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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #2309 - θέλω
- to will, have in mind, intend
- to be resolved or determined, to purpose
- to desire, to wish
- to love
- to like to do a thing, be fond of doing
- to take delight in, have pleasure
v. ἐθέλω and add ὅστις ἂν θέλῃ IG 12.49.12; ἐὰν δέ τις θέλῃ ib.6.106; ἐάν τις μὴ θέλῃ ib.40.27.
ἐθέλω or θέλω
(v. infr.), subj. ἐθέλωμι Il. 1.549, 9.397: impf. ἤθελον 14.120, etc.; and Lyr. ἔθελον 6.336, Thgn. 606, B. 10.73; Ion. ἐθέλεσκον Il. 13.106, Hdt. 6.12: fut. ἐθελήσω Il. 18.262, etc.; θελήσω Antipho 5.99: aor. 1 ἠθέλησα Hdt. 2.2, etc.; ἐθέλησα Il. 18.396; imper. θέλησον A. Pr. 783; subj. θελήσῃ ib. 1028, X. Cyr. 2.4.19, etc.; opt. θελήσαιμι S. OC 1133; part. θελήσας Id. OT 649 (lyr.): pf. ἠθέληκα X. Cyr. 5.2.9, Aeschin. 2.139, D. 47.5; τεθέληκα (Alexandrian acc. to Phryn. 307) LXX Psalms 41:12(42).12, Phld. Rh. 2.76 S., S.E. M. 2.37: plpf. ἠθελήκει X. HG 6.5.21; ἐτεθελήκεσαν D.C. 44.26 codd. (elsewh. ἠθελήκεσαν as 46.47): — θέλω is never found in Hom. or Hes. exc. Il. 1.277 (dub.), ὅττι θέλοιεν Od. 15.317 as v.l. (ἅσσ' ἐθέλοιεν Aristarch.), nor in Aeol.; rarely in early and Eleg., θέλοι h.Ap. 46, θέλει Sol. 27.12; but is found in Ion. Inscrr., SIG 45.16 (Halic., v B.C.), 1037.7 (Milet., iv B.C.), and in Semon. 7.13, Hippon. 22 B, Anacr. 92: —
1. both forms in codd. of Hdt. and Hp. and in Heraclit. and Democr., also in Pi. and B.: Trag. never use ἐθέλω exc. in augmented forms, ἤθελον, -ησα: Com.never use θέλω exc. in phrases such as ἢν θεὸς θέλῃ, εἰ θεὸς θέλοι, Ar. Pl. 347, Ra. 533, or parodies of Trag.: early Att. Inscrr, have ἐθέλω IG 12.6.41, etc., till 250 B.C., when θέλω becomes common: Att. Prose writers rarely use θέλω exc. in phrases such as ἂν θεὸς θέλῃ Din. 2.3 or after a long vowel, e.g. μὴ θελῆσαι Th. 5.72, μὴ θελήσας Isaiah 8:11, μὴ θέλοντας And. 1.22, τῷ θέλοντι Id. 4.7, etc.; but θέλω Antipho 3.4.3, θελήσουσιν Id. 5.99: in later Gr. θέλω is regular exc. in the augmented forms; ἐθέλω is not found in LXX or NT: — to be willing (of consent rather than desire, v. βούλομαι 1), but also generally, wish, Od. 3.324: — Constr.: abs., esp. in part., ἐθέλων ἐθέλουσαν ἀνήγαγεν ib. 272; εἰ σύ γε σῷ θυμῷ ἐθέλοις Il. 23.894; ἀλλά μοι ἤθελε θυμός Od. 11.566: freq. folld. by inf. pres. or aor., wish to.., Il. 7.364, etc.: with inf. supplied, εἰ δ' ἐθέλεις πεζός (sc. ἰέναι) Od. 3.324: c. acc. et inf., wish that.., Il. 19.274, Hdt. 1.3; rarely folld. by ὥστε, E. Hipp. 1327: later c. ἵνα, Matthew 7:12, etc.: not used c. acc. only, exc. when an inf. is easily supplied, εὔκηλος τὰ φράζεαι ἅσσ' ἐθέλῃσθα (sc. φράζεσθαι) Il. 1.554, cf. 9.397, 7.182, Od. 14.172; σιτέονται δὲ οὐκ ὅσα ἐθέλουσι (sc. σιτέεσθαι) Hdt. 1.71, cf. Th. 5.50; εἰ καὶ τῆς ἀξίας ἔλαττον ἐθελήσειέ τις (sc. φράσαι) Jul. Or. 1.132a: also with neut. Pron. or Adj., τί δὴ θέλων; with what intent ? A. Pr. 118.
