His final prayer Jesus went out to fulfil His destiny. His disciples were probably apprehensive as a result of what He had been saying, but they were probably not unduly alarmed. They would not be expecting anything to happen that night, and they had been in alarming situations before and had always come out of them. Jesus, however, knew exactly what lay before Him.

‘Went out.’ That probably signifies ‘went out from the Upper Room’. However those who see a departure at the end of chapter 15 see it as meaning went out of the city, following dissertation and prayer somewhere en route.

‘The Brook Kidron’. They crossed the wadi (cheimarrou) Kidron, in the Valley of Kidron. ‘Cheimarrou’ means ‘flowing in winter’ demonstrating that the particular stream bed only contained flowing water in the rainy season and was a dry river bed in the summer. This is another of the author’s reminiscences not mentioned in the other Gospels. But it may well be that John was remembering the occasion when the earlier David had crossed the brook Kidron at a time when his life too was in danger, only to finally return triumphant (2 Samuel 15:23). He might thus be seen as stressing that here was the greater David following in the pathway of His predecessor.

‘Where there was a Garden.’ After crossing the wadi they came to a Garden, identified in Matthew 26:36; Mark 14:32 as Gethsemane. This would be located somewhere on the lower slopes of the Mount of Olives.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/john-18.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

"These words" evidently refer to all of what Jesus had said in chapters13-17 all of which He may have spoken in the upper room. The Kidron Valley formed the eastern boundary of Jerusalem. The Kidron was also a wadi or dry streambed that contained water only when it rained hard. The Mount of Olives and the Garden of Gethsemane lay across the Kidron to the east. John only mentioned Gethsemane as the site of Jesus" arrest. He did not record Jesus" praying there (cf. Matthew 26:30; Matthew 26:36-46; Mark 14:26; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:39-46). The verbs that John used to describe Jesus entering and leaving Gethsemane suggest that it may have been a walled garden (cf. John 18:13).

"The present Gethsemane is only some seventy steps square, and though its old gnarled olives cannot be those (if such there were) of the time of Jesus, since all trees in that valley-those also which stretched their shadows over Jesus-were hewn down in the Roman siege, they may have sprung from the old roots, or from the odd kernels." [Note: Edersheim, 2:533.]

The parallels between Jesus" experiences and David"s at this point are striking. Both men crossed the Kidron having been rejected by their nation and betrayed by someone very close to them, and hangings followed both incidents (cf2Samuel15; 2 Samuel 18:9-17; Matthew 27:3-10; John 18:1-3).

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/john-18.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

John 18:1. When Jesus had spoken these things, he went forth with his disciples over the winter-torrent Kidron. The last discourse of Jesus to His disciples and His intercessory prayer to His Father have been spoken; and, from the upper room in which we have already seen that this took place, Jesus now ‘went forth’ to meet the fate that had been prepared for Him. More than this seems, however, to be expressed by the word ‘went forth.’ It is the solemn word by which the Evangelist would express the free surrender of Himself by Jesus to His approaching fate (comp. its use in John 18:4). It is the continuation of His ‘going forth’ from the Father (chap. John 8:42).

Descending the steep slope then which here leads from the temple-mount into the valley bounding Jerusalem on the east, Jesus first crossed the brook which flowed down the valley, although in a course at that date much nearer the temple walls than is indicated by its present channel. Some doubt exists as to the precise meaning of the name given to the brook. The Greek words may signify either ‘The Kidron’ or ‘The Cedars,’ there being evidence to show that a tree of dark foliage, probably a species of cedar, is known in the Talmud by the name Cedrun. The first signification seems, however, to be the more probable, and the apparently plural termination of the original may be easily explained: it is the Grecising of the Aramaic name ending in ‘on,’ as Enon, Kishon, Arnon. The context compels us to ask whether the name is used only in its geographical force, or whether it is associated in the Evangelist’s mind with any of those deeper ideas so often connected by him with names. The epithet affixed to it guides us to a solution of this question. It is the only occasion on which in the New Testament the term ‘winter torrent’ is applied to the Kidron, a term derived from that word ‘winter’ which we have already found used in this Gospel with a reference deeper than to the season of the year (chap. John 10:22); while in the Old Testament it is the symbol of tribulation, trial, and judgment (Psalms 18:4; Psalms 110:7; Psalms 124:4 : Jeremiah 47:2). The Hebrew name Kidron again is derived from a verb signifying to be black or dirty, hence to mourn or to be distressed, mourners being wont to cover themselves with sackcloth and ashes (Psalms 35:13-14; Psalms 38:6; Psalms 42:9; Psalms 43:2). Putting these considerations together, we cannot doubt that the Evangelist sees in the Kidron the stream of trouble, the ‘winter-torrent’ of sorrow and affliction. If we may suppose that the stream took its name from the dark colour given to its waters by the blood of the sacrifices drained off into its course from the temple-mount, the meaning involved in the language before us will be still more striking. It was over this brook that David passed in the darkest hour of his history, that in which he fled from Absalom (2 Samuel 15:23). When, accordingly, we observe that the quotation in John 13:18 is from a Psalm (Psalms 41) in which the events of that sad day are commemorated, and that the quotation is made in illustration of these last scenes of the life of Jesus, it seems clear that we are invited to behold in this crossing of the black mountain-torrent the crossing of the true David, ‘the King of Israel’ (chap. John 12:13), in the hour of a still deeper anguish than that in which His great prototype had been involved.

