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Bible Encyclopedias

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature

Hazor (2)

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Of the places thus simply designated, the latest authorities make the following identifications:

1. HAZOR OF NAPHTALI (Joshua 11:1; Joshua 11:10-11; Joshua 11:13; Joshua 12:19; Joshua 19:36; Judges 4:2; Judges 4:17; 1 Samuel 12:9; 1 Kings 9:15; 2 Kings 15:29) is identified by Grove (in Smith's Atlas) with Tell Huraweh, south-east of Kedesh, and by Trelawney Saunders (Map of the O.T.) with Khurbet Harrah (evidently the same locality), which is set down on the Ordinance Map one and three quarter miles north-west of Lake Huleh, and described in the accompanying Memoirs (1:237) as "an important ruin on a hill-top. There are considerable remains of walls of good-sized masonry and foundations, with caves, and two rock-cut tombs, with loculi. A few stones are moulded, probably door-posts or architraves. There are a number of cisterns. The principal remains are on the top and the eastern slope of the hill. A zigzag pathway formerly led down to the great spring of 'Ain el- Mellaheh." This is the location proposed by Wilson and advocated by Guerin. Lieut. Conder, on the other hand, suggests (Tent Work, 2:337) Hadireh, which occurs in a Jebel and Merj of that name, one and a half miles west of el-Khureibeh (Robinson's site for Hazor), lying two and a half miles south of Kedesh, and three and a half west of Lake Huleb.

Grove and Conder, however, both seem to distinguish two Hazors in the above passages, and they locate the second at Hazzur, a rock-cut tomb in Khurbet Hazireh (ten miles west of Kedesh), where are "foundations of walls, built with large, well-dressed stones, a few small columns and broken pieces mixed up with the ruins; eight rock-cut cisterns, one rock- cut birkeh [pool], and two rock-cut tombs" (Memoirs, 1:239; comp. page 223). They seem, moreover, to identify this with EN-HAZOR (See EN- HAZOR) (q.v.), although there is no spring there now, as there is at 'Ain el- Khurbeh, where Saunders locates the latter. This last geographer places Edrei at Hazireh, but it should rather be identified with Khureibeh, and Hazzfir and Hazireh will thus be left to represent a single Hazor, as the names respectively indicate. En-Hazor may then be appropriately assigned separately to Khurbet Hazuir, half a mile north-west of a hill of the same name, and consisting of "heaps of stones and cisterns" (Memoirs, 1:396), laid down five miles north-west of Yakfik, with several springs in the vicinity ('Ain elTahit, one and a half miles west, sufficiently copious to supply three mills; and 'Ain el-Mansufrah and 'Ain el-Diah, one mile south). But the specific name, 'Ain Hazur, does not occur on the Ordnance Map, although several travellers speak of it here, and Tristram even says (Bible Places, page273). "This is the only Ain-Hazur."

2. HAZOR OF BENJAMIN AFTER THE CAPTIVITY (Nehemiah 11:33) is identified by Grove with Yasur, near Ashdod, which is out of the region indicated. It has usually been made the same with BAAL-HAZOR (q.v.), which Conder and Saunders reasonably Slocate at Tell Asur, four and a half miles north-east of Beitin (Bethel), "a sacred place among the peasantry, though no Mukam exists. There is a group of fine oaks on the hilltop, sacred, apparently, to a certain Sheik Hadherah (the proper Arabic form of Hazor). The Rijal el-Asawir, or 'Men of 'Asur,' said to be companions of the Prophet, are also invoked by the Moslems. This appears to be a probable survival of the ancient caltus of Baal on this lofty summit. Here Ginrin found ancient cisterns cut in the rock, and vaulted houses still standing. In the middle of the plateau was a wely, dedicated to sheik Hassan, on the site of an old church, now destroyed, of which some ruins remain, especially four fragments of columns lying on great slabs which were once the pavement of the church; besides these a capital, on which was formerly sculptured a cross of square form" (Memoirs, 2:371).

Lieut. Conder, however, suggests a separate location from this for the Hazor of the post-exilian history at Hazzur (Tent Work, 2:119), one mile east of Neby Samwil; a ruined site (Memoirs, 3:43), four miles north-west of Jerusalem, with tombs, cisterns, and spring ('Ain Malahah) adjoining.

3. HAZOR OF JUDAH (Joshua 15:23) is combined by Saunders with the name following (contrary to the Heb. text, which has יְ disconnective between) into the compound Hazor-Ithnan, and located at en-Tora, which he lays down a short distance south-east of Beersheba.


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Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Hazor (2)'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/tce/h/hazor-2.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

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