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Bible Dictionaries

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words

Lower, Lowest

A — 1: κατώτερος

(Strong's #2737 — Adjective — katoteros — kat-o'-ter-os )

the comparative degree of kato, "beneath," is used in Ephesians 4:9 , of Christ's descent into "the lower parts of the earth;" two of the various interpretations of this phrase are (1) that the earth is in view in contrast to heaven, (2) that the region is that of hades, the Sheol of the OT. Inasmuch as the passage is describing the effects not merely of the Incarnation but of the death and resurrection of Christ, the second interpretation is to be accepted; cp., e.g., Psalm 16:10; 63:9; where the Sept. has the superlative; Psalm 139:15; Acts 2:31 . Moreover, as Westcott says, it is most unlikely that the phrase would be used to describe the earth. The word mere (plural of meros), "parts," would have no force in such a meaning.

A — 2: ἔσχατος

(Strong's #2078 — Adjective — eschatos — es'-khat-os )

"last, utmost, lowest," is rendered "lowest" in Luke 14:9,10 , of the "lowest" place at a meal. See LAST.

B — 1: ἐλαττόω

(Strong's #1642 — Verb — elattoo — el-at-to'-o )

denotes "to make less" (elatton, "less"), and is used in the Active Voice in Hebrews 2:7 , "Thou madest (Him) ... lower," and in the Passive in Hebrews 2:9 , "was made ... lower," and John 3:30 , "(I must) decrease," (lit., "be made less").

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Bibliography Information
Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Lower, Lowest'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ved/l/lower-lowest.html. 1940.

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