Where was a garden, into the which he entered, himself and his disciples. The garden is that of Gethsemane; not so much a garden in our sense of the word as an orchard, a garden with trees, and these, as appears from the derivation of its Hebrew name, olives. Peculiar attention is drawn to the leading person of the scene by the addition of the word ‘Himself.’

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/john-18.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

John 18:1. Having finished His prayer and His discourse, Jesus , “went out” from the city, as is suggested by , “to the other side of the torrent,” cf.John 6:1. sc. , a stream that flows in winter, a torrent; of Jabbok, Genesis 32:22; of Kidron, 2 Samuel 15:23. , “the Kidron,” described in Henderson’s Palestine, 90. “where was a garden,” in Mark 14:32, described as (a country place, or estate), and called . The owner was probably a friend of Jesus. Into this garden He went with His disciples.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on John 18:1". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/john-18.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

===============================

[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Cedron, not Cedrorum. In most Greek copies, Greek: ton Kedron. In some manuscripts Greek: tou Kedron. So the Protestant translation, the brook Cedron.

====================

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on John 18:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/john-18.html. 1859.

Bridgeway Bible Commentary

150. Jesus prays in Gethsemane (Matthew 26:36-46; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:39-46; John 18:1)

It must have been getting towards midnight by the time Jesus and his disciples reached the Garden of Gethsemane. Then, taking Peter, James and John with him, Jesus moved to a spot where they could be alone. He was filled with anguish and horror as he saw clearly what his death would mean. The three friends could do little to lessen his anguish except stay awake in sympathy with him. He had to battle against the temptation to avoid the suffering that lay ahead, but the battle was one he had to fight and win alone (Mark 14:32-34; Luke 22:39-40).

The 'cup' of suffering that caused Jesus such distress was not just physical suffering, great though that was. Above all it was the inner agony as the sinless one, God's Son, took upon himself the sin of his human creatures and bore God's wrath on their behalf (cf. 2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 2:9; 1 Peter 2:24). It was an experience no one else could know, for no one else had Jesus' sinlessness or shared his relationship with the Father. Jesus had a real human will, and when he considered the ordeal that lay ahead, a conflict arose within him. As he fought against the temptation to avoid the cross, his agony of mind was so intense that he perspired what appeared to be blood. But he won the battle, and determined that he would willingly submit to whatever his Father would have him go through (Mark 14:35-36; Luke 22:41-44).

Perhaps the reason why the disciples were unable to stay awake was not simply that they were over-tired, but that they were unable to withstand the satanic forces at work in the garden. Jesus saw their weakness and urged them to be alert and pray for strength, because they too were going to be put to the test. They would face the temptation to deny Jesus in order to save themselves (Mark 14:37-40; Luke 22:45-46).

Jesus, by contrast, would give himself without reservation, in order to save others. The decisive victory he won in the garden enabled him to meet his betrayal, trial and death with renewed courage and assurance (Mark 14:41-42).

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Flemming, Donald C. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Brideway Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bbc/john-18.html. 2005.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

When Jesus, &c. = Jesus, having spoken.

