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Bible Encyclopedias

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature

Drink-Offering

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(נֶסֶךְ, ne'sek, or נָסַיךְ, nasik'; σπονδή, compare σπένδεσθαι, Philippians 2:17). One form of this consisted, according to the ritual law, of wine (Numbers 15:5; Hosea 9:4; Sirach 1:15 [17]; compare Curt. 7:8, 18; Pliny, 14:14; Iliad, 1:463; 10:579; Odys. 12:362; on the best sorts of wine for this purpose, see the Mishna, Menach. 8:6 sq.), which, according to Josephus (Ant. 3:9, 4), was poured around the altar (rept (περὶ τὸν βωμόν; i.e., the burnt altar, Exodus 30:9), and not, as the Jews understand it (Mishna, Succah, 4:9), in a channel or tube of it. Drink- offerings were commonly joined with meatofferings (Numbers 6:15; Numbers 6:17; 2 Kings 16:13; Joel 1:9; Joel 1:13; Joel 2:14), an addition to the burnt and thank offerings (not the sin and trespass offering), which consisted of quadrupeds (Numbers 6:17; Numbers 15:5; Numbers 15:10; 1 Chronicles 29:21; 2 Chronicles 29:35), and were, like these, presented, sometimes by private persons and sometimes in the name of the people, daily (Exodus 29:40; Numbers 28:7), on the Sabbath (Numbers 28:9), and on feast-days (Numbers 28:14; Numbers 29:6; Numbers 29:16; Numbers 29:24), in such proportion that one lamb was reckoned to require one fourth of a bin of wine, one ram a third of a hin, and one bullock a half hin (Numbers 15:5 sq.; Numbers 28:7; Numbers 28:14). In the (second) Temple liquors were kept ready for drink-offerings (Joseph; War, 10:13, 6), and were dispensed (Mishna, Shekal. 5:1, 3 and 4) by the praefect of libations (עִל הִנְּסָכַים ). The Israelites frequently devoted drink-offerings also to foreign deities (Isaiah 57:6; Isaiah 65:11; Jeremiah 7:18; Jeremiah 19:13; Jeremiah 44:17; Ezekiel 20:28), as throughout antiquity libations of wine were made to heathen gods (see Smith's Dict. of Class. Antiq. s.v. Sacrificium, page 846). On the water-libation at the festival of booths, see TABERNACLES, FEAST OF. Libations of water occur in individual cases even prior to the exile (2 Samuel 23:16; 1 Samuel 7:6). On the other hand, Elijah poured water on the altar (1 Kings 18:34 sq.) merely to heighten the effect of his miracle in contrast with his idolatrous competitors (Josephus, Ant. 8:13, 5). On the oillibation of Genesis 35:14, (See STONE). Psalms 16:6 (but probably not Zechariah 9:7) appears to contain an allusion to heathenish drink-offerings consisting of wine mingled with blood (vinum assiratum), which, especially when persons bound themselves to a fearful undertaking, it was customary to drink (Sallust, Catil. 22:1; Sil. Ital. 2:426 sq.). (See OFFERING).

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McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Drink-Offering'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/d/drink-offering.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

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