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Bible Dictionaries

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words

Authority

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A — 1: ἐξουσία
(Strong's #1849 — Noun Feminine — exousia — ex-oo-see'-ah )

denotes "authority" (from the impersonal verb exesti, "it is lawful"). From the meaning of "leave or permission," or liberty of doing as one pleases, it passed to that of "the ability or strength with which one is endued," then to that of the "power of authority," the right to exercise power, e.g., Matthew 9:6 ; 21:23 ; 2 Corinthians 10:8 ; or "the power of rule or government," the power of one whose will and commands must be obeyed by others, e.g., Matthew 28:18 ; John 17:2 ; Jude 1:25 ; Revelation 12:10 ; 17:13 ; more specifically of apostolic "authority," 2 Corinthians 10:8 ; 13:10 ; the "power" of judicial decision, John 19:10 ; of "managing domestic affairs," Mark 13:34 . By metonymy, or name-change (the substitution of a suggestive word for the name of the thing meant), it stands for "that which is subject to authority or rule," Luke 4:6 (RV, "authority," for the AV "power"); or, as with the English "authority," "one who possesses authority, a ruler, magistrate," Romans 13:1-3 ; Luke 12:11 ; Titus 3:1 ; or "a spiritual potentate," e.g., Ephesians 3:10 ; 6:12 ; Colossians 1:16 ; 2:10,15 ; 1 Peter 3:22 . The RV usually translates it "authority."

In 1 Corinthians 11:10 it is used of the veil with which a woman is required to cover herself in an assembly or church, as a sign of the Lord's "authority" over the church. See JURISDICTION, LIBERTY , POWER , RIGHT , STRENGTH.

A — 2: ἐπιταγή
(Strong's #2003 — Noun Feminine — epitage — ep-ee-tag-ay' )

an injunction (from epi, "upon," tasso, "to order"), is once rendered "authority," Titus 2:15 (RV, marg., "commandment"). See COMMANDMENT.

Note: The corresponding verb is epitasso, "to command." See COMMAND.

A — 3: ὑπεροχή
(Strong's #5247 — Noun Feminine — huperoche — hoop-er-okh-ay' )

primarily, "a projection, eminence," as a mountain peak, hence, metaphorically, "pre-eminence, superiority, excellency," is once rendered "authority," 1 Timothy 2:2 , AV (marg., "eminent place"), RV, "high place," of the position of magistrates; in 1 Corinthians 2:1 , "excellency" (of speech). Cp. huperecho, "to surpass." See EXCELLENCY.

A — 4: δυνάστης
(Strong's #1413 — Noun Masculine — dunastes — doo-nas'-tace )

akin to dunamis, "power," (Eng., "dynasty,") signifies "a potentate, a high officer;" in Acts 8:27 , of a high officer, it is rendered "of great authority;" in Luke 1:52 , RV, "princes, (AV, "the mighty"); in 1 Timothy 6:15 it is said of God ("Potentate"). See MIGHTY , POTENTATE.

B — 1: ἐξουσιάζω
(Strong's #1850 — Verb — exousiazo — ex-oo-see-ad'-zo )

akin to A, No. 1, signifies "to exercise power," Luke 22:25 ; 1 Corinthians 6:12 ; 7:4 (twice). See POWER.

B — 2: εὐωδία
(Strong's #2175 — Noun Feminine — katexousiazo — yoo-o-dee'-ah )

kata, "down," intensive, and No. 1, "to exercise authority upon," is used in Matthew 20:25 ; Mark 10:42 .

B — 3: αὐθεντέω
(Strong's #831 — Verb — authenteo — ow-then-teh'-o )

from autos, "self," and a lost noun hentes, probably signifying working (Eng., "authentic"), "to execise authority on one's own account, to domineer over," is used in 1 Timothy 2:12 , AV, "to usurp authority," RV, "to have dominion." In the earlier usage of the word it signified one who with his own hand killed either others or himself. Later it came to denote one who acts on his own "authority;" hence, "to exercise authority, dominion." See DOMINION , Note.


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Bibliography Information
Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Authority'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/ved/a/authority.html. 1940.

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