Jesus. App-98.

words = things. went forth: i.e. from the place where He had

been speaking. See John 14:31.

with. Greek. sun. App-104.

brook. Greek. cheimarros, a winter torrent. Occurs only here.

Cedron. Called Kidron (2 Samuel 15:23 and elsewhere in O.T.) David crossed it, when with a few faithful followers he fled from Absalom. The name seems to have been given both to the valley and to the torrent which, in winter, sometimes ran through it. Now Wady-en-Nar.

garden. Greek. kepos. An orchard or plantation. Compare Luke 13:19.

into. Greek. eis. App-104.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on John 18:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/john-18.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.

Here all the four Evangelists at length meet again; each of them recording the great historical facts at which we have now arrived-the departure from the upper room and out of the city, the entrance into Gethsemane, the treason of Judas, and the seizure of their Lord. But whereas all the first three Evangelists record the Agony in the Garden, John-holding this, no doubt, as already familiar to his readers-gives us, instead of it, some of the circumstances of the apprehension in more minute detail than had been before record.

When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples. With this explicit statement before them, it is surprising that some good critics should hold that the departure took place when Jesus said, "Arise, let us go hence" (John 14:31), and that all which is recorded in John 15:1-27; John 16:1-33, including the prayer of John 17:1-26, was uttered in the open air, and on the way to Gethsemane. As to how we are to view the proposal to depart so long before it actually took place, see the note at John 14:31.

Over the brook Cedron (Kedron) - a deep, dark ravine, to the northeast of Jerusalem, through which flowed this small 'storm-brook' or 'winter-torrent,' and which in summer is dried up. As it is in the reflective Gospel only that the circumstance of His crossing the Brook Kedron is mentioned, we can hardly doubt that to the Evangelist's own mind there was present the strikingly analogous crossing of the same dark streamlet by the royal sufferer (2 Samuel 15:23); possibly also certain other historical associations (see 2 Kings 23:12): 'Thus surrounded,' says Stier, by such memorials and typical allusions, the Lord descends into the dust of humiliation and anguish.'

Where was a garden - at the foot of the Mount of Olives, "called Gethsemane" (Matthew 26:30; Matthew 26:36) or 'oil-press' [ gat (Hebrew #1660) sh

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/john-18.html. 1871-8.

The Bible Study New Testament

1. After Jesus had said this prayer. McGarvey says that now they leave the upstairs room, cross the brook Kidron, into Gethsemane. [This ends the session that began at John 13:1.]

 

 

 

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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on John 18:1". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/john-18.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(1) He went forth with his disciples—i.e., He went forth from the city. (Comp. John 14:31.)

The brook Cedron.—The Greek words mean exactly “the winter torrent Kedron,” and occur again in the LXX. of 2 Samuel 15:23, and 2 Kings 15:13. The name is formed from a Hebrew word which means “black.” The torrent was the “Niger” of Judæa, and was so called from the colour of its turbid waters, or from the darkness of the chasm through which they flowed. The name seems to have been properly applied not so much to the torrent itself as to the ravine through which it flowed, on the east of Jerusalem, between the city and the Mount of Olives. Its sides are for the most part precipitous, but here and there paths cross it, and at the bottom are cultivated strips of land. Its depth varies, but in some places it is not less than 100 feet. (Comp. article, “Kidron,” in Kitto’s Biblical Cyclopœdia, vol. ii., p. 731; and for the reading see Excursus B: Some Variations in the Text of St. John’s Gospel.)

Where was a garden.—Comp. Matthew 26:36. St. John does not record the passion of Gethsemane, but this verse indicates its place in the narrative. (Comp. Note on John 12:27.)

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/john-18.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.
spoken
13:31-35; 14:1-17
he
14:31; Matthew 26:36; Mark 14:32; Luke 22:39,40
the brook
2 Samuel 15:23; 1 Kings 15:13; 2 Kings 23:6,12; 2 Chronicles 15:16; 30:14; Jeremiah 31:40
Kidron
a garden.
26; Genesis 2:15; 3:23
Reciprocal: Leviticus 2:6 - General1 Kings 2:37 - over the;  2 Kings 23:4 - Kidron;  2 Chronicles 29:16 - Kidron;  Nehemiah 2:15 - the brook;  Matthew 26:30 - they went;  Matthew 26:47 - lo;  Mark 14:42 - GeneralActs 4:27 - the people

