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Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature
Canada, Dominion of. (2)
— We, here bring down this article to the present date.
I. Secular. —
1. General — This confederation of provinces has almost completed the first quarter of a century of its existence. The census has been taken during the present year, 1891; and an estimate of the present population, made at Ottawa, places it at 5,250,000. The net public debt was, on June 30, 1889, $237,530,042.
In 1886, the Canadian Pacific Railway was opened for passengers, and has made accessible for settlement an enormous territory of the richest agricultural and mineral resources, and of scenery surpassing in natural grandeur the famous countries of Europe. Towns have sprung up along the line with great rapidity, and commerce has opened up the resources of the ancient East for the benefit of the Dominion. Population on the Pacific coast has increased, and legal steps have been taken to found a university where, five years ago, a normal school was impossible.
2. Commerce. — The tonnage of Canada for the year ending on the 30th of June, 1889, was 16,054,221. Her exports were $89,189,167, and her imports, $115,224,931. Her exports to Britain were $38,088,051, and to the United States, $38,490,571. The year 1868 showed exports to the value of $57,567,888, and imports, $73,459,644.
The railway mileage of Canada on June 30, 1889, was 13,741 miles, placing her sixth on the list of nations in this respect.
New regulations place the interest on deposits in the Post-office Savings Bank at 3½ per cent.; and deposits may range from 25 cents to $3000.
3. Literary and Artistic. — The Royal Society of Canada, founded by the Marquis of Lorne, recognizes and promotes literary eminence. It has four departments — French, English, mathematics, with physics and chemistry, and geology, with biology. The Royal Academy of Arts, founded by the Marquis of Lorne and the Princess Louise, does the same work for art.
II. Ecclesiastical. —
1. Church of England. — Up to August 15, 1890, the dioceses of this Church were not consolidated into one united whole. At a conference held in St. John's College, Winnipeg, on that date, a scheme for the formation of a general synod, to include the whole church of British North America, was adopted. This synod will consist of the bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland, with clerical and lay delegates, chosen by the diocesan synods, where they exist, or appointed by the bishop of a diocese without a synod. Dioceses with fewer than 25 licensed clergymen send one delegate of each order; those with from 25 to 49 clergymen, inclusive, two such delegates; those with from 50 to 99, three such delegates; and those with 100 clergymen and upwards, four such delegates.
The synod shall have two houses — the upper, composed of the bishops, and the lower, composed of clergy and laity — each to sit separately, except by unanimous consent. The primate of the General Synod shall be elected by the upper house from the metropolitans. He shall hold office for life, or so long as he remains bishop of any included diocese, though he may resign. The General Synod shall deal with any matters affecting the whole Church, such as doctrine} worship, discipline; all agencies for promoting church work, missionary or educational; the adjustment between dioceses of funds for clergy, widows and orphans, and superannuation; the transfer of clergy between dioceses; the training of candidates for holy orders; the constitution and powers of a court of appeal; and the erection, division, and rearrangement of provinces. The expenses of the synod, including travelling expenses of members, shall be met by an assessment of the dioceses proportionate to their representation, dioceses having only one delegate of each order being exempt. The first meeting of the General Synod is appointed for Toronto, the second Wednesday in September, 1893, and is to be convened by the metropolitan senior by consecration. The Church of England in Canada has 20 dioceses and 20 bishops, about 450,000 members, 1019 clergy-meal. Her contributions, for the year ending July 31, 1890, for domestic and foreign missions, were $37,968.33, those for foreign missions alone being $15,190.40. She has 3 missionaries in Japan. Foreign missions include work among Chinese and other pagan races in Canada.
A college for boys ("Ridley College") has been founded in St. Catharines, Ontario, for the interests of Evangelical Protestants in the Church.
2. Presbyterians. — The Presbyterian Church of Canada has 5 synods, those of the Maritime Provinces, Montreal and Ottawa, Toronto and Kingston, Hamilton and London, Manitoba and the North-west Territories, besides the Presbytery of Indore, in India, with synodical powers; the presbytery of Honan, in China, and that of Trinidad, embracing 43 home and 3 foreign presbyteries. Besides these, there is the New Hebrides mission. The communicants number 171,240, of whom 6475 are on missions. There are 1039 ministers, including ordained missionaries.
The missions are among French Canadians, American Indians, in India, China, Trinidad, and the New Hebrides. The latter has 3 ministers as missionaries. Trinidad has 6. China has 8 Canadian and 2 native missionaries, besides a medical missionary, 2 nurses, with 50 native preachers and teachers. India has 5 ministers, 8 ladies and numerous other agents engaged in mission work, and at Indore College. Seven ordained missionaries are among the American Indians, and 37 among the French Canadians. There are 36 mission schools, 26 mission churches, and 92 stations for the French, with 1337 members.
