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Wagon

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(עֲגָלָה, agalah [Genesis 45:19; Genesis 45:21; Genesis 45:27; Genesis 46:5; Numbers 7:3; Numbers 7:6-8; elsewhere "cart"], from עָגִל, to roll; or רֶכֶב, rekeb [Ezekiel 23:24; elsewhere "chariot"], from רָכִב, to ride). Among the Israelites in Palestine, we find in use from the time of the judges transport-wagons (1 Samuel 6:7 sq.; 2 Samuel 6:3; Amos 2:13), as well as vehicles for persons, especially princely carriages (1 Samuel 8:11; 2 Samuel 15:1; comp. Isaiah 22:18), for journeys (1 Kings 12:18; 1 Kings 22:35 2 Kings 9:27). The former, or carts, were called עֲגָלוֹת (used for family transportation in the case of masses, Genesis 45:19, like the Greek ἃμαξα and the Latin plaustrum), while those with seats (2 Kings 10:15) were designated as מִרְכָּכוֹת, chariots; and both eventually רֶכֶב simply. The עֶגְלוֹת צָב of Numbers 7:3 were probably (so Onkelos, Aquila, the Vulg., etc.), as in the A.V., "covered wagons," in which the sacred utensils were carried (Sept. ἃμαξαι λαμπηνικαί, vehicula tecta; see Schleusner, Thesaur. Philol. 3, 432). (See LITTER).

A travelling carriage is also mentioned in the New Test. (iiuaa, Acts 8:28 sq.). All these vehicles, whose construction we cannot particularly make out (see the Mishna [Chelim, 14:4], which mentions three kinds of wagon [ibid. 24:2,]) except that the wheels generally were called אוֹפִנַּי ם or גִּלְגַּלַּי ם, the hubs הַשּׁוּרַי ם, the felloes גִּבַּי ם or גִּבּוֹת, and the axle יָד, while the gearing-up of the horses was denoted by אָסִר (to bind), once (Micah 1:13) by רָת ם (of the like signification)-and which were sometimes drawn by oxen (1 Samuel 6:7; 2 Samuel 6:6), especially those for transport, and sometimes by horses (as equipage) or perhaps asses, appear nevertheless to have been customarily employed not so much in the mountain districts (which were ill adapted through lack of carriage roads) as in the southern and maritime regions; whereas in modern times the inhabitants are in the habit of riding (on the backs of horses, donkeys, or mules), leaving burdens to be borne by camels; and carriages (with the exception of a few foreign coaches) are rarely seen in the East (Korte, Reisen, p. 434), even in Egypt (Mayr, Schicksale, 2, 40), where they were anciently very numerous (Herod. 2, 108). The Canaanites had war-chariots before the arrival of the Hebrews (Joshua 11:4; Joshua 17:16; Judges 4:3), like the Philistines (Judges 1:19; 1 Samuel 13:5; comp. Jeremiah 47:3) and later the Syrians (2 Samuel 10:18; 1 Kings 20:1; 1 Kings 22:31; 2 Kings 6:14 sq.); and the immense numbers of these (900 in Judges 4:3; 1000 in 1 Chronicles 3:4; 30, 000 in 1 Samuel 13:5; comp. the 1200 Egyptian chariots in 2 Chronicles 12:3) are confirmed by other ancient accounts (Xenoph, Anab. 1, 7, 11; Diod. Sic. 1, 54; comp. 2 Maccabees 13:2). This gave the natives a great advantage at first (Joshua 17:16; but comp. Veget. Milit. 3, 24). which David at once effectually overcame in a pitched battle (2 Samuel 8:4); and Solomon, established cavalry stations (עָרֵי הָרֶכֶב, 1 Kings 9:19; 1 Kings 10:26; comp. 1 Kings 5:6) as a defense (Ewald, Isr. Gesch. 3, 72 sq.). These foreign war vehicles are sometimes called chariots of iron (רֵכֶב בִּרְזֶל, Joshua 17:16; Joshua 17:18; Judges 1:19; Judges 4:3), meaning either constructed wholly out of or simply strengthened by iron, or rather perhaps scythe-armed ("currus falcati," Curtius, Judges 4:12; Judges 4:6; Judges 15:3-4; comp. Judges 4:9; Judges 4:5; Livy, 37:41; Veget. Milit. 3, 24; ἃρματα δρεπανηφόρα, Xenoph. Anab. 1, 7, 10; Diod. Sic. 17:53; Appian, Syr. 32; see Schickedanz, De Curribus Falcatis [Serv. 1754]; comp. the פְּלָדוֹת הָרֶכֶב of Nab. 2, 4). See Jahn, Archaö l. II, 2, 439 sq.; Lydius, De Re Milit. (ed. Van Til, Dordr. 1698), p. 131 sq.; Wichmannshausen, De Curribus Belli (Viteb. 1722); Scheffer, De Re Vehiculari (Francof. 1671); Fabricy, Recheiches sur l'Epoque de l'Equitation (Par. 1764); Ginzrot, Die Wagen der Gr. und Rom. (Munich, 1813). (See CHARIOT).

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Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Wagon'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/tce/w/wagon.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

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