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on John 18:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/john-18.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Ver. 1. "When Jesus had spoken these words, He went forth with His disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which He entered, and His disciples."—"He went out:" there was not any point of departure mentioned in the preceding chapter: we must derive it therefore from the πέραν. He went from this side Kidron to the other. As the passage of our Lord over the Kidron is immediately connected with His last discourses, ch. 15-17 ( ταῦτα εἰπών), these discourses must have been uttered in the neighbourhood of the border, on this side: compare the introductory remarks on ch. 14. The brook Kidron is mentioned only here, in the New Testament: χείμαρρος, flowing in winter,—a description which perfectly suits the peculiarity of Kidron. "Nine months of the year the Kidron is without water" (v. Raumer). William of Tyre says, "The brook Kidron, swollen by rains, was wont to flow in the winter months." We have a comment on the name Kidron, troubled, in Job 6:16, where Job compares his faithless friends to brooks: "What time they wax warm, they vanish; when it is hot, they are consumed out of their place." The reading τῶν κέδρων for τοῦ κέδρων sprang from the ignorance of copyists. St John, who everywhere goes back to the text of the Old Testament, cannot possibly have so written it, as the Hebrew name Kidron has nothing whatever to do with cedars. Lachmann retains τοῦ κέδρων, in token that the external reasons for this reading are at least of equal force with those which sustain the other; and the internal reasons are altogether in its favour. Josephus knows nothing of the brook of the cedars: he always uses ὁ κεδρών, or merely κεδρών: compare the passage in Wetstein. While he declines the name χείμαρρος κεδρώνος, Antiq. viii. 1, 5, the more Hebraizing John avoids this by inserting the article: so, in 2 Samuel 15:23, 1 Kings 15:13, τῶν, instead of τοῦ, must be attributed to the transcribers, since no one who had the original before him could have so written. And the true reading there is not destitute of all external testimony: see Holmes. St John gives prominence to the passage of the Kidron probably with some reference to 2 Samuel 15:23, where David, in his conflict with his rebellious subjects, went over the Kidron: ὁ βασιλεὺς διέβη τὸν χειμάρρουν κεδρών.

The garden, here alone mentioned, in which Jesus, according to the abundant testimony of the first Evangelists, overcame death for His people, is the counterpart of that garden in which the first Adam succumbed to death. Augustin: It was fitting that the blood of the Physician should there be poured out, where the disease of the sick man first commenced. The property to which the garden belonged is called, in Matthew 26:36, Mark 14:32, Gethsemane. St John does not mention the name (any more than St Luke), because the first two Evangelists had made it known. These give the name; St Luke designates the place as on the Mount of Olives; St John places it beyond the Kidron.

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Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on John 18:1". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/john-18.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

1.When Jesus bad spoken these words. In this narrative John passes by many things which the other three Evangelists relate, and he does so on purposej as his intention was to collect many things worthy of being recorded, about which they say nothing; and, therefore, let the reader go to the other Evangelists to find what is wanting here.

Over the brook Kedron. In the Greek original there is an article prefixed to Kedron, which would seem to intimate that the brook takes its name from the cedars; (130) but this is probably an error which has crept into the text; for the valley or brook Kedron is often mentioned in Scripture. The place was so called from its being dark or gloomy, because, being a hollow valley, it was shady, (131) on that point, however, I do not dispute: I only state what is more probable.

The chief thing to be considered is, the intention of the Evangelist in pointing out the place; for his object was, to show that Christ went to death willingly. He came into a place which, he knew, was well known to Judeas. Why did he do this but to present himself, of his own accord, to the traitor and to the enemies? Nor was he led astray by inadvertency, for he knew beforehand all that was to happen. John afterwards mentions also that he went forward to meet them. He therefore suffered death, not by constraint, but willingly, that he might be a voluntary sacrifice; for without obedience atonement would not have been obtained for us. Besides, he entered into the garden, not for the purpose of seeking a place of concealment, but that he might have a better opportunity, and greater leisure, for prayer. That he prayed three times to be delivered from death, (Matthew 26:44,) is not inconsistent with that voluntary obedience of which we have spoken; (132) for it was necessary that he should contend with difficulties, that he might be victorious. Now, having subdued the dread of death, he advances to death freely and willingly.

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 18:1". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-18.html. 1840-57.