One of the schools is at St. Anne, in Illinois. There are 5853 elders: Sunday scholars and those in Bible classes number 128,886. Workers in such schools number 15,441. The volumes in libraries are 197.998. Those who attend prayer-meetings number 50,661. Scholars who commit Scripture to memory are 60,865. Those who commit the Shorter Catechism are 67,555.
The income for all purposes, in 1890, was $2,054,951, which, with $38,327 from mission stations, gives a total of $2,093,278. The amount paid for stipends in 1890 was $800,209; to the college fund, $56,259; and to mission funds, $177,695.
A regular system of examinations, by paper, with examiners, sub- examiners, prizes anti diplomas, for Sunday scholars exists. The ages of candidates range from 10 to 25 years. The value of each paper is 200, of which 50 per cent. passes, from 75 to 90 per cent. gains a book prize, and 90 per cent. gains a silver medal. The time for each paper is two hours. Examinations are simultaneous at all centres.
3. Methodists. — In this Church, only one general superintendent is now employed.
During the four years ending with September, 1890, the number of probationers for the ministry has increased from 208 to 296; of ministers, from 1610 to 1748; of local preachers and exhorters, from 2692 to 3142; of class-leaders, from 6641 to 7143; of members, from 197,469 to 233,868.
The infant baptisms for the same period have been 63,795, and the adult, 11,307.
There are 12 annual conferences, 3173 Sunday-schools, 28,411 Sunday- school officers and teachers, 226,050 scholars, 37,158 scholars in class, 25,677 children learning the catechism, 49,419 scholars pledged against liquors and tobacco, those against intoxicants alone being 41,522, and 217,388 volumes in libraries. There are 3092 churches, 1168 other preaching places, and 967 parsonages. The value of Church property is $11,597,491.
There are 2 weekly newspapers, 1 monthly, 1 quarterly, 8 Sunday-school papers, of which 2 are weekly.
The amount invested in publishing interests is $504,-316. The capital of the Book House in Toronto is $256,370.05.
There are 14 colleges and other educational institutions, 157 professors and teachers, 3157 college graduates, and °522 college students. Value of institutions, 81,048,700.
There are 473 mission stations, 507 missionaries, 96 native assistants and teachers, 4265 members on mission stations, 4265 Indian members, 358 auxiliaries of the Women's Missionary Society, 8534 members of these auxiliaries, 4462 members of Mission Bands, and about 200 Epworth Leagues, with about 15,000 members.
During the aforesaid quadrennium, an annual conference has been established in Japan, and the membership there has grown from 591 to 1716; the contributions, from yen 903.04 to 6491.35; the value of Church property from yen 28,085 to 64,843, and the Sunday scholars from 542 to 1486.
Work has been undertaken among the Chinese in British Columbia, at Victoria, Vancouver, New Westminster, and Kamloops.
The missionary income has increased from 8201,-874.34 to $220,026.43. Contributions for all purposes amounted to $8,063,967. The course of study for probationers not attending college has been improved, and Greek has been inserted as one of the requirements.
The relation of attendance upon class-meeting to membership in the Church has been placed upon the same basis as that upon other means of grace.
A movement which is likely greatly to affect the future of Canadian Methodism is the contemplated removal of her leading university, Victoria College, from Cobourg to Toronto, the affiliation of that college with the Provincial University of Toronto, and the renunciation by Victoria of her right to grant degrees, except in divinity, during the continuance of such confederation.
The scheme for this confederation was carried in 1886, and was confirmed in 1890 by the General Conference.
In 1882, Victoria and Albert universities were united. The varied claims of University College, in Toronto, and the denominational colleges led to a scheme for the consolidation of all the universities of Ontario as colleges under one provincial university. Certain branches of study were to be allotted to a university professo-riate, so as to relieve the colleges of work. These branches, which may, under certain circumstances, be changed, are pure mathematics, physics, astronomy, geology, mineralogy, chemistry, zoology, botany, physiology, ethnology, comparative philology, history, logic, metaphysics, history of philosophy, Italian, Spanish, political economy, civil polity, jurisprudence, constitutional law, and engineering.
The lectures of this professoriate are to be free to all matriculated students of confederated colleges, and will include, as optional subjects, Biblical Greek and literature, Christian ethics, apologetics, the evidences or natural and revealed religion, and Church history.
