the Fourth Week of Lent
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1410 - δύναμαι
- to be able, have power whether by virtue of one's own ability and resources, or of a state of mind, or through favourable circumstances, or by permission of law or custom
- to be able to do something
- to be capable, strong and powerful
2 sg. δύνασαι Il. 1.393, Od. 4.374, S. Aj. 1164 (anap.), Ar. Nu. 811 (lyr.), Pl. 574, X. An. 7.7.8, etc.; δύνῃ Carm.Aur. 19, also in codd. of S. Ph. 798, E. Hec. 253, Andr. 239, and later Prose, Plb. 7.11.5, Ael. VH 13.32; Aeol. and Dor. δύνᾳ Alc. Oxy. 1788 Fr. 15 ii 16, Theoc. 10.2, also S. Ph. 849 (lyr.), dub. in OT 696 (lyr.); δύνῃ is subj., Ar. Eq. 491, cf. Phryn. 337; Ion. 3 pl. δυνέαται Hdt. 2.142; subj. δύνωμαι, Ion. 2 sg. δύνηαι Il. 6.229 (δυνεώμεθα -ωνται as vv.ll. in Hdt. 4.97, 7.163); also δύνᾱμαι Sapph. Supp. 3.3, GDI 4952 A 42 (Crete): impf. 2 sg. ἐδύνω h.Merc. 405, X. An. 1.6.7; later ἐδύνασο Hp. 16 (v.l. ἠδ.), Luc. DMort. 9.1; Ion. 3 pl. ἐδυνέατο Hdt. 4.110, al. (ἠδ- codd.): fut. δυνήσομαι Od. 16.238, etc.; Dor. δυνᾱσοῦμαι Archyt. 3; later δυνηθήσομαι D.C. 52.37: aor. ἐδυνησάμην Il. 14.33, δυν- 5.621; subj. δυνήσωνται Semon. 1.17, never in good Att., f. l. in D. 19.323: Pass. forms, , Ion., Lyr., ἐδυνάσθην or δυνάσθην Il. 23.465, al., Hdt. 2.19, al., Pi. O. 1.56, Hp. Art. 48 (v.l. δυνηθείη), also in X. Mem. 1.2.24, An. 7.6.20; Trag. and Att. Prose ἐδυνήθην S. Aj. 1067, OT 1212 (lyr.), E. Ion 867 (anap.), D. 21.80,186: pf. δεδύνημαι D. 4.30, Din. 2.14, Phld. Rh. 1.261S. — The double augment ἠδυνάμην is Att. acc. to Moer. 175, but Ion. acc. to An.Ox. 2.374, and is found in codd. of Hdt. 4.110, al., Hp. Epid. 1.26. β', al.; ἠδύνω is required by metre in Philippid. 16; but is not found in Att. Inscrr. before 300 B.C., IG 22.678.12, al., cf. ἠδύνασθε ib.7.2711 (Acraeph., i A.D.); both forms occur in later writers: ἠδυνήθην occurs in A. Pr. 208, and codd. of Th. 4.33, Lys. 3.42, etc.: δύνομαι is a late form freq. in Pap. as UPZ 9 (ii B. C.), al. [ ῠ, exc. in δῡναμένοιο Od. 1.276, 11.414, Hom. Epigr. 15.1, and pr. n. Δῡναμένη, metri gr.] I to be able, strong enough to do, c. inf. pres. et aor., Il. 19.163, 1.562, etc.: fut. inf. is f.l. (πείσειν for πείθειν) in S. Ph. 1394, (κωλύσειν for κωλῦσαι) Plb. 21.11.13, etc.: freq. abs., with inf. supplied from the context, εἰ δύνασαί γε if at least thou canst (sc. περισχέσθαι), Il. 1.393: also c. acc. Pron. or Adj., ὅσσον δύναμαι χερσίν τε ποσίν τε 20.360; [ Ζεὺς] δύναται ἅπαντα Od. 4.237; μέγα δυνάμενος
1. very powerful, mighty, 1.276, cf. 11.414; δ. μέγιστον ξείνων Hdt. 9.9, etc.; μέγα δύναται, multum valet, A. Eu. 950 (lyr.); δ. Διὸς ἄγχιστα Id. Supp. 1035; οἱ δυνάμενοι men of power, rank, and influence, E. Or. 889, Th. 6.39, etc.; οἱ δυνάμενοι, opp. οἱ μὴ ἔχοντες, Democr. 255; opp. οἱ πένητες, Archyt. 3; δυνάμενος παρά τινι having influence with him, Hdt. 7.5, And. 4.26, etc.; δύνασθαι ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις Th. 4.105; δ. τοῖς χρήμασι, τῷ σώματι, Lys. 6.48, 24.4; ὁ δυνάμενος one that can maintain himself, Id. 24.12; of things, [ διαφέρει] οἷς δύνανται differ in their potentialities, Plot. 6.3.17.
