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Bible Dictionaries

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words

Evil, Evil-Doer

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A — 1: κακός
(Strong's #2556 — Adjective — kakos — kak-os' )

stands for "whatever is evil in character, base," in distinction (wherever the distinction is observable) from poneros (see No. 2), which indicates "what is evil in influence and effect, malignant." Kakos is the wider term and often covers the meaning of poneros. Kakos is antithetic to kalos, "fair, advisable, good in character," and to agathos, "beneficial, useful, good in act;" hence it denotes what is useless, incapable, bad; poneros is essentially antithetic to chrestos, "kind, gracious, serviceable;" hence it denotes what is destructive, injurious, evil. As evidence that poneros and kakos have much in common, though still not interchangeable, each is used of thoughts, cp. Matthew 15:19 with Mark 7:21 ; of speech, Matthew 5:11 with 1 Peter 3:10 ; of actions, 2 Timothy 4:18 with 1 Thessalonians 5:15 ; of man, Matthew 18:32 with Matthew 24:48 .

The use of kakos may be broadly divided as follows: (a) of what is morally or ethically "evil," whether of persons, e.g., Matthew 21:41 ; 24:48 ; Philippians 3:2 ; Revelation 2:2 , or qualities, emotions, passions, deeds, e.g., Mark 7:21 ; John 18:23,30 ; Romans 1:30 ; 3:8 ; 7:19,21 ; 13:4 ; 14:20 ; 16:19 ; 1 Corinthians 13:5 ; 2 Corinthians 13:7 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:15 ; 1 Timothy 6:10 ; 2 Timothy 4:14 ; 1 Peter 3:9,12 ; (b) of what is injurious, destructive, baneful, pernicious, e.g., Luke 16:25 ; Acts 16:28 ; 28:5 ; Titus 1:12 ; James 3:8 ; Revelation 16:2 , where kakos and poneros come in that order, "noisome and grievous." See B, No. 3. For compounds of kakos, see below.

A — 2: πονηρός
(Strong's #4190 — Adjective — poneros — pon-ay-ros' )

akin to ponos, "labor, toil," denotes "evil that causes labor, pain, sorrow, malignant evil" (see No. 1); it is used (a) with the meaning bad, worthless, in the physical sense, Matthew 7:17,18 ; in the moral or ethical sense, "evil," wicked; of persons, e.g., Matthew 7:11 ; Luke 6:45 ; Acts 17:5 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:2 ; 2 Timothy 3:13 ; of "evil" spirits, e.g., Matthew 12:45 ; Luke 7:21 ; Acts 19:12,13,15,16 ; of a generation, Matthew 12:39,45 ; 16:4 ; Luke 11:29 ; of things, e.g., Matthew 5:11 ; 6:23 ; 20:15 ; Mark 7:22 ; Luke 11:34 ; John 3:19 ; 7:7 ; Acts 18:14 ; Galatians 1:4 ; Colossians 1:21 ; 1 Timothy 6:4 ; 2 Timothy 4:18 ; Hebrews 3:12 ; 10:22 ; James 2:4 ; 4:16 ; 1 John 3:12 ; 2 John 1:11 ; 3 John 1:10 ; (b) with the meaning toilsome, painful, Ephesians 5:16 ; 6:13 ; Revelation 16:2 . Cp. poneria, "iniquity, wickedness." For its use as a noun see B, No. 2.

A — 3: φαῦλος
(Strong's #5337 — Adjective — phaulos — fow'-los )

primarily denotes "slight, trivial, blown about by every wind;" then, "mean, common, bad," in the sense of being worthless, paltry or contemptible, belonging to a low order of things; in John 5:29 , those who have practiced "evil" things, RV, "ill" (phaula), are set in contrast to those who have done good things (agatha); the same contrast is presented in Romans 9:11 ; 2 Corinthians 5:10 , in each of which the most authentic mss. have phaulos for kakos; he who practices "evil" things (RV, "ill") hates the light, John 3:20 ; jealousy and strife are accompanied by "every vile deed," James 3:16 . It is used as a noun in Titus 2:8 (see B, No. 4). See BAD , ILL , VILE.