Trinity College, of the Church of England, from dissatisfaction with the financial and educational provisions of the proposed scheme, refused to confederate. Queen's College, of the Presbyterians, from inability to comply with the requirement that confederating colleges must remove to Toronto, the need of a university in Eastern Ontario, and from the benefits of separate universities, as seen in Scotland, Germany, the United States, and even England, also refused confederation. The Baptists also refused, and erected McMaster Hall into a university, with an arts course, as well as one in theology. The Methodists alone have decided to sink their leading university into a confederated college. Under this scheme, Victoria College secures five acres of University Park, at a nominal rental of one dollar a year while it remains confederated, and proposes to erect buildings at a cost of $135,000. Opposition to the scheme was removed by a bequest, from William Gooderham, Esq, of Toronto, of $200,000, conditioned on such federation and removal from Cobourg. Until the completion of the new buildings, degrees will be conferred by Victoria College only by special arrangements.
The union of the Methodists of Canada has been followed by the appearance of a new denomination, called the Free Methodist Church of Canada, with 5 conference officers and 17 ministers.
Two churches of colored Methodists still retain their separate existence, one with 17 and the other with 21 ministers.
4. Conongregationalists. — This body has two unions, that of Ontario and Quebec and that of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. It reports 126 churches, 70 other preaching stations, 91 ministers, 5 district associations, 1 college, 1 missionary to Japan, and 10,245 members; 134 church buildings, valued at $782,700, and parsonages to the value of $69,150.
The doctrinal statement omits from the Apostles' Creed the passage about the descent into hell.
Financial difficulties have led to the resignation of the missionary superintendent.
The Foreign Missionary Society was originated in 1881. Two missionaries are in Africa, and one, a lady, at Bombay. The income of the Missionary Society has increased in 8 years, to June 4, 1890, from $4000 to $15,728.73. The Indian mission at French Bay has been given over to the Methodists. The debts on Church property in Ontario and Quebec are $180,205. The alumni of the college number 109. The salary of the professor of Hebrew and Greek exegesis is $600 a year. The contributions to the college amount to $1.00 for each member of the Church from Quebec, 20 cents a member from Ontario, and 6½ cents from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The expenses exceeded the income by $900 a year from 1887 to 1889. There are 9 professors and lecturers, at salaries amounting to $3400. This college receives $1207.28 from the Colonial Missionary Society of England. The endowment is $32,997.83.
The branches of the Provident Fund for Widows and Orphans and Retired Ministers has a capital of $19,-774.06. The free contributions to this fund show a growing decrease ....
5. Baptists. — This denomination is divided into two groups — those of Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba and the North-west Territories and those of the Maritime Provinces. For the sake of convenience, they may be called the Western and the Eastern Baptists. The Western have 285 ministers, 33,252 members, and 2930 persons were baptized during the year 1890, with 19 associations, 28,824 Sunday scholars, 3408 officers and teachers, and 9 publications.
The amount expended on Sunday-schools was, in 1890, $12,734.67. In-the foreign mission field, among the Telugus, are 11 churches, 11 missionaries, and 60 assistants. Six new workers have gone forth during 1890 — two men and their wives, one lady, and one artist who proposes to paint, for his support, during part of the year, and to spend the remainder in mission work.
For the support of missions, Ontario is divided into 17 associations and 147 sub-circles.
There is one university, called McMaster, from the founder, with 4 colleges connected with it — Woodstock College, Moulton Ladies' College, the Toronto Arts College, and the Theological College. The assets available for college purposes are $989,437.37.
The Canadian Baptist realizes a profit, but the book-room is maintained at a loss.
There was raised for all purposes, in 1890, $304,635.01. During that year, 12 churches were dedicated.
A superintendent of missions has been appointed, after the former example of the Congregationalists and the present example of the Presbyterians.
The Eastern Baptists have 8 associations, 389 churches, 41,480 members, and have had 1171 baptisms during the year ending May 31, 1890. They have 498 Sunday-schools, 29,333 scholars, and 2651 teachers and officers. Of the scholars, 474 were baptized (luring the year above mentioned.
They have, as educational institutions, Acadia College, Horton Academy, and Acadia Seminary, with Chipman Hall.
They have expended, for the year ending August, 1890, $15,053.88 for foreign missions, and $7616.59 for home missions.
The number of Baptist churches in all Canada is 850, with 78,497 members.
The arts department of McMaster University was opened Oct. 10, 1890.