2. of moral possibility, to be able, dare, bear to do a thing, mostly with neg., οὔτε τελευτὴν ποιῆσαι δύναται Od. 1.250; σε.. οὐ δύναμαι προλιπεῖν 13.331, cf. S. Ant. 455; οὐκέτι ἐδύνατο ἐν τῷ καθεστῶτι τρόπῳ βιοτεύειν Th. 1.130; οὐδὲ σθένειν τοσοῦτον ᾠόμην τὰ σὰ κηρύγμαθ' ὥστε.. θεῶν νόμιμα δύνασθαι.. ὑπερδραμεῖν S. Ant. 455. enjoy a legal right, δ. τῆς γεωργίας ἀπηλλάχθαι POxy. 899.31 (ii/iii A.D.), etc.
3. with ὡς and Sup., ὡς ἐδύναντο ἀδηλότατα as secretly as they could, Th. 7.50; ὡς δύναμαι μάλιστα κατατείνας as forcibly as I possibly can, Pl. R. 367b; ὡς δύναιτο κάλλιστον Id. Smp. 214c; ὡς ἂν δύνωμαι διὰ βραχυτάτων D. 27.3, etc.; simply ὡς ἐδύνατο in the best way he could, X. An. 2.6.2: with relat., ὅσους ἐδύνατο πλείστους ἀθροίσας Id. HG 2.2.9; λαβεῖν.. οὓς ἂν σοφωτάτους δύνωμαι Alex. 213.
1. to be equivalent to, λόγοι ἔργα δυνάμενοι words that are as good as deeds, Th. 6.40: hence, 1 of money, to be worth, c. acc., ὁ σίγλος δύναται ἑπτὰ ὀβολούς X. An. 1.5.6, cf. D. 34.23: abs., pass, be current, Luc. Luct. 10.
2. of Number, etc., to be equal or equivalent to, τριηκόσιαι γενεαὶ δυνέαται μύρια ἔτεα Hdt. 2.142; δυνήσεται τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν will be equivalent to the hypotenuse, Arist. IA 709a19.
3. of words, signify, mean, Hdt. 4.110, al.; τὸ πειρηθῆναι καὶ τὸ ποιεῖν ἴσον δύναται Id. 6.86. γ; δύναται ἴσον τῷ δρᾶν τὸ νοεῖν Ar. Fr. 691; δύναται τὸ νεοδαμῶδες ἤδη ἐλεύθερον εἶναι Th. 7.58: in later Greek, δύναται τὸ μνασθέντι ἀντὶ τοῦ μνασθέντος "" is equivalent to.., Sch. Pi. O. 7.110. avail to produce, οὐδένα καιρὸν δύναται brings no advantage, E. Med. 128 (anap.), cf. Pl. Phlb. 23d. of things, mean, 'spell', τὸ τριβώνιον τί δύναται; Ar. Pl. 842; αἱ ἀγγελίαι τοῦτο δύνανται they mean this much, Th. 6.36; τὴν αὐτὴν δ. δούλωσιν Id. 1.141, cf. Arist. Pol. 1313b25.