2. with neg., almost, = δύναμαι, as μίμνειν οὐκ ἐθέλεσκον ἐναντίον they cared not to make a stand, i.e. they were un able, Il. 13.106; οὐδ'.. ἤθελε θυμὸς τειρομένοις ἑτάροισιν ἀμυνέμεν 17.702: metaph. of things, of a stream, οὐδ' ἔθελε προρέειν ἀλλ' ἴσχετο would not run on, but stopped, 21.366, cf. Od. 8.223, 316, h.Cer. 45; αὔλειοι δ' ἔτ' ἔχει οὐκ ἐθέλουσι θύραι Sol. 4.28; τὰ δένδρα οὐδέν μ' ἐθέλει διδάσκειν Pl. Phdr. 230d, cf. R. 370b (said to be an Att. use, Greg.Cor. p.135 S.).
3. part., ἐθέλων or θέλων willingly, gladly, Od. 3.272, etc. (also πιθοῦ θελήσας S. OT 649 (lyr.)); οὐκ ἐθέλων, = ἀεκών, Il. 4.300; with Art. like ὁ βουλόμενος, whoever will, i.e. any one, S. Ph. 619, Aj. 1146, Pl. Grg. 508c, etc.
4. θέλεις οὐ θέλεις nolens volens, Arr. Epict. 3.9.16; θέλει οὐ θέλει ib. 3.3, M.Ant. 11.15.
5. μὴ ἔθελε, c. inf., do not, Il. 1.277, 2.247, E. Fr. 174.
6. εἰ θέλεις if you please, S. OT 343.
7. folld. by subj., τί σοι θέλεις δῆτ' εἰκάθω; in what wilt thou that I give way to thee? ib. 651 (lyr.); θέλεις μείνωμεν αὐτοῦ; Id. El. 80.
8. maintain, hold, c. acc. et inf., Plu. 2.883e, Paus. 1.4.6.
9. delight in, love, ἔν τινι LXX 1 Kings 18:22; τινά ib. Psalms 18:20(17).20; but οἱ κακῶς τινὰς θέλοντες their ill- wishers, Cat.Cod.Astr. 7.234.
10. ordain, decree, ἠθέλησεν [ὁ ἡγεμὼν] τὸν κίνδυνον τῆς προβολῆς εἶναι πρός τινας CPR 20.17 (iii A.D.), etc.
II of inanimate things (cf. supr. 1.2),
1 to express a future event, like our will or shall, εἰ ἐθελήσει ἀναβῆναι ἡ τυραννίς Hdt. 1.109; εἰ ἐθελήσει ἐκτρέψαι τὸ ῥέεθρον ὁ Νεῖλος Id. 2.11; εἰ θέλει τοι μηδὲν ἀντίξοον καταστῆναι Id. 7.49, cf. Pl. R. 370b, etc.: — in this sense, very rarely of living things, οὐ δοῦναι θέλοι, = οὐκ ἂν δοίη, A. Eu. 429; εἴπερ.. οὗτός [σ'] ἐθέλει κρατῆσαι Ar. V. 536, cf. Pi. N. 7.90, Pl. R. 375a.
2. to be naturally disposed, to be wont or accustomed, c. inf., συμβάσιες ἰσχυραὶ οὐκ ἐ. συμμένειν Hdt. 1.74; μεγάλα πρήγματα μεγάλοισι κινδύνοισι ἐ. καταιρέεσθαι Id. 7.50; αἱ πλευραὶ οὐκ ἐθέλουσιν ἐς τὸ εὐρὺ αὔξεσθαι Hp. Art. 41; οὐκ ἐ. αἱ γνῶμαι.. ὁμοῖαι εἶναι Th. 2.89; τοῦτ' ἐνδελεχὲς ἐ. γίγνεσθαι Arist. Mete. 347a5, cf. Metaph. 1013b27, al.; οὐ θέλει ζῆν, of premature births, Id. HA 575a28.