6. Roman Catholics. — The following statistics are taken from Le Canada Ecclesiastique, Almanach-annuaire pour l'Annee 1891. This Church has seven ecclesiastical provinces, those of Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Kingston, Halifax, and St. Boniface; 24 dioceses; 2 apostolic vicariates, those of Athabaska-Mackenzie and Pontiac; 1 apostolic prefecture, that of the Gulf of St. Lawrence; 21 communities of men and 38 of women; 1,988,142 adherents, 2284 priests, 379 convents, and 51 colleges and schools.
The Jesuits have 14 establishments in Canada, with 230 so-called religious persons (religieux), all Canadians, except 16 who are Europeans..The Provincial House was founded in 1842, on the 1st of June, by Father Felix Martin, who was the first rector of it. He had five companions. There are colleges in Montreal and St. Boniface. The fathers and novices are scattered through the dioceses of Montreal, Quebec, Ottawa, Hamilton, Peterboro, and St. Boniface.
There is one cardinal, who is also archbishop of Quebec, and six other archbishops, 22 bishops, and one apostolic prefect. One of these bishops, Monseigneur Begin, of Chicoutimi, is the author of a work, Holy Scripture and the Rule of Faith, of which the boast is made that it has never been answered. It proceeds from the ordinary evangelical arguments on the Scriptures to the Roman conclusions.
The Victoria Medical School, the medical department of the Methodist Victoria University, has been brought into connection with the Level University. The long-existing claims of the Roman Catholic Church to the forfeited Jesuit estates has been settled
by the grant to the Church by the Provincial government of $400,000, and to the Protestants of $60,000, for educational purposes. The Romanists succeeded, also, in obtaining a grant of a large common at Laprairie, near Montreal. A succinct account of this transaction, from an authorized source, is as follows: Prior to the English occupation of Canada, the Jesuits had obtained, by grants from the kings of France, by gifts from citizens, and by purchase, lands in Quebec, Montreal, and Three Rivers. When the English took Canada in 1759, the Jesuits were incorporated. In 1773, Pope Clement XIV. abolished them. In 1800, George III issued a warrant confiscating these lands to the Crown, by right of conquest. The government took them in 1856, and the greater part of them remained with the government in 1867.
From 1800 to 1867, the Roman clergy protested that these estates belonged to the Church, as confiscation by conquest was contrary to the actual civil laws and to the Treaty of Paris. In 1874 and 1875, the greater part of the estates were given to the province of Quebec, except the Champ de Mars in Montreal, still held by the Dominion government. In 1876, M. Mercier, the Quebec premier, found a formal promise of the government to settle the question. This promise was registered in Rome anti Canada. The pope commanded M. Mercier to have the property restored. This, however, in a mixed community, was declared to be impossible. Both political parties agreed to a compromise, the payment to the Roman Church of $.100,000, and to the Protestants of $60,000, for education. The act by which this was effected was passed on July 3, 1888. The estates were valued at from $400,000 to $2,000,000.
While successful in this, the Roman Church has been defeated in Manitoba, where separate schools have been by law abolished. The law has been confirmed on appeal.
7. Minor Bodies. — The Evangelical Association returns 67 ministers; the Universalists, 9 ministers and 402 members; the United Brethren, 23 ministers; the Evangelical Lutherans, 53 ministers; the Reformed Episcopal Church, 24; and the New Jerusalem Church, 8.
8. Manitoba and the North-west Territories. — The census of 1886 gives, in Manitoba, 14,651 Roman Catholics, 23,206 Church of England, 28,406 Presbyterians, 18,648 Methodists, and 3296 Baptists. The census of 1885 for the North-west Territories gives 9301 Romanists, 9976 Church of England, 7712 Presbyterians, 6910 Methodists, and 778 Baptists.
9. As a conclusion to the ecclesiastical facts in this article, there may be noticed a strong and practical movement towards Christian unity between churches that had hitherto consolidated their own scattered forces. This movement arose in the synod of the diocese of Toronto, of the Church of England, on motion of Rev. James Roy, LL.D., seconded by Rev. Rural Dean Langtry. This was taken up by the Provincial Synod, and has resulted in several meetings of the representatives of the three leading Protestant churches, who have together discussed the possibility of union between them. The chief obstacles are the claims of what is called the "historic episcopate," on the one hand, and the determination to uphold the legitimacy and sacramental efficiency of the non-episcopal ministry, on the other.
What is the historic episcopate; whether any variation from it is ever legitimate; under what circumstances it is so, if it is so at all, and on what principles each is imperative, seem to be the chief questions a settlement of which delays the consummation of a union not more difficult than some that have already taken place, and more desirable than any or all of those which now exist.
The discussions, on the whole, speak well for the spirit of all persons who seek, in this way, to heal what must be called the" unhappy divisions" of our common Christianity. (J. R.)