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Hackspan, Theodor
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a name which occurs with considerable confusion of form in the Heb. The proper orthography seems to be הֲדִד, Hadad' (according to Gesenius from an Arab. root signifying to break forth into shouts; but Furst makes it =שִׁדִּי, A Mighty), which appears in Genesis 36:35-36; 1 Chronicles 1:46-47; 1 Chronicles 1:50-51 (in all which passages it is rendered by the Sept. Ἀδάδ, and Vulg. Adad), and in 1 Kings 11:14-25 (where the Sept. has Ἀδάρ,Vulg. Adad). The other forms are חֲדִד, Chadad'(1 Chronicles 1:30; Sept. Χοδάδ Vulg. Hadad), הֲדִר, Hadar'(Genesis 26:39; Sept. Ἀράδ , Vulg. Adar, Engl. "Hadar"), חֲדִר, Chadar'(Genesis 25:15; Sept Χοδάν, Vulg. and Engl. Hadar), and אֲדִד, Adad'(1 Kings 11:17; Sept. Ἀδάρ,Vulg. Adad). It was the name of a Syrian idol, and was thence transferred to the king, as the highest of earthly authorities, in the forms Hadad, Ben-hadad ("worshipper of Hadad"), and Hadad-ezer ("assisted by Hadad," Gesenius, Thesaur. p. 218). The title appears to have been an official one, like Pharaoh; and perhaps it is so used by Nicolaus Damascenus, as quoted by Josephus (Ant. 7:5, 2), in reference to the Syrian king who aided Hadadezer (2 Samuel 8:5). Josephus appears to have used the name in the same sense, where he substitutes it for Benhadad (Ant. 9, 8, 7, compared with 2 Kings 13:24). (See HADAD-RIMMON).

1. ADAD (See ADAD) (q.v.) is the indigenous name of the chief deity of the Syrians, the sun, according to Macrobius (Saturnal. 1, 23). Moreover, Pliny (Hist. Nat. 37, 11, 71), speaking of remarkable stones named after parts of the body, mentions some called "Adadunephros, ejusdem oculus ac digitus dei;" and adds, "et hic colitur a Syris." He is also called ῎Αδωδος βασιλεὺς θεῶν by Philo Byblius (in Eusebii Praepar. Evan. i, 10). The passage of Hesychius which Harduin adduces in his note to Pliny concerning the worship of this god by the Phrygians, Jablonski declares to be inadmissible (De Linzq. Lycaonica, p. 64).

This Syrian deity claims some notice here, because his name is most probably an element in the names of the Syrian kings Benhadad and Hadadezer. Moreover, several of the older commentators have endeavored to find this deity in Isaiah 66:17; either by altering the text there to suit the name given by Macrobius, or by adapting the name he gives to his interpretation and to the reading of the Hebrew, so as to male that extract bear testimony to a god Achad (q.v.). Michaelis has argued at some length against both these views; and the modern commentators, such as Gesenius, Hitzig, Bottcher (in Proben Altest. Schrifterkldr.), and Ewald, do not admit the name of any deity in that passage.

2. HADAIR (See HADAIR) (q.v.), one of the sons of Ishmael (Genesis 25:15; 1 Chronicles 1:30). His descendants probably occupied the western coast of the Persian Gulf, where the names Attaei (Ptol. 6:7, § 15), Attene, and Chateni (Plin. 6:32) bear affinity to the original name. (See ARABIA).

3. HADAD, king of Edom, the son of Bedad, and successor of Husham: he established his court at Avith, and defeated the Midianites in the intervening territory of Moab (Genesis 36:35; 1 Chronicles 1:46). This is the only one of the ancient kings of Edom whose exploits are recorded by Moses. B.C. ante 1618. (See AVITH).

4. HADAD, another king of Edom, successor of BaalHanon: he established his palace at Pal, and his wife's name was Mehetebel (1 Chronicles 1:50). He is called HADAR in Genesis 36:39. From the fact that with him the list of these Edomitish kings closes, it may be conjectured (Turner's Companion to Genesis, p. 326) that he lived about the time of the Exode, and in that case he may be the identical king of Edom who refused a passage to the Israelites (Numbers 20:14). B.C. prob. 1619; certainly ante 1093. (See PA).

