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Bible Encyclopedias

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature


(Heb. Nadab', נָדָב , liberal [see Simonis Onome. V.T. page 409]; Sept. Ναδάβ ), the name of four men.

1. (Josephus, Νάβαδος , Ant. 3:8,1 and 7.) The eldest (Exodus 6:23; Numbers 3:2) of the four sons of Aaron by Elisheba, who were anointed, with their father, to be priests of Jehovah (Exodus 28:1). B.C. 1657. He, his father and brother, and seventy old men of Israel, were led out from the midst of the assembled people (Exodus 24:1), and were commanded to stay and worship God "afar off," below the lofty summit of Sinai, where Moses alone was to come near to the Lord. Subsequently he, with his brother Abihu, offered incense with strange or common fire to the Lord, instead of that which had been miraculously kindled and was perpetually kept burning upon the altar of burnt offerings; and they were immediately consumed by a fire from the presence of God (Leviticus 10:1-2; Numbers 3:4; Numbers 26:61). They left no children (1 Chronicles 24:2). From the injunction given (Leviticus 10:9-10) immediately after their death, it has been inferred (Rosenmuller, ad loc.) that the brothers were in a state of intoxication when thev committed the offence. The spiritual meaning of the injunction is drawn out at great length by Origen, Hom. 7, in Levit. On this occasion, as if to mark more decidedly the divine displeasure with the offenders, Aaron and his surviving son were forbidden to go through the ordinary outward ceremonial of mourning for the dead. See J. D. Frobosen, Gedanken v. d. Sunde Nadabs u. Obihu, in the Brem. u. Verd. Bibl. 1:4. page 159 sq.; J. Medhurst, in the Bibl. Hffgan. 4:70-76; Bp. Hall, Contemplations, ad loc.; Saurin, Discour. Historiques, 2:354; Dissert. page 531; A. Littleton, Sermons, page 303; J. Dickson, Discourses, page 183; C. Simeon, Works, 1:613; R.P. Buddicom, Christian Exodus, 2:1. (See ABIHU).

2. (Josephus, Νάδαβος , Ant. 8:11, 4.) Son and successor of Jeroboam on the throne of Israel (1 Kings 14:20). B.C. 951. He followed the deep- laid but criminal and dangerous policy of his father (15:26). In the latter part of his reign, "Gibbethon, in the territory of Dan (Joshua 19:44), a Levitical town (21:23), was occupied by the Philistines, perhaps having been deserted by its lawful possessors in the general self-exile of the Levites from the polluted territory of Jeroboam. Nadab and all Israel went up and laid siege to this frontier town. A conspiracy broke out in the midst of the army, and the king was slain by Baasha, a man of Issachar. Abijah's prophecy (1 Kings 14:10) was literally fulfilled by the murderer, who proceeded to destroy the whole house of Jeroboam. So perished the first Israelitish dynasty. We are not told what events led to the siege of Gibbethon, or how it ended, or any other incident in Nadab's short reign. It does not appear what ground Ewald and Newman have for describing the war with the Philistines as unsuccessful. It is remarkable that when a similar destruction fell upon the family of the murderer Baasha twenty-four years afterwards, the Israelitish army was again engaged in a siege of Gibbethon (1 Kings 16:15)." (See CIBBETHON). In 1 Kings 15:25 Nadab is assigned a reign of two years, but a comparison of the connected events and dates show that it lasted little, if any, over one year; so that the reckoning must have been made out by the usual proleptic method, which computed the years as begilnning at the normal point of the Jewish calendar, i.e., the 1st of Nisan preceding. (See CHRONOLOGY).

3. The first named of the two sons of Shammai, in the tribe of Judah, and the father of two sons (1 Chronicles 2:28; 1 Chronicles 2:30). B.C. post 1618.

4. The fifth named of the eight sons of Jehiel, "the father [founder] of Gibeon;" a Benjamite of Gibeon (1 Chronicles 8:30; 1 Chronicles 9:36). B.C. perhaps cir. 1013.

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Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Nadab'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

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Nadab (2)