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Bible Encyclopedias

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature

Chub

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[pron. Cub] (כּוּב, Heb. Kub, deriv. uncertain; Sept. apparently Λίβυες, but transposes; Vulg. Chub), a word occurring only once as the name of a people in alliance with Egypt in the time of Nebuchadnezzar (Ezekiel 30:5): "Cush, and Phut, and Lud, and all the mingled people (עֶרֶב ), and Chub (Sept. Πέρσαι καὶ Κρῇτες καὶ Λυδαὶ καὶ Λίβυες καὶ πάντες οὶ ἐπίμικτοι ἐπ᾿ αὐτῶν . ρ . Λίβυες καὶ Αἰθίοπες καὶ Λυδοὶ καὶ πᾶσα ηΑ῾᾿ραβία ), and the children of the land of the covenant shall fall by the sword with them" (i.e. no doubt the Egyptians; see Ezekiel 30:4). The first three of these names or designations are of African peoples, unless (but this is improbable) the Shemite Lud be intended by the third (see, however, Ezekiel 27:10; Ezekiel 38:5; Isaiah 66:19; Jeremiah 46:9); the fourth is of a people on the Egyptian frontier; and the sixth probably applies to the remnant of the Jews who had fled into Egypt (comp. Daniel 11:28; Daniel 11:30; Daniel 11:32, especially the last, where the covenant is not qualified as "holy"), which was prophesied to perish for the most part by the sword and otherwise in that country (Jeremiah 42:16-17; Jeremiah 42:22; Jeremiah 44:12-14; Jeremiah 44:27-28). This fifth name is therefore that of a country or people in alliance with Egypt, and probably of Northern Africa, or of the lands near Egypt to the south. Some have proposed to recognize Chub in the names of various African places Cobe (Κοβή ), a port on the Indian Ocean (Ptol. 4:7, §10); Chobat (Χωβάτ or Χωβάθ ), in Mauritania (4. 2, § 9); and Cobion (Κώβιον or Κωβίον ), in the Mareotic nome in Egypt (4. 5) conjectures which are of no value except as showing the existence of similar names where we might expect this to have had its place. Bochart strangely regards it as the city Paliurus, in Marmarica (Strabo, 17:838); while Havernick seeks it in the people called Kufa on the Egyptian monuments (Wilkinson, 1:379 sq.). Others, however, think the present Hebrews text corrupt in this word. It has been therefore proposed to read Nub (נוּב ) for Nubia, as the Arab. vers. has "the people the Noobeh," whence it might be supposed that at least one copy of the Sept. had derived the first letter (v for the usual X); one Hebrews MS. indeed reads thus (כנוב, Cod. 409, ap. de Rossi).

The Arab. vers. is, however, of very slight weight, and we have no authority of this kind for applying the word Nub (or Kenub, its Egyptian pronunciation; see Bunsen, Egypt. Stell. 2, 6) to Nubia, or rather the Nubae (Νοῦβαι, Strabo, 17:786, 819; 4:7, 30; Pliny 6:35; Steph. Byz. p. 596), the countries held by whom from Strabo's time to our own are by the Egyptian inscriptions included in Keesh or Kesh, that is, Cush; the Nubae, however, may not in the prophet's days have been settled in any part of the territory which has taken from them its name. Another conjecture (regarded as quite equal in probability by Gesenius, Thes. Heb. p. 664) is the emendation which Hitzig proposes (Begriff der Kritik, p. 129), namely, Lub (לוּב ). The Lubim, doubtless the Mizraite Lehabim of Genesis 10:13; 1 Chronicles 1, 11, are mentioned as serving with Cushim in the army of Shishak (2 Chronicles 12:2-3), and in that of Zerah (16:8; comp. 14:9), who was most probably also a king of Egypt, and certainly the leader of an Egyptian army. (See CUSH); SEE ZERAH. Nahum speaks of them as helpers of Thebes, together with Put (Phut), while Cush and Egypt were her strength (3:8, 9); and Daniel mentions the Lubim and Cushim as submitting to or courting a conqueror of Egypt (11:43). The Lubim might therefore well occur among the nations suffering in the fall of Egypt. There is, however, this objection, that we have no instance of the supposed form Lub in the sing., the noun being always given in the plural LUBIM (See LUBIM) (q.v.); hence Hitzig has himself since rejected this view (Kurzgef. exeget. Hdb. in Ezechiel, in loc.). The suggestion of Havernick, that the name Chub is to be connected with Kufa, which occurs on the Egyptian monuments as that of a people conquered by the Egyptians (Wilkinson, Anc. Egypt. 1:367, 371), would be deserving of notice were it not that it involves the somewhat violent proposition that a people, of whom we only know that they were the allies of the Egyptians, should be identified with a people of whom we only know that they were the conquered enemies of the Egyptians; though it is certainly possible that they who were at an early period foes, may at a later period have become allies. Worthy of notice also is the suggestion of Furst, who says, "It is possible that it is to be connected with Coba, the existing name of an Ethiopian port, and which, perhaps, was formerly the name of a district" (Hebrew Handbook s.v.).

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Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Chub'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/c/chub.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

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