4. Math., δύνασθαί τι to be equivalent when squared to a number or area, τοῖς ἐπιπέδοις ἃ δύνανται in the areas of which they [the lines] are the roots, Pl. Tht. 148b; ἡ ΒΓ τῆς Α μεῖζον δύναται τῇ ΔΖ the square on ΒΓ is greater than the square on A by the square on ΔΖ, Euc. 10.17; αἱ δυνάμεναι αὐτά [τὰ μεγέθη ] the lines representing their square roots, ib. Def. 4, cf. Prop. 22; αὐξήσεις δυνάμεναί τε καὶ δυναστευόμεναι increments both in the roots and powers of numbers, Pl. R. 546b; τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν ταῖς περὶ τὴν ὀρθὴν ἴσον δυναμένην Plu. 2.720a, cf. Iamb. Comm.Math. 17; ἡ δυναμένη, Pythag. name for the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle, Alex.Aphr. in Metaph. 75.31. of numbers multiplied together, come to, Papp. 1.24, 27.
III impers., οὐ δύναται, c. aor. inf., it cannot be, is not to be, τοῖσι Σπαρτιήτῃσι καλλιερῆσαι οὐκ ἐδύνατο Hdt. 7.134, cf. 9.45; δύναται it is possible, Plu. 2.440e (s. v.l.).
δύναμαι, deponent verb, present indicative 2 person singular δύνασαι and, according to a rarer form occasional in the poets and from Polybius on to be met with in prose writings also (cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 359; (WHs Appendix, p. 168; Winers Grammar, § 13, 2 b.; Veitch, under the word)), δύνῃ (Mark 9:22f L T Tr WH; (Luke 16:2 T WH Tr text); Revelation 2:2); imperfect ἐδυναμην and Attic ἠδυναμην, between which forms the manuscripts and editions are almost everywhere divided (in Mark 6:19; Mark 14:5; Luke 8:19; Luke 19:3; John 9:33; John 12:39 all editions read ἠδυναμην, so R G in Matthew 26:9; Luke 1:22; John 11:37; Revelation 14:3; on the other hand, in Matthew 22:46; Luke 1:22; John 11:37; Revelation 14:3, L T Tr WH all read ἐδυναμην, so T WH in Matthew 26:9; R G in Matthew 22:46. Cf. WHs Appendix, p. 162; Winer's Grammar, § 12, 1 b.; B, 33 (29)); future δυνήσομαι; 1 aorist ἠδυνήθην and (in Mark 7:24 T WH, after manuscripts א B only; in Matthew 17:16 manuscript B) ἠδυνάσθην (cf. (WH as above and p. 169); Kühner, § 343, under the word; (Veitch, under the word; Winers Grammar, 84 (81); Buttmann, 33 (29); Curtius, Das Verbum, 2:402)); the Sept. for יָכֹל; to be able, have power, whether by virtue of one's own ability and resources, or of a state of mind, or through favorable circumstances, or by permission of law or custom;
a. followed by an infinitive (Winers Grammar, § 44, 3) present or aorist (on the distinction between which, cf. Winer's Grammar, § 44, 7). α. followed by a present infinitive: Matthew 6:24; Matthew 9:15; Mark 2:7; Mark 3:23; Luke 6:39; John 3:2; John 5:19; Acts 27:15; 1 Corinthians 10:21; Hebrews 5:7; 1 John 3:9; Revelation 9:20, and often. β. followed by an aorist infinitive: Matthew 3:9; Matthew 5:14; Mark 1:45; Mark 2:4; Mark 5:3; Luke 8:19; Luke 13:11; John 3:3; John 6:52; John 7:34, 36; Acts 4:16 (R G);
b. with an infinitive omitted, as being easily supplied from the context: Matthew 16:3 (here T brackets WH reject the passage);
c. joined with an accusative, δύναμαι τί, to be able to do something (cf. German ich vermag etwas): Mark 9:22; Luke 12:26; 2 Corinthians 13:8 (and in Greek writings from Homer on).