3. in phrases expressive of meaning, τὸ θέλει σημαίνειν τὸ τέρας Hdt. 1.78; τὸ θέλει τὸ ἔπος εἶπαι Id. 6.37; τὸ θέλει τὰ δῶρα λέγειν Id. 4.131; τὸ ἔπος τοῦτο ἐθέλει λέγειν ὡς.. Id. 2.13.
4. τοῦ θέλοντος, = τοῦ θελήματος, S. OC 1220 (lyr., s.v.l.).
ἐθέλω, see θέλω.
STRONGS NT 2309: θέλω θέλω (only in this form in the N. T.; in Greek authors also ἐθέλω (Veitch, under the word; Lob. ad Phryn., p. 7; Buttmann, 57 (49))); imperfect ἤθελον; (future 3 person singular θελήσει, Revelation 11:5 WH marginal reading); 1 aorist ἠθέλησα; (derived apparently from ἑλεῖν with a fuller aspiration, so that it means properly, to seize with the mind; but Curtius, p. 726, edition 5, regards its root as uncertain (he inclines, however, to the view of Pott, Fick, Vanicek, and others, which connects it with a root meaning to hold to)); the Sept. for אָבָה and חָפֵץ; to will (have in mind) intend; i. e.:
1. to be resolved or determined, to purpose: absolutely, ὁ θέλων, Romans 9:16; τοῦ Θεοῦ θέλοντος if God will, Acts 18:21; ἐάν ὁ κύριος θελήσῃ. (in Attic ἐάν θεός θέλῃ, ἦν οἱ Θεοί θέλωσιν (cf. Lob. as above)), 1 Corinthians 4:19; James 4:15; καθώς ἠθέλησε, 1 Corinthians 12:18; 1 Corinthians 15:38; τί, Romans 7:15f, 19; 1 Corinthians 7:36; Galatians 5:17; with the aorist infinitive, Matthew 20:14; Matthew 26:15; John 6:21 (where the meaning is, they were willing to receive him into the ship, but that was unnecessary, because unexpectedly the ship was nearing the land; cf. Lücke, B-Crusius, Ewald (Godet), others at the passage; Winers Grammar, § 54, 4; (Buttmann, 375 (321))); John 12:44; Acts 25:9; Colossians 1:27; 1 Thessalonians 2:18; Revelation 11:5, etc.; with the present infinitive, Luke 10:29 R G; John 6:67; John 12:17; John 8:44; Acts 24:6 (Rec.); Romans 7:21; Galatians 4:9 (here T Tr text WH text 1 aorist infinitive); with an infinitive suggested by the context, John 5:21 (οὕς θέλει, namely, ζοωποιησαι); Matthew 8:2; Mark 3:13; Mark 6:22; Romans 9:18; Revelation 11:6, etc. οὐ θέλω to be unwilling: with the aorist infinitive, Matthew 2:18; Matthew 15:32; Matthew 22:3; Mark 6:26; Luke 15:28; John 5:40; Acts 7:39; 1 Corinthians 16:7; Revelation 2:21 (not Rec.), etc.; with the present infinitive, John 7:1; Acts 14:13; Acts 17:18; 2 Thessalonians 3:10, etc.; with the infinitive omitted and to be gathered from the context, Matthew 18:30; Matthew 21:29; Luke 18:4, etc.; θέλω and οὐ θέλω followed by the accusative with an infinitive, Luke 1:62; 1 Corinthians 10:20; on the Pauline phrase οὐ θέλω ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, see ἀγνοέω, a.; corresponding to θέλω ὑμᾶς εἰδέναι, 1 Corinthians 11:3; Colossians 2:1. θέλειν, used of a purpose or resolution, is contrasted with the carrying out of the purpose into act: opposed to ποιεῖν, πράσσειν, Romans 7:15, 19; 2 Corinthians 8:10f (on which latter passage cf. DeWette and Meyer; Winer's Grammar, § 61, 7b.); to ἐνεργεῖν, Philippians 2:13, cf. Mark 6:19; John 7:44. One is said also θέλειν