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Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words
"a whip" (from Latin, flagellum), is used of the "scourge" of small cords which the Lord made and employed before cleansing the Temple, John 2:15 . However He actually used it, the whip was in itself a sign of authority and judgment.
(akin to A: Latin, flagello; Eng., "flagellate"), is the word used in Matthew 27:26; Mark 15:15 , of the "scourging" endured by Christ and administered by the order of Pilate. Under the Roman method of "scourging," the person was stripped and tied in a bending posture to a pillar, or stretched on a frame. The "scourge" was made of leather thongs, weighted with sharp pieces of bone or lead, which tore the flesh of both the back and the breast (cp. Psalm 22:17 ). Eusebius (Chron.) records his having witnessed the suffering of martyrs who died under this treatment.Note: In John 19:1 the "scourging" of Christ is described by Verb No. 2, as also in His prophecy of His sufferings, Matthew 20:19; Mark 10:34; Luke 18:33 . In Acts 22:25 the similar punishment about to be administered to Paul is described by Verb No. 3 (the "scourging" of Roman citizens was prohibited by the Porcian law of 197, B.C.).
akin to mastix (see below), is used (a) as mentioned under No. 1; (b) of Jewish "scourgings," Matthew 10:17; 23:34; (c) metaphorically, in Hebrews 12:6 , of the "chastening" by the Lord administered in love to His spiritual sons.Note: The Jewish method of "scourging," as described in the Mishna, was by the use of three thongs of leather, the offender receiving thirteen stripes on the bare breast and thirteen on each shoulder, the "forty stripes save one," as administered to Paul five times (2 Corinthians 11:24 ). See also SCOURGINGS (below).
akin to No. 2, occurs in Acts 22:25 (see No. 1, above). In the Sept., Numbers 22:25 .
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Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Scourge'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ved/s/scourge.html. 1940.