B — 1: κακία
(Strong's #2549 — Noun Feminine — kakia — kak-ee'-ah )

primarily, "badness" in quality (akin to A, No. 1), denotes (a) "wickedness, depravity, malignity," e.g., Acts 8:22 , "wickedness;" Romans 1:29 , "maliciousness;" in James 1:21 , AV, "naughtiness;" (b) "the evil of trouble, affliction," Matthew 6:34 , only, and here alone translated "evil." See MALICE , MALICIOUSNESS , NAUGHTINESS , WICKEDNESS.

B — 2: πονηρός
(Strong's #4190 — Adjective — poneros — pon-ay-ros' )

the adjective (A, No. 2), is used as a noun, (a) of Satan as the "evil" one, Matthew 5:37 ; 6:13 ; 13:19,38 ; Luke 11:4 (in some texts); John 17:15 ; Ephesians 6:16 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:3 ; 1 John 2:13,14 ; 3:12 ; 5:18,19 ; (b) of human beings, Matthew 5:45 ; (probably ver. 39); 13:49; 22:10; Luke 6:35 ; 1 Corinthians 5:13 ; (c) neuter, "evil (things)," Matthew 9:4 ; 12:35 ; Mark 7:23 ; Luke 3:19 ; "that which is evil," Luke 6:45 ; Romans 12:9 ; Acts 28:21 , "harm."

B — 3: κακός
(Strong's #2556 — Adjective — kakon — kak-os' )

the neuter of A, No. 1, is used with the article, as a noun, e.g., Acts 23:9 ; Romans 7:21 ; Hebrews 5:14 ; in the plural, "evil things," e.g., 1 Corinthians 10:6 ; 1 Timothy 6:10 , "all kinds of evil," RV.

B — 4: φαῦλος
(Strong's #5337 — Adjective — phaulon — fow'-los )

the neuter of A, No. 3, is used as a noun in Titus 2:8 .

B — 5: κακοποιός
(Strong's #2555 — Adjective — kakopois — kak-op-oy-os' )

properly the masculine gender of the adjective, denotes an "evil-doer" (kakon, "evil," poieo, "to do"), 1 Peter 2:12,14 ; 4:15 ; in some mss. in 1 Peter 3:16 ; John 18:30 (so the AV). For a synonymous word see Note (1). Cp. the verb below. In the Sept., Proverbs 12:4 ; 24:19 . See MALEFACTOR.

Notes: (1) Kakourgos, "an evil-worker" (kakon, "evil," ergon, "a work"), is translated "evil-doer" in 2 Timothy 2:9 , AV (RV, "malefactor"). Cp. Luke 23:32,33,39 .

(2) Adikema, "an injustice" (a, negative, dikaios, "just"), is translated "evil-doing," in Acts 24:20 , AV, RV, "wrong-doing." See INIQUITY , WRONG.

C — 1: κακόω
(Strong's #2559 — Verb — kakoo — kak-o'-o )

"to ill-treat" (akin to A, No. 1), is rendered "to entreat evil" in Acts 7:6,19 ; "made (them) evil affected," Acts 14:2 . See AFFECT , AFFLICT , HARM , HURT , VEX.

C — 2: κακοποιέω
(Strong's #2554 — Verb — kakopoieo — kak-op-oy-eh'-o )

signifies "to do evil" (cp. B, No. 5), Mark 3:4 (RV, "to do harm"); so, Luke 6:9 ; in 3 John 1:11 , "doeth evil," in 1 Peter 3:17 , "evil doing." See HARM.

Note: Cp. kakologeo, "to speak evil" (see CURSE , SPEAK); kakopatheo, "to endure evil" (see ENDURE , SUFFER); kakopatheia, "suffering affliction" (see SUFFER); kakoucheo, "to suffer adversity" (see SUFFER).

D — 1: κακῶς
(Strong's #2560 — Adverb — kakos — kak-oce' )

"badly, evilly," akin to A, No. 1, is used in the physical sense, "to be sick," e.g., Matthew 4:24 ; Mark 1:32,34 ; Luke 5:31 (see DISEASE). In Matthew 21:41 this adverb is used with the adjective, "He will miserably destroy those miserable men," more lit., "He will evilly destroy those men (evil as they are)," with stress on the adjective; (b) in the moral sense, "to speak evilly," John 18:23 ; Acts 23:5 ; "to ask evilly," James 4:3 . See AMISS , GRIEVOUSLY , SICK , SORE.


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Bibliography Information
Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Evil, Evil-Doer'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/ved/e/evil-evil-doer.html. 1940.

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