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Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature
(represented by several Hebrew and Greek words, especially נָבָל nabal, ἄφρων ). The "fool" of Scripture is not an idiot, but an absurd person; not one who does not reason at all, but one who reasons wrong; also any one whose conduct is not regulated by the dictates of reason and religion (Psalms 14:1). Foolishness, therefore, is not a negative condition, but a condition of wrong action in the intellectual or sentient being, or in both (2 Samuel 13:12-13; Psalms 38:5). In the book of Proverbs, however, "foolishness" appears to be sometimes used for lack of understanding, although score generally for perverseness of will. The phrase "Thou fool" (Matthew 5:22) implies not only angry temper, by which such severe language is, prompted, but a scornful, contemptuous feeling, utterly inconsistent with the love and meekness which characterize disciples of Christ, and, of course exposing thee individual who is under its influence. to eternal punishment. (See WISDOM).
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McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Fool'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/f/fool.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.
the Fourth Sunday after Epiphany