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is the largest Mohammedan empire of the world, containing extensive possessions in Eastern Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Including the provinces in Europe and Africa, which are virtually independent, and only pay an annual tribute to the Turkish government, the Turkish Empire, in 1880, had an area of 2,302,000 square miles, and 47,000,000 inhabitants. In consequence of the treaty of Berlin in 1878, Turkey had to recognize the entire independence of Roumania and Servia, and to consent to the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the government of Austria. Moreover, Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia have become virtually independent of Turkish rule, leaving to the Turkish government only a small territory in Europe which is fully under its control. In Africa, Egypt and Tunis are likewise independent in point of administration. Deducting the dependencies, the Turkish government at present rules over a territory of 1,043,000 square miles, with a population of 23,500,000. In June, 1880, the Supplementary Conference at Berlin declared that in order to carry out the provisions of the treaty of Berlin concerning the rectification of the frontier between Turkey and Greece, Turkey ought to cede to Greece a territory containing about 8292 square miles and 400,000 inhabitants.


Note by the Editor. For the purpose of enabling our readers to understand more fully the present complicated boundaries of Turkey, we insert a map based upon the one recently issued by Stanford, of Charing Cross, London. It will be perceived that, in consequence of the late Russo- Turkish war, Turkey has lost far more than half her European possessions, which are to be bounded henceforth by the Balkan Mountains instead of the River Save and the eastern Carpathian chain. Romania, Bulgaria, Servia, Bosnia, and Montenegro are wholly severed from her. Bulgaria has lost a slice of her territory on the west, given to Servia, and another on the north-east, given to Romania. Montenegro has gained a piece on the north- west from Bosnia, and another on the south-east from Turkey. Bosnia, including the part of Croatia formerly in Turkey, together with Herzegovina, has been occupied by Austria, and is not likely to be restored to Turkey. Greece gains a part of Albania and Thessaly and Russia that part of Romania (bounded by the Pruth and the Danube) adjoining Bessarabia (which she already held). In Asia Russia also acquires a district of Armenia adjoining Batum. Besides, there is created a quasi-independent district of Eastern Romania, within the above narrowed limits of Turkey. Turkey in Europe virtually now consists merely of am part of Romania and a part of Albania. The interior changes ill territory and population made by the Berlin treaty are stated as follows in the London Athenmeum. Estimates of other statisticians vary considerably from these figures tants, to Russia. If we exclude the provinces "indefinitely" to be occupied by Austria, and Eastern Romania, there remain to Turkey in Europe only 74,790 square miles, with 4,779,000 inhabitants, of whom 1,521,500 are Mohammedans. In Armenia Russia takes 10,000 square miles, with about 350,000 inhabitants. Cyprus, entrusted to the keeping of England, has an area of 2288 square miles, and about 150,000 inhabitants. Many of these accessions, however, are already the fruitful source of contention, and some of them will probably have to be taken possession of by force of arms. Greece is at the present moment (Aug. 1880) preparing to do so for her share. It is impossible now to predict what the issue will be.]

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Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Turkey'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature.​encyclopedias/​eng/​tce/​t/turkey.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.