that which he is on the point of doing: Mark 6:48; John 1:43 (44); and it is used thus also of things that tend or point to some conclusion (cf. Winers Grammar, § 42, 1 b.; Buttmann, 254 (219)): Acts 2:12; Acts 17:20. λανθάνει αὐτούς τοῦτο θέλοντας this (viz., what follows, ὅτι etc.) escapes them of their own will, i. e. they are purposely, wilfully, ignorant, 2 Peter 3:5, where others interpret as follows: this (viz. what has been said previously) desiring (i. e. holding as their opinion (for examples of this sense see Sophocles Lexicon, under the word, 4)), they are ignorant etc.; but cf. DeWette at the passage and Winers Grammar, § 54, 4 note; (Buttmann, § 150, 8 Rem.). τάς ἐπιθυμίας τοῦ πατρός ὑμῶν θέλετε ποιεῖν it is your purpose to fulfil the lusts of your father, i. e. ye are actuated by him of your own free knowledge and choice, John 8:44 (Winers Grammar, as above; Buttmann, 375 (321)).
2. equivalent to to desire, to wish: τί, Matthew 20:21; Mark 14:36; Luke 5:39 (but WH in brackets); John 15:7; 1 Corinthians 4:21; 2 Corinthians 11:12; followed by the aorist infinitive, Matthew 5:40; Matthew 12:38; Matthew 16:25; Matthew 19:17; Mark 10:43; Luke 8:20; Luke 13:8; John 5:6, 35 (ye were desirous of rejoicing);
4. in imitation of the Hebrew חָפֵץ, to take delight, have pleasure (opposite by Buttmann, § 150, 8 Rem.; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 33, a.; but see examples below): ἐν τίνι, in a thing, Colossians 2:18 (ἐν καλῷ, to delight in goodness, Test xii. Patr., p. 688 (test. Ash. 1; (cf. εἰς ζωήν, p. 635, test. Zeb. 3); Psalm 111:1
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(the strengthened form ἐθέλω is found in Hom., and is the more freq. in Attic; v. Rutherford, NPhr., 415 f.),
to will, be willing, wish, desire (more freq. than βούλομαι , q.v., in vernac. and late Gk., also in MGr.; for various views as to its relation to β ., v. Thayer, 286; but v. also Bl., § 24, s.v.): absol., Romans 9:16, 1 Corinthians 4:19; 1 Corinthians 12:18, James 4:15; τ . θεοῦ θέλοντος , Acts 18:21; c. acc rei, Matthew 20:21, Mark 14:36, John 15:7, Romans 7:15-16, 1 Corinthians 4:21; 1 Corinthians 7:36, Galatians 5:17; c. inf., Matthew 5:40, Mark 10:43, John 6:21; John 6:67, Romans 7:21, Galatians 4:9; c. acc et inf., Mark 7:24, Luke 1:62, John 21:22-23, Romans 16:19, 1 Corinthians 14:5, Galatians 6:13; οὐ θέλω , Matthew 18:30 al.; id. c. inf., Matthew 2:18, Mark 6:26, John 5:40, 1 Corinthians 16:7; seq. ἵνα , Matthew 7:12, Mark 6:25, John 17:24; opp. to ποιέω , πράσσω , ἐνεργέω , Romans 7:15; Romans 7:19, 2 Corinthians 8:10-11, Philippians 2:13; seq. ἤ (ICC, in l; Deiss., LAE, 179.24), 1 Corinthians 14:19; θέλων ἐν ταπεινοφροσυνῄ (of his own mere will, by humility, R, mg), Colossians 2:18; in OT quotations, for Heb. H2654, c. acc pers., Matthew 27:43; c. acc rei, Matthew 9:13; Matthew 12:7, Hebrews 10:5; Hebrews 10:8; c. inf., 1 Peter 3:10; for H559 c. inf., Acts 7:28 (v. Cremer, 726 ff.).
ἐθέλω , vs. θέλω .
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
For the form ἐθέλω, which is wanting in the NT as in the LXX, Nägeli (p. 57) refers to the magic papyri and to the poetic IMAc III. 1064 : it is common in the Attic inscrr. up to the end of iv/B.C., but from B.C. 250 θέλω occurs, and eventually takes its place as the regular form in the Κοινή (cf. Meisterhans Gr. p. 178), and so in MGr.
For the verb denoting a personal wish or desire we may cite P Petr I. 11.9 (a Will) τὰ [ἐμαυτοῦ διοικεῖν ὡς ἐ ]γὼ θέλω, P Oxy VII. 1061.21 (B.C. 22) σὺ δὲ γράφε ὑπὲρ ὧν ἐὰν θέλῃς (cf. Matthew 8:2), ib. III. 531.28 (ii/A.D.) περὶ ὧν θέλεις δήλωσόν μοι, P Cairo Preis 48.5 (ii/A.D.) τὸ μὲν πλοῖόν σοι, ὡς ἠθέλησας, σκέψομαι, and the constant epistolary phrase γινώσκειν σε θέλω, as in P Oxy IV. 743.27 (B.C. 2) ὥστ᾽ ἂν τοῦτό σε θέλω γεινώσκειν ὅτι ἐγὼ αὐτῷ διαστολὰς δεδώκειν τὸ βαδίσαι εἰς Τακόνα, ";I wish you therefore to know this that I had given him orders to go to Takona"; (Edd.), BGU I. 27.5 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 101) γινώσκειν σε θέλω ὅτει εἰς γῆν ἐλήλυθα τῇ ς ̄ τοῦ Ἐπεὶφ μηνός, ";I wish you to know that I came to land on the 6th of the month Epeiph";; cf. the Pauline formula οὐ θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, Romans 1:13 etc. With τοῦ θεοῦ θέλοντος in Ac 18.81, we may compare P Amh II. 131.5 (early ii/A.D.) ἐλπίζω δὲ θεῶν θελόντων ἐκ τῶν λαλουμένων διαφεύξεσθαι, ";but I hope, if the gods will, to escape altogether from the talking,"; P Giss I. 18.10 (time of Hadrian) θε [ῶν δὲ θ ]ελόντων εἰς τὰ Δημη ̣τρια ἐλεύσεται καὶ ἀσπάσεταί σε, and the other exx. in Deissmann BS, p. 252; with 1 Corinthians 12:18; 1 Corinthians 15:38, cf. BGU I. 27.11 (ii/iii A.D.) (= Selections, p. 101) ὡς ὁ θεὸς ἤθελεν. With the construction in Luke 18:41 cf. Chrest. I. 14iii. 6 (not before A.D. 200) καὶ σοί, λέγε τίνος θέλεις, [κα ]τηγορήσω, and with Romans 13:8 cf. P Tebt II. 421.3 f. (iii/A.D.) with reference to a tunic—ἀλλὰ θέλις αὐτὸ πωλῆσα [ι ], πώλησον · θέλις αὐτὸ ἀφεῖναι τῇ θυγατρί σ [ου ], ἄφες, ";but if you wish to sell it, sell it; if you wish to let your daughter have it, let her have it.";
One or two miscellaneous exx. may be added—P Oxy III. 653 (A.D. 162–3) θέ [λ ]ων καὶ μὴ θέλων ἀποκαταστήσεις αὐτῷ, BGU III. 846.15 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 94) οὐκ οἶδες, ὅτι θέλω πη ̣ρο ̣̣ς γενέσται εἲ γνοῦναι κτλ., ";do you not know that I would rather be a cripple than . . ?"; where θέλω is followed by ἢ (pap. εἲ) as in 1 Corinthians 14:19, and for the remarkable perf. τεθέληκα (as in LXX Psalms 40:12 [MT Psalms 41:11]) : cf. Rutherford NP, p. 415), see P Amh II. 130.16 (A.D. 70) οὐ τεθελήκουσι, and P Oxy VII. 1070.54 (iii/A.D.) οὐ τεθελήκατε α ]ὐτῷ διδόναι ἐπιστολάς, as restored by the editor. See also s.v. βούλομαι.
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