d. absolutely, like the Latinpossum (as in Cues. b. gall. 1, 18, 6), equivalent to to be able, capable, strong, powerful: 1 Corinthians 3:2; 1 Corinthians 10:13. (2 Chronicles 32:13; 1 Macc. 5:40f; in 2 Macc. 11:13 manuscript Alex., and often in Greek writings as Euripides, Or. 889; Thucydides 4, 105; Xenophon, an. 4, 5, 11f; Isocrates, Demosthenes, Aeschines)
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[in LXX chiefly for H3201;]
to be able, have power, whether by personal ability, permission, or opportunity: c. inf. (M, Pr., 205; W M, § 44, 3) Pres., Matthew 6:24, Mark 2:7, John 3:2, 1 Corinthians 10:21, al.; c inf. aor., Matthew 3:9, Mark 1:45, John 3:3-4, Romans 8:39, al.; c. acc, to be able to do something: Mark 9:22, Luke 12:26, 2 Corinthians 13:8; absol., to be able, capable, powerful: 1 Corinthians 3:2; 1 Corinthians 10:13.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The following exx. of this common verb may be cited—P Par 47.10 (c. B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 22) ἐνβέβληκαν (sc. οἱ θεοὶ) ὑμᾶς εἰς ὕλην μεγάλην καὶ οὗ δυνάμεθα ἀποθανεῖν, ";they have cast us into a great forest, where we may possibly die,"; P Oxy IV. 743.36 (B.C. 2) οὐκ ἠδυνάσθην συντυχεῖν ᾽Α ";I was unable to meet A.,"; ib. 744.12 (B.C. 1) (= Selections, p. 33) πῶς δύναμαί σε ἐπιλαθεῖν; ";how can I forget you?";, P Lond 144.11 (? i/A.D.) (= II. p. 253) ἵνα δυνηθῇ τὸ παιδάριόν μου ἐλθεῖν πρό [ς μ ]ε, P Oxy III. 472.16 (c. A.D. 130) οὐ δύναται γὰρ κεκλέφθαι τὸ μηδ᾽ ἀρχὴν γενόμενον μὴ δυνατὸν δ᾽ εἶναι, ";for it is impossible for that to have been stolen which neither ever existed at all nor could exist"; (Edd.). It takes an acc. rei (as in Luke 12:26) in P Ryl II. 77.38 (A.D. 192) οὐ γὰρ δύναμαι κοσμητείαν. In P Leid Uiv. 10 (ii/B.C.) ἔφη δύνασθαι τὰ ἔργα πάντα ἐπιτελέσιν ἐν ηλι (?—was ὀλίγαις meant?) ἡμέραι (l. —αις) we have δ. construed with the fut. inf. as a substitute for the aor. For the form δύνομαι, which is read by B* in Matthew 19:12; Matthew 26:53 etc., cf. BGU II. 388ii. 8 (ii/iii A.D.) ἐγώ, ἃ δύνομαι ἐνθάδε εὑρίσκειν, ζητῶ, ib. I. 159.5 (A.D. 216) ἀπε ̣στ ̣[η ]ν ̣ τῆς κώμης οὐ δυνόμενος ὑποστῆναι τὸ βάρος τῆς λειτουργίας, P Cattiii. 22 (ii/B.C.) (= Chrest. II. p. 421) : (see further Deissmann BS, p. 193). In P Par 45.3 (B.C. 153) we have ἅ σ᾽ οὐ δεδύνησμαι διασαφῆσαι διὰ τοῦ ἐπιστολίου, and in P Oxy VI. 939.15 (iv/A.D.) εἴ πως ἐκ παντὸς τρόπου δυνηθείης [πρὸς ἡμᾶς ] ἀφικέσθαι. According to Meisterhans Gr. p. 169, δύναμαι first begins to augment with η in the Attic inscrr. after B.C. 300. It occurs in some of the earliest papyri, as P Hib I. 27.34 (iii/B.C. init.), 34.19 (B.C. 243–2). The future δυνηθήσομαι is found in P Lond 897.13 (A.D. 84) (= III. p. 207), and the aorist ἠδυνάσθην in P Petr III. 42 C (14).4 (B.C. 255) : see Mayser Gr. p. 393 for other forms. MGr has δύνομαι.
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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