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Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature

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(Heb. Yashobanm', י שָׁבְעָם , dweller among the people, or returner to the people, otherwise, to whom the people returns, or a returning people; Sept. in 1 Chronicles 11:11, Ι᾿εβαάμ v. r. Ι᾿εσαβαδά; in 1 Chronicles 12:6, Ι᾿εσβαάμ, v.r. Σοβοκάμ; in 1 Chronicles 27:2, Ι᾿σβοάμ v. r. Ι᾿σβοάζ; Vulg. Jesbaam, but Jesboan in 1 Chronicles 27:2), the name of several of David's favorite officers.

1. One of the Korhites, or Levite of the family of Korah (and therefore probably not identical with the following), who joined David's band at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:6). B.C. 1053.

2. "Son" of Hachmoni, one of David's worthies, and the first named in the two lists which are given of them (2 Samuel 23:8; 1 Chronicles 11:11). One of these texts is held to have suffered through the negligence of copyists, and, as Jashobeam is not otherwise historically known, commentators have been much embarrassed in comparing them. The former passage attributes to him the defeat of 800, the latter of 300 Philistines; and the question has been whether there is a mistake of figures in one of these accounts, or whether two different exploits are recorded. Further difficulties will appear in comparing the two texts. We have assumed Jashobeam to be intended in both, but this is open to question. In Chronicles we read, "Jashobeam, the Hachmonite, chief of the captains: he lifted up his spear against 300 men, slain by him at one time;" but in Samuel [mar-gin], "Josheb-bassebet the Tachmonite, chief among the three, Adino, of Eznli, who lifted up his spear against: 800 men, whom he slew." That Jashobeam the Hachmonite and Josheb-bash-shebeth the Tachmonite are the same person, is clear; but may not Adino of Ezni, whose name forms the immediate antecedent of the exploit, which, as related here, constitutes the sole discrepancy between the two texts, be another person?

Many so explain it, and thus obtain a solution of the difficulty. But a further comparison of the two verses will again suggest that the whole of the verse last cited must belong to Jasbobeam; for not only is the parallel incomplete if we take the last clause from him and assign it to another, but in doing this we leave the "chief among the captains" without an exploit, in a list which records some feat of every hero. We incline, therefore, to the opinion of those who suppose that Jashobeam, or Josheb-bash-shebeth, was the name or title of the chief, Adino and Eznite being descriptive epithets, and Hachmonite the patronymic of the same person; and the remaining discrepancy we account for, not on the supposition of different exploits, but of one of those corruptions of numbers of which several will be found in comparing the books of Chronicles with those of Samuel and Kings. B.C. 1014. (See ADINO); (See DAVID); (See EZNITE).

The exploit of breaking through the host of the Philistines to procure David's draught of water from the well of Bethlehem is ascribed to the three chief heroes, and therefore to Jashobeam, who was the first of the three (2 Samuel 23:13-17; 1 Chronicles 11:15-19). B.C. 1045.

3. We also find a Jashobeam who commanded 24,000, and did duty in David's court in the month Nisan (1 Chronicles 27:2). He was the son of Zabdiel; if, therefore, he was the same as the foregoing Jashobeam, his patronymic of "the Hachmonite" must be referred to his race or office rather than to his immediate father. (See HACHMONI).

Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Jashobeam'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/​encyclopedias/​eng/​tce/​j/jashobeam.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.
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