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Bible Dictionaries

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words

Forbear, Forbearance

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A — 1: ἀνέχω

(Strong's #430 — Verb — anecho — an-ekh'-om-ahee )

"to hold up" (ana, "up," echo, "to have or hold"), is used in the Middle Voice in the NT, signifying "to bear with, endure;" it is rendered "forbearing (one another)" in Ephesians 4:2; Colossians 3:13 . See BEAR. Cp. B, No. 1, below.

A — 2: ἀνίημι

(Strong's #447 — Verb — aniemi — an-ee'-ay-mee )

lit., "to send up or back" (ana, "up," hiemi, "to send"), hence, "to relax, loosen," or, metaphorically, "to desist from," is translated "forbearing" (threatening) in Ephesians 6:9 ("giving up your threatening," T.K. Abbott). See LEAVE , LOOSE.

A — 3: φείδομαι

(Strong's #5339 — Verb — pheidomai — fi'-dom-ahee )

"to spare" (its usual meaning), "to refrain from doing something," is rendered "I forbear" in 2 Corinthians 12:6 . See SPARE.

A — 4: στέγω

(Strong's #4722 — Verb — stego — steg'-o )

properly denotes "to protect by covering;" then, "to conceal;" then, by covering, "to bear up under;" it is translated "forbear" in 1 Thessalonians 3:1,5 . See BEAR.

Note: In 1 Corinthians 9:6 , the verb ergazomai, "to work," is used in the present infinitive, with a; negative, and translated "to forbear working" (lit., "not working").

B — 1: ἀνοχή

(Strong's #463 — Noun Feminine — anoche — an-okh-ay' )

"a holding back" (akin to A, No. 1), denotes "forbearance," a delay of punishment, Romans 2:4; 3:25 , in both places of God's "forbearance" with men; in the latter passage His "forbearance" is the ground, not of His forgiveness, but of His pretermission of sins, His withholding punishment. In Romans 2:4 it represents a suspense of wrath which must eventually be exercised unless the sinner accepts God's conditions; in Romans 3:25 it is connected with the passing over of sins in times past, previous to the atoning work of Christ.

Note: Cp. the noun epieikeia, Acts 24:4 , "clemency;" 2 Corinthians 10:1 , "gentleness." Synonymous with this are makrothumia, "longsuffering," and hupomone, "patience" (see Colossians 1:11 ). Anoche and makrothumia are used together in Romans 2:4 . See also Ephesians 4:2 (where A, No. 1, is used in this combination). Trench (Syn.) and Abbott-Smith (Lex.) state that huponone expresses patience with regard to adverse things, makrothumia patience with regard to antagonistic persons. It must be observed, however, that in Hebrews 6:15 the verb makrothumeo is used of Abraham's patience under the pressure of trying circumstances (cp. also James 5:7,8 ). Makrothumia and hupomone are often found together, e.g., 2 Corinthians 6:4,6; 2 Timothy 3:10 .

"Longsuffering is that quality of self-restraint in the face of provocation which does not hastily retaliate or promptly punish; it is the opposite of anger and is associated with mercy, and is used of God, Exodus 34:6 , Sept., Romans 2:4; 1 Peter 3:20 . Patience is the quality that does not surrender to circumstances or succumb under trial; it is the opposite of despondency and is associated with hope, in 1 Thessalonians 1:3; it is not used of God." * [* From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, pp. 183,184.]

C — 1: ἀνεξίκακος

(Strong's #420 — Adjective — anexikakos — an-ex-ik'-ak-os )

denotes "patiently forbearing evil," lit., "patient of wrong," (from anecho, A, No. 1 and kakos, "evil"), "enduring;" it is rendered "forbearing" in 2 Timothy 2:24 .

C — 2: ἐπιεικής

(Strong's #1933 — Adjective — epieikes — ep-ee-i-kace' )

an adjective (from epi, used intensively, and eikos, "reasonable"), is used as a noun with the article in Philippians 4:5 , and translated "forbearance" in the RV; AV, "moderation," RV, marg., "gentleness," "sweet reasonableness" (Matthew Arnold). See GENTLE.

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Bibliography Information
Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Forbear, Forbearance'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. 1940.

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