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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #859 - ἄφεσις
- release from bondage or imprisonment
- forgiveness or pardon, of sins (letting them go as if they had never been committed), remission of the penalty
ἄφεσις, εως, ἡ, (ἀφίημι)
1. letting go, release, περὶ τῆς τῶν πλοίων ἀφέσεως Philipp. ap. D. 18.77, cf. Pl. Plt. 273c; καρπῶν PAmh. 2.43.9 (ii B. C.); γῆ ἐν ἀφέσει land in private hands, opp. βασιλική, PTeb. 5.37 (ii B. C.), etc. of persons, dismissal: in ritual, λαοῖς ἄ. Apul. Met. 11.17; release, Plb. 1.79.12, IG 2.314.21, Luke 4:18.
2. c. gen., ἀ. φόνου quittance from murder, Pl. Lg. 869d: so abs., Hermog. Stat. 8; discharge from a bond, D. 33.3; ἄ. ἐναντίον μαρτύρων ποιήσασθαι Id. 45.41; opp. ἀπόδοσις χρημάτων, Isoc. 17.29; exemption from attendance, leave of absence, Arist. Ath. 30.6; ἀ. τῆς στρατείας exemption from service, Plu. Ages. 24; remission of a debt, ταλάντου Michel 1340 B7 (Cnidus, ii B. C.); χρημάτων IPE 12.32 B 70 (Olbia, iii B. C.); sc. καταδίκης, Inscr.Magn. 93c16. forgiveness, Mark 3:29; ἁμαρτιῶν Matthew 26:28.
3. relaxation, exhaustion, Hp. Epid. 3.6.
4. divorce, τινὶ πέμπειν Plu. Pomp. 42.
5. starting of horses in a race, ἵππων ἄ. ποιεῖν D.S. 4.73: hence, starting-post itself, ἰσώσας τἀφέσει (Musgr. for τῇ φύσει) τὰ τέρματα having made the winning-post one with the starting-post, i.e. having completed the δίαυλος and come back to the starting-post, dub. cj. in S. El. 686, cf. Paus. 5.15.5, 6.20.9: metaph., the first start, beginning of anything, Man. 3.405, etc.
6. discharge, emission, ὕδατος Arist. PA 697a24; βέλους D.S. 17.41; τοῦ θοροῦ, τοῦ ᾠοῦ Arist. GA 756a12; τοῦ κυήματος Id. HA 608a1; the dropping of a foal, ib. 576a25. discharge, release of an engine, Ph. Bel. 58.24.
7. = cross ἀφεσμός, Arist. HA 625a20 (pl.).
8. release, ὕδατος PPetr. 2p.34 (iii B. C.): hence, in concrete sense, conduit, sluice, ib. 3p.88, PFlor. 388.44 (iii A. D.): pl., ἀφέσεις θαλάσσης channels, LXX 2 Kings 22:16.
9. Astrol., reckoning of the vital quadrant, Ptol. Tetr. 127, cf. Vett.Val. 136.2 (but ἀπὸ Λέοντος τὴν ἄφεσιν ποιούμενοι, simply, starting from.., Id. 31.8).
ἄφεσις , -εως , ἡ
(< ἀφίημι ),
1. dismissal, release: Luke 4:18.
2. Metaph., of sins (never in LXX), pardon, remission of penalty: ἁμαρτιῶν , Matthew 26:28, Mark 1:4, Luke 1:77; Luke 3:3; Luke 24:47, Acts 2:38; Acts 5:31; Acts 10:43; Acts 13:38; Acts 26:18, Colossians 1:14; παραπτωμάτων , Ephesians 1:7; absol., Mark 3:29, Hebrews 9:22; Hebrews 10:18 (cf. DB, ii, 56; DCG, i, 437, ii, 605; Cremer, 297 f.).†
SYN.: πάρεσις G3929, q.v. (and cf. Tr., § xxxiii).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
In Egypt ἄφεσις τοῦ ὕδατος was apparently a technical expression for the ";release"; of the water from the sluices or canals for the purpose of irrigation, e.g. P Petr II.13(2).12 ff. (B.C. 258–3) ἵνα ἐπισκευασθῶσι πρὸ τῆς τ ́οῦ ὕδατος ἀφέσεως , ";in order that they (sc. bridges) may be finished before the letting loose of the water"; (Ed.), ib. III. 39.12, and 44 verso ii. 19 f. τ [ῶν κατ ]ὰ Πτολεμαίδα ἀ [φ ]έσεων ἠνώιξαμεν β ̄ θῦ [ρας ]. In this sense the noun may be concrete, meaning apparently a ";channel"; or ";sluice"; : P Oxy VI. 918v. 20 (ii/A.D.) ἀπηλ (ιώτου ) ὁδὸ (ς ) δημοσί (α ) ἐν η ἄφεσις λιθίνη . Hence, as Deissmann has shown (BS p. 98 ff.), the increased vividness for the Egyptians of the pictures in Joel 1:20, Lamentations 3:47 through the use of ἀφέσεις by the LXX translators. The word is similarly employed to denote the official ";release"; of the harvest after the taxes had been paid, in order that the cultivators might then use it for their own purposes, as P Petr II. 2(1).9 f. (B.C. 260–59) τῆς μ ]ισθώσεως διαγορευούσης κομίσασθαι [αὐτὸ ]ν τ [ὰ ] ἐκφόρια ὅταν ἡ ἄφεσις δοθῇ , P Amh II. 43.9 (B.C. 173) ὅταν ἡ ἄφεσις τῶν πυρίνων καρπῶν γένηται , ";whenever the release of the wheat crops takes place"; (Edd. : see their note ad l. and cf. Archiv iv. p. 60). The editors regard it as very doubtful whether the difficult phrase γῆ ἐν ἀφέσει , P Tebt I. 5.37 al (B.C. 118), is to be explained in the same way, and in their note on P Tebt II. 325.5 they suggest ";in reduction,"; or ";on reduced terms"; as a possible rendering. Mahaffy (P Petr III. p. 35) translates the same phrase in P Par 63.177 (B.C. 165) by ";privileged land."; A nearer approach to the Pauline use for ";forgiveness"; is afforded by the occurrence of the word in inscriptions for remission from debt or punishment, e.g. Michel 1340b. .7 (Cnidus, ii/B.C.) τᾶς τε ἀφέσιος τοῦ ταλάντου ὅ φαν [τι ] ἀφεῖσθαι Καλύμνιοι ὑπὸ Παυσιμάχου , Syll 226.166 (Olbia on the Euxine, ii/i/B.C.) τοῖς μὲν ἀφέσεις ἐποιήσατο τῶν χρημάτων (and exacted no interest from other debtors), Magn 93(c).14 ff. τὰ γὰρ ὀφειλόμ [ενα κατὰ τ ]ὴν καταδίκην τῆς καθηκούσης τετευχέναι ἐξαγωγῆς ἤτοι εἰσ [πραχθείσης τ ]ῆς καταδίκης ἤ ἀφέσεως γενομένης : see also CIG 2058b. .70 (Olbia, ii/i B.C.), 2335.6 (Delos, time of Pompey) (Nägeli, p. 56). With a gen. pers. it denotes the ";release"; of prisoners or captives, as Luke 4:18, Syll 197.21 (B.C. 284–3) ὅσοι δ ]ὲ αἰχμάλωτοι ἐγένοντο , ἐμφανίσας τῷ βα [σιλεῖ καὶ ] λαβὼν αὐτοῖς ἄφε [σ ]ιν κτλ ., or ";release"; from some public duty, as P Oxy VII. 1020.6 (A.D. 198–201) ο ̣̔ ἡγούμ [ενος ] τοῦ ἔθνους τὸν ἀγῶνα τῆς ἀφέσε ̣ως ἐκδικ [ήσει . In P Tebt II. 404.1 (late iii/A.D.) what seems to be the heading of a set of accounts runs Λόγο [ς ] ἀφέσε ̣ως στατήρων ρ ̣̄λ ̣̄ : the editors render ";expenditure (?)."; It should also be noted that the word was a term. techn. in astrology : see index to Vettius, p. 377. Thus p. 225.16 χρὴ ταῖς λοιπαῖς τῶν ἀστέρων ἀφέσεσι καὶ μαρτυρίαις καὶ ἀκτινοβολίαις προσέχειν . See also Abbott Joh. Voc. p. 178 f., with a correction in Fourfold Gospel, p. 59.
[Supplemental from 1930 edition]
Add P Strass I. 55, introd.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
the Second Week after Epiphany