5. ADAD, a king of Syria, who reigned in Damascus at the time that David attacked end defeated Hadadezer, king of Zobah, whom he marched to assist, and in whose defeat he shared. B.C. cir..1040. This fact is recorded in 2 Samuel 8:5, but the name of the king is not given. It is supplied, however, by Josephus (Ant. 7, 5, 2), who reports, after Nicolas of Damascus, that he carried succors to Hadadezer as far as the Euphrates, where David defeated them both; and adds other particulars respecting his fame.

6. HADAD, a young prince of the royal race of Edom, who, when his country was conquered by David, contrived, in the heat of the massacre committed by Joab, to escape with some of his father's servants, or, rather, was carried off by them into the land of Midian. B.C. cir. 1040. Thence Hadad went into the desert of Paran ("Midian," 2 Samuel 8:18), and eventually proceeded to Egypt (1 Kings 11:14 sq.; in 1 Kings 11:17 the name is given in the mutilated form אֲדִד ). He was there most favorably received by the king, who assigned him an estate and establishment suited to his rank, and even gave him in marriage the sister of his own consort, by whom he had a son, who was brought up in the palace with the sons of Pharaoh. Hadad remained in Egypt till after the death of David and Joab, when, although dissuaded by Pharaoh, he returned to his own country in the hope of recovering his father's throne (1 Kings 11:21-22). B.C. cir. 1012. The Scripture does not record the result of this attempt further than by mentioning him as one of the troublers of Solomon's reign, which implies some measure of success (see Kitto's Daily Bible Illust. ad loc.). After relating these facts the text goes on to mention another enemy of Solomon, named Rezin, and then adds (1 Kings 11:25) that this was "besides the mischief that Hadad did; and he abhorred Israel, and reigned over Syria."

Our version seems to make this apply to Rezin; but the Sept. refers it to Hadad, reading אדום, Ediom, instead of ארם, Aram or Syria, and the sense would certainly be improved by this reading, inasmuch as it supplies an apparent omission; for without it we only know that Hadad left Egypt for Edom, and not how he succeeded there, or how he was able to trouble Solomon. The history of Hadad is certainly very obscure. Adopting the Sept. reading, some conclude that Pharaoh used his interest with Solomon to allow Hadad to reign as a tributary prince, and that he ultimately asserted his independence. Josephus, however, seems to have read the Hebrew as our version does, "Syria," not "Edom." He says (Ant. 8:7, 6) that Hadad, on his arrival in Edom, found the territory too strongly garrisoned by Solomon's troops to afford any hope of success. He therefore proceeded with a party of adherents to Syria, where he was well received by Rezin, then at the head of a band of robbers, and with his assistance seized upon a part of Syria and reigned there. If this be correct, it must have been a different part of Syria from that in which Rezin himself reigned, for it is certain, from 1 Kings 11:24, that he (Rezin) did reign in Damascus. Carrieres supposes that Hadad reigned in Syria after the death of Rezin; and it might reconcile apparent discrepancies to suppose that two kingdoms were established (there were more previously), both of which, after the death of Rezin, were consolidated under Hadad. That Hadad was really king of Syria seems to be rather corroborated by the fact that every subsequent king of Syria is, in the Scripture, called Ben-Hadad; "son of Hadad," and in Josephus simply Hadad, which seems to denote that the founder of the dynasty was called by this name., We may observe that, whether we read Aram or Edom, it must be understood as applying to Hadad, not to Rezin (Pictorial Bible, on 2 Kings 11:14). Kitto. The identity of name suggests a common origin between the Edomitish and Syrian dynasties. Josephus, in the outset of his account, appears to call this Hadad by the name of Ader. In any case, however, the preceding must be regarded as distinct persons from each other (see Hengstenberg, Pentateuch, 2, 288), the last probably being the son, or, rather, grandson of No. 5. (See SYRIA).

Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Hadad'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/​encyclopedias/​eng/​tce/​h